Nobuo Sugiyama
Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Funako, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0034, Japan

Published : 12 Documents
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Effect of Sector (Position in Canopy) on Allocation of 13 C-photosynthates in Mangosteen Setiawan, Eko; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Fukuda, Fumio; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Saitoh, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Naohiro
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

We investigated the effect of sector (position in canopy) on translocation and distribution of 13C-photosynthates in  mangosteen trees and related the findings to previous analyses of fruit quality. Our experiment was conducted on three 25-year-old mangosteen trees. Tree canopies were divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top) and width (inner, center, outer). One branch from each sector was labeled with 13CO2 in December 2003. Immediately after labeling, 13C concentration in leaves from middle sectors was higher than that in leaves from other positions. 13C concentration in all leaves decreased rapidly for 24 h after 13C feeding, followed by a gradual decrease. In contrast, 13C concentration increased over time in the pericarp and aril of fruits. Translocation of 13C-photosynthates into fruit was high in Sectors 4 and 5, and in top positions (Sectors 7 to 9). At 96 h after 13C feeding, the highest distribution ratio of 13C-photosynthates was observed in stems, followed in descending order by pericarp, leaf, and aril. 13C distribution ratio in the aril was generally highest in fruits from inner and center positions. The relationship between partitioning of photosynthates and quality of mangosteen fruit, which differs among sectors, has been discussed. Keywords: fruiting positions, Garcinia mangostanaL., photosynthate partitioning, 13C, tree branches
Nitrogen and Potassium Applications on the Growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Santosa, Edi; Setiasih, Ika; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Productivity of Amorphophallus muelleri is considered low. Thus, pot experiment was conducted at the Cikabayan Experimental Farm, Bogor Indonesia during rainy season November 2007 to July 2008, in order to determine the optimum fertilizer dose for A. muelleri under 50% shading net. Treatments consisted of four doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N) and three doses of potassium (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 K2O). The results showed that application of N and K fertilizers significantly increased vegetative growth, i.e., number of leaves, number of leaflets and second leaf size, but did not affect harvesting time. Fresh weight and dry matter content of daughter corm were significantly affected by N and K applications. Combination of 50 kg ha-1 N and 100 kg ha-1 K2O resulted in higher corm weight than other treatments. It is evident that the application of nitrogen and potassium is important in A. muelleri.   Keywords: disease infection, iles-iles, Indonesian konjac, nitrogen, potassium
Effects of Pot Sizes and the Number of Plants per Pot on the Growth of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Mine, Yoko; Santosa, Edi; Amaki, Wakanori; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

 To determine the effects of pot sizes and the number of plants per pot on the growth of Amorphophallus muelleri, seed corms weighing 100-125 g were planted in polyethylene pots.  In the first experiment, a corm was planted in pots containing various amounts of growth media: i.e., 0.25, 0.40, 0.50, 1.00, 1.33, 2.00 and 4.00 kg.  In the second experiment, different numbers of plants, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, were grown in pots containing 4.00 kg of growth media.  When plants were grown in pots containing a small amount of media (1.33 kg pot–1 or less), they produced small daughter corms and entered dormancy earlier than usual.  The number of plants per pot had little effect on corm weight if the amount of growth media per plant was 0.80 kg or greater.  As a result, corm yield increased with an increase in the number of plants per pot.  The period from corm planting to harvest was slightly longer when only 1 plant was grown in a pot than when 2–5 plants were grown in the same-sized pot.  This study suggested that the low productivity of A. muelleri in shallow soil was associated not only with a small amount of soil per plant but also with limited rooting volume.   Keywords: available water, competition, dormancy, plant density, soil depth
Genetic variations of Amorphophallus variabilisBlume (Araceae) in Java using AFLP Santosa, Edi; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Hikosaka, Shoko
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Amorphophallus variabilisBlume, a member of Araceae, is a native tuber crop in Java, Madura and Kangean Islands, Indonesia. The plant showed high variations in morphology. However, genetic variations at molecular level have not been well studied. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was carried out using 8 primers combination of EcoRI and MseI on 78 accessions collected from 28 sites in Java, Indonesia. Results showed that AFLP markers able to generate polymorphism among accessions. A total of 220 polymorphisms were found. The differences among accessions at the genetic level were high, and 5 clusters were constructed. Grouping was independent of geographical origin, similar to clustering of morphological characteristic of flowers as in the previous report. Accessions from one site composed of one to four different cluster groups, showed that variation in single site was observed. Regarding conservation program of the A. variabilisin natural population, it is reasonable to protect one bigger site rather than many small sites, but it should be recommended to maintain conservation areas in several districts. Further study on population structure should be carried out to explain such variability. Keywords: genetic diversity, iles-iles, molecular marker, morphology, tuber crop
Growth and Production of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius Dennst. Nicolson from Different Corm Weights Santosa, Edi; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 35, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The effect of different seed corm weight on the growth and production of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeonifolius Dennst. Nicolson) were studied. Two forms of corm with same weight were prepared, i.e., whole corm and vertically sectioned by 1/2. The fresh mass of each whole corm and corm section was the same. Six different corm weights were compared, i.e., 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 g. Growth and development of  elephant foot yam were determined by corm weigth, large seed corm produced larger leaf and fresh mass of daughter corms. On the contrary, number of leaf decreased with increasing seed corm weight. Plants from whole seed corms emerged earlier and they were larger than those from the sectioned corms, irrespective of weight. Plants from small sized whole corm emerged earlier than the larger ones. Dissecting the main bud caused the development of lateral buds, resulted in a delay of leaf emergence. The lower yield obtained by the use of sections might be related to the late emergence leading to shorter vegetative period in the field. In the cultivation, it is recommended to use whole seed corms of 100 or 200 g.   Key words :  Elephant foot yams, tuber crop, Araceae, corm weight, tuberization rate
KNO 3 Application Affect Growth and Production of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume Santosa, Edi; Halimah, Siti; Susila, Anas D.; Lonto, Adolf P.; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 41, No 3 (2013): JURNAL AGRONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPemberian larutan KNO3 diduga dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleriBlume). Penelitian bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh pemberian larutan KNO terhadap produktivitas A. muelleri. Umbiutuh umur satu tahun dengan bobot 100-125 g ditanam dalam polibag yang ditempatkan di bawah naungan paranet 50%pada musim hujan (September 2010-April 2011) di Bogor, Indonesia. Lima taraf larutan KNO3 yaitu 0, 2, 4, 6 dan 8% (b/v)diberikan melalui daun dan melalui tanah. Larutan diberikan 2 kali sebulan mulai 12 minggu setelah tanam (MST). Hasilmenunjukkan bahwa pemberian KNO3-13 nyata mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman, khususnya meningkatkan jumlah daundan memperpanjang masa vegetatif. Pemberian KNO pada taraf 4% memberikan pengaruh tertinggi jika diberikan melaluidaun. Pemberian KNO33 taraf 4% memberikan pertumbuhan yang lebih tinggi jika diberikan melalui daun dibandingkanmelalui tanah. Secara umum, tidak ada pengaruh nyata pada pertumbuhan tanaman akibat pemberian dosis KNO yangdiberikan melalui tanah. Penelitian berimplikasi bahwa pemberian pupuk KNO melalui daun pada taraf 4% dapatditingkatkan efektivitasnya jika kerusakan pada anak daun dapat diminimalkan. Kerusakan daun cenderung meningkat padadaun tua, oleh karena itu, studi lanjut perlu dilakukan terkait waktu aplikasi yang tepat.Kata kunci: iles-iles, kalium nitrat, pupuk daun, pertumbuhan vegetatif
Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Development of Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. Santosa, Edi; Pramono, Sigit; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 42, No 2 (2014): Jurnal agronomi indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRACT Iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) produces apomictic seeds lead to low genetic variation. In order to induce genetic variation, germinated seeds were exposed to Gamma irradiation (Co-60) at doses of 10 to 100 Gy. Seed irradiation was conducted at Center for the Application of Isotope and Irradiation Technology -National Nuclear Energy Agency (CAIRT), Indonesia. Morphology and yield of M1 generation were observed. Results showed that irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy close to LD50 with survival rate 56%. Gamma irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy delayed seeds germination.  Germination rates gradually increased and reached maximum at 4 weeks after planting (WAP) for control plants, and 14 WAP of irradiated plants. At 16 WAP, germination rate of 10 Gy irradiated plants was 56% and 84% for those of control plants. Irradiation induced chimera as indicated by short petiole, variegated and abnornal shape of leaflets. Some irradiated plants entered dormancy at 8-10 weeks later than control ones. Prolong vegetative periode lead the plants to produce heavier corms. This study revealed the possibility to induce variation of A. muelleri by using gamma irradition. Keywords: Amorphophallus muelleri, gamma irradiation (Co-60), morphological variation, mutation breeding
INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES Santosa, Edi; Widiyanto, Gunar; Lontoh, Adolf Pieter; Agustin, Elly Kristiati; Takahata, Ken; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 17, No 2 (2014): Buletin Kebun Raya Vol. 17 (2) July 2014
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG). Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks) in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae), Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae), Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae), Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae), Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae), Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae) and Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen (Fabaceae). These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L.) Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.
Agronomy, Utilization and Economics of Indigenous Vegetables in West Java, Indonesia Santosa, Edi; Prawati, Utami; Sobir, ,; Mine, Yoko; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 6, No 3 (2015): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia dan Departemen Agronomi dan Hortiluktura

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIndigenous vegetables have become popular in recent Indonesian diet, but agronomic and economic studies on these crops are limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the cultural technique of indigenous vegetables, their uses and economic importance in West Java, Indonesia. Initial market observation was conducted in Bogor to determine the economic value of indigenous vegetables. In depth observations of the indigenous vegetables and interviews with merchants, farmers and consumers were conducted in three districts, i.e., Bogor, Cianjur and Tasikmalaya, focusing on four indigenous vegetables familiar to local people, i.e., genjer (Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau), kenikir (Cosmos caudatus Kunth.), leunca (Solanum americanum Miller) and poh-pohan (Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Wedd.). This study showed that indigenous vegetables have been produced in extensive and semi-intensive cultivations and are sold in local markets daily, although local people do not consume them frequently. Indigenous vegetables held a market share of less than 5% at local markets, and accounted for less than 10% in household vegetable consumption. The reasons for consumers to choose indigenous vegetables were familiarity to these crops, moderate prices, family members’ preference, availability and ease of preparation. Generally, younger family members (<30 years old) bought indigenous vegetables less frequently than older ones (>30 years old), possibly due to lack of information on its use, unfamiliar flavor and high availability of other commercial vegetables commonly grown worldwide.Keywords: Cosmos caudatus, Limnocharis flava, local knowledge, Pilea melastomoides, Solanum americanumABSTRAKPopularitas sayuran indigenus terus meningkat di Indonesia, namun studi agronomi dan ekonominya masih terbatas. Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji budidaya, pemanfaatan dan nilai ekonomis sayuran indigenus di Jawa Barat, Indonesia. Penelitian pendahuluan dilakukan di pasar di wilayah Bogor. Penelitian mendalam dilakukan dengan mewawancarai pedagang, petani dan konsumen, serta mengamati di lahan petani di tiga kabupaten yakni Bogor, Cianjur dan Tasikmalayauntuk empat sayuran indigenus utama yakni genjer (Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau), kenikir (Cosmos caudatus Kunth.), leunca (Solanum americanum Miller) dan poh-pohan (Pilea melastomoides (Poir.) Wedd.). Studi menunjukkan bahwa sayuran indigenus diproduksi secara intensif dan semi intensif, serta dijual di pasar setiap hari, walaupun penduduk setempat tidak mengkonsumsi secara teratur. Sayuran indigenus mengisi celung pasar kurang dari 5% dan memenuhi kurang dari 10% kebutuhan sayuran rumah tangga. Konsumen memilih sayuran indigenus karena sudah terbiasa mengkonsumsi, harga terjangkau, disukai anggota keluarga,ketersediaan dan kemudahan mengolah. Secara umum, anggota keluarga muda (usia < 30 tahun) lebih jarang membeli sayuran indigenus dibanding yang lebih tua (usia > 30 tahun), kemungkinandisebabkan keterbatasan informasi nilai guna, adanya aroma asing, dan ketersediaan sayuran lain.Kata kunci: Cosmos caudatus, Limnocharis flava, pengetahuan lokal, Pilea melastomoides, Solanum americanum
Flower Development and Its Implication for Seed Production on Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Araceae) Santosa, Edi; Lontoh, Adolf Pieter; Kurniawati, Ani; Sari, Maryarti; Sugiyama, Nobuo
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2016): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia dan Departemen Agronomi dan Hortiluktura

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThere are many studies on agronomic and economic advantages of iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume), leading to high demand on seed to support the rapid production expansion in many Asian countries. By contrast, there are few studies on flowering phenology and flower morphology although they affect the seed production. Therefore, we evaluated flowering phenology and flower morphology of 80 plants of A. muelleri grown in a field under 65% artificial shading net at Leuwikopo Experimental Farm IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia from May 2015 to July 2016 in order to improve seed production. A. muelleri produced solitary spadix, with female flowers at the lower part and male flowers at the upper part. Spadix grew slowly for 56-71 days after bud break, and then grew rapidly thereafter for 30-35 days until anthesis. Seed was harvested 9.6 to 10.2 months after anthesis. We devided the development of spadix into seven phases, bud break as stage I and berry maturity as stage VII. Stage VI to VII determined seed production. Seed production was also affected by roots formation and spadix size. There were strong positive correlations between lengths of the female zones with berry production. Some morphological characteristics of spadix were dependent on corm size, thus, it was likely that agronomic improvement to enhance female flower and corm sizes wasimportant in seed production.Keywords: developmental stage, female flower, iles-iles, male flower, seed production ABSTRAKTelah banyak kajian keunggulan agronomi dan ekonomi iles-iles (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume), sehingga mendorong peningkatan permintaan benih untuk mendukung perluasan areal produksi di banyak negara Asia. Namun demikian, kajian fenologi dan morfologi bunga khususnya terkait produksi benih masih terbatas. Oleh karena itu, kami mengkaji perkembangan dan morfologi 80 bunga iles-iles yang ditanam di bawah paranet 65% di Kebun Percobaan Leuwikopo IPB, Bogor, Indonesia dari Mei 2015 sampai Juli 2016 dalam rangka perbaikan produksi benih. Iles-iles menghasilkan sebuah tongkol bunga dengan bunga betina pada bagian bawah dan bunga jantan pada bagian atas. Tongkol bunga tumbuh lambat 58-71 hari setelah pecah tunas, diikuti tumbuh cepat 30-35 hari hingga antesis, dan biji dipanen 9.6 sampai 10.2 bulan setelahnya. Perkembangan bunga dari pecah tunas hingga buah matang dapat dibagi menjadi tujuh tahap. Tahap VI ke tahap VII menentukan keberhasilan produksi biji iles-iles. Selain itu, keberhasilan produksi biji juga dipengaruhi oleh keberadaan akar dan ukuran tongkol khususnya panjang bagian bunga betina. Beberapa karakter morfologi bunga iles-iles dipengaruhi oleh ukuran umbi saat tanam. Oleh karena itu, perlu perbaikan agronomis untuk meningkatkan ukuran umbi dan ukuran bunga betina guna mendukung produksi benih.Kata kunci: bunga betina, bunga jantan, iles-iles, produksi benih, tahap pertumbuhan