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Perilaku Disolusi Ketoprofen dan Indometasin Farnesil Tersalut Gel Kitosan-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (687.004 KB)

Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, its fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This researchs purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drugs preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
Epoksida dan Kinetika Minyak Jarak Pagar Sebagai Pemlastis Film Polivinil Klorida Saefurohman, Asep; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Achmadi, Suminar S
Jurnal Kimia Valensi JURNAL Valensi Volume 2, No. 3, November 2011
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic Uni

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.15408/jkv.v2i3.113

Abstract

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan kondisi optimum untuk epoksidasi minyak jarak dengan variasi suhu (T) dan konsentrasi katalis pada waktu reaksi yang sama, mengkarakterisasi hasil epoksidasi atau pemlastis dengan parameter bilangan iodine dan bilangan oksirana serta menentukan orde reaksi dan energi aktivasi menggunakan studi kinetika.  Penentuan Ea epoksidasi dilakukan pada kondisi waktu reaksi 12 jam, dengan suhu 50, 60, dan 70oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi optimum sintesis pemlastis menghasilkan bilangan oksirana 4.2%.  Sementara itu, bilangan iodin secara signifikan berkurang dari 2,6-15,3 lebih rendah tetapi bilangan oksirana relatif tinggi, 123,4-205,8 lebih tinggi sebelum dilakukan epoksidasi. Analisis dengan metode respon permukaan menunjukkan bahwa model persamaan matematika untuk bilangan oksirana adalah:17.8733 + 0.5498x + 1.2830y ? 0.0039z ? 0.1960xy ? 0.004xz.  Karakterisasi epoksidasi dengan GC-MS menunjukkan waktu retensi 14.809 untuk metil cis-9,10?epoksioleat (MW 312). Kinetika reaksi menunjukkan orde ke satu dan konstanta laju untuk bilangan iodine masing-masing adalah: 50, 60, dan 70 oC adalah  9.97 ´ 10-2, 3.4 ´ 10-2, 21.34 ´ 10-2. Sementara itu, konstanta laju untuk bilangan oksirana adalah  11.28 ´ 10-2, 4.39 ´ 10-2, 1.89 ´ 10-2. Energi aktivasi masing-masing untuk bilangan iodine dan oksirana adalah  24.99 kcal/mol and 82.296 kcal/mol.   Kata Kunci : Epoksidasi, Kinetika, Poli Vinil Klorida, Minyak Jarak, Pemlastis
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN DAN INDOMETASIN FARNESIL TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-GOM GUAR Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Srijanto, Bambang; arifin, budi; amelia, fithri; mubarok, mahdi
Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi Vol 12, No 1 (2010): JURNAL SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.036 KB)

Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it’s fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research’s purposes were to study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid,38.1 mL of gg solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules and 0.05, 0.19, and 0.33% (w/v) for infar microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules, and 4, 4.5, and 5% (v/v) for infar microcapsules. All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. All mixtures wereshaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into each  microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added, whereas solution of 100 mg of in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added into each microcapsule mixture for infar. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Everymixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. The data of [gg], [glu], and medicine’s content from each microcapsule were treated with Minitab 14 software to obtain optimum [gg] and [glu] for microencapsulation. The dissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen and infar microcapsules were investigated. The result of optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions of [gg] and [glu] were 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and4.00% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic).
SINTESIS DAN OPTIMALISASI GEL KITOSAN-ALGINAT Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjachriza, Achmad; wahyono, dwi
Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi Vol 9, No 1 (2007): JURNAL SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi

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Abstract

Shrimp shell can be used to make chitosan. The objective of this work is to sythesis and optimize chitosan-alginate gel by comparing its rheological properties. Rheological properties of chitosan were improved by gelation using glutaraldehyde as cross linker and natural hydrocolloids such as alginate. Rheological properties measured were strength, break point, rigidity, swelling and shrinking gel. The gel was made by mixing chitosan solution 2.5% (w/v), glutaraldehyde 4%, 5%, and 6% (v/v), and alginate 0%, 0.75%, and 1.0%. According Modde 5, the optimum gel happened at glutaraldehyde and alginateconcentration are 4.0% and 0.82%, respectively. This  optimalization to adsorp metal ions gave gel strength, break point, pembengkakan, rigidity and shrinking properties are 881,4385 g cm-2, 1,0267 cm, 4,5313 g, 8,5179 g cm-1 and 1,6280 g, respectively.
PENGARUH IRADIASI GAMMA TERHADAP DEGRADASI ZAT WARNA DIRECT ORANGE 34 DALAM AIR Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Winarno, Ermin Katrin; Anriani, Lia
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 1, No 2 (2000): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

The aim of this experiment is study on technique of gamma irradiaton in analyzing dying agent direct orange 34 in waste water. Direct orange 34 was dispersed to oxalic and malic acids when the 60Co irradiated. The result showed that dose and dose rate of 60Co were less than 10 kGy and 7.57 kGy/hour, respectively. While, the pH of the first solution was 7.0. The technique showed that the chemical oxygen demand of dye solution was decreased from 60.38 to 4.90 ppm.
Identifikasi Kelelawar Pemakan Buah Asal Sulawesi Berdasarkan Morfometri (THE MORPHOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION OF CELEBES FRUIT BATS) Ransaleleh, Tiltje Andretha; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Manalu, Wasmen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Abstract

The bat is very important for human life, because of their  role as pollinator of plants, as a producer oforganic fertilizer,  and as food.  In Northern Celebes fruit eating bats serve as exotic food, so the presenceof bats were threatened to be extinct due to uncontrolled hunting.  The changes of the forest for plantationlands, damage the habitats and the bats were forced to migrate out.   The aim of the study was to identifythe fruit eating bats of Celebes.  Morphometry of body size, skull,  and physical characteristics were usedin determining the types and distribution  of fruit eating bats in Celebes. The field survey was carried outat the hunting area, bat dealers, and bat sellers. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptivemethod and interpreted by narrating to describe the entire study. The result show that  there were fivetypes of fruit eating bats : i.e.  kalong sulawesi (Acerodon celebensis),  paniki pallas (Nyctimene cephalotes),codot wallet (Thoopterus nigrescens), nyap biasa (Rousettus amplexicaudatus), and  kalong hitam  (Pteropusalecto).
Kandungan Mikrob Daging Kelelawar yang Diolah sebagai Bahan Pangan Tradisional MICROBIAL CONTENT IN THE PROCESSED MEAT BATS AS TRADITIONAL FOOD Ransaleleh, Tiltje Andretha; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Manalu, Wasmen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 14, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Abstract

This study was designed to assess the microbial characteristics of bats meat which were cooked askari and rica-rica, and were stored up to 14 days.The study was divided into two stages, the first stage usedthree types of bat meat that were cooked as rica-rica and kari 14 days after being stored in the refrigerator.The second stage used meat of a species of bat that was cooked as rica-rica and kari a few hours afterslaughtering. The result of the meat analysis at the 1st showd that thetotal count of microbials i.e;Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, coliform, and Salmonella sp from three species of bats that werecooked rica-rica  and  kari  were above the maximum limit of microbial contaminant occording to BSN(2009). The analysed made on the rica-rica showed that bat meat rica-rica stored up to 14 days containedtotal microbial count of 3,1 x 104 - 6,0 x 104Cfu/mL, Staphylococcus aureus 7,7 x 101- 7,6 x 103 Cfu / mL,Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp was negative. The total microbial count  of bat meat kari was  6,8 x 105-9,7 x 105Cfu/mL,  Staphylococcus aureus  was 4,3 x 101-1 x 104 Cfu /mL.  Escherichia  coli <3 / mL, andSalmonella sp was negative. Based on the result abtained, it was concluded that the bat meat rica-ricaand kari which were cooked in a few hours after cutting and stored until 14 days were suitable for humanconsumption.
Pendugaan Produksi Karkas Dan Daging Kelelawar Pemakan Buah (Pteropus alecto ) Asal Sulawesi (ESTIMATION OF CARCASS AND MEAT PRODUCTION OF CELEBES NATIVE FRUIT BATS (Pteropus alecto)) Ransaleleh, Tiltje Andretha; Maheswari, Rarah Ratih Adjie; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Manalu, Wasmen
Jurnal Veteriner Vol 15, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Abstract

The study was conducted in North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and Central Sulawesi during March untilOctober 2011. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of fruit bats  (P. alecto) as sourceof meat. Observed variables were body weight, carcass weight, noncarcass weight, the bone weight, meatweight, fat weight, and skin weight, respectively. To estimate the growth rate of the bats, analysis of therelationship between body weight and carcass components was done, while estimation of  growth rate ofcarcass components were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The results showed that the carcassproduction of  P. alecto in the three locations was 54.49%-56.55%, meat production was 45.37% -54.07%,and the coefficient of determination was 0.65-0.99.  Conclusions of this study is that the body weight  canbe used for  prediction  of growth rate, and weight of carcass, meat, bone, fat, and skin of the fruit bats,respectively.
Perilaku Disolusi Ketoprofen dan Indometasin Farnesil Tersalut Gel Kitosan-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (687.004 KB)

Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it's fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research's purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drug's preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
SINTESIS PEREKAT TANIN RESORSINOL FORMALDEHIDA DARI EKSTRAK KULIT POHON MANGIUM UNTUK PENINGKATAN KUALITAS BATANG SAWIT Rachmawati, Okti; Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Santoso, Adi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 36, No 1 (2018): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2018.36.1.33-46

Abstract

Batang sawit memiliki stabilitas dimensi, kerapatan, sifat fisik, dan mekanik lebih rendah daripada jenis kayu lainnya. Upaya mengatasi kelemahan sifat batang sawit dapat dilakukan melalui pemadatan (densifikasi) menggunakan kempa panas dan penambahan bahan kimia atau perekat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan komposisi optimal tanin resorsinol formaldehida (TRF) dalam aplikasinya sebagai bahan perekat untuk peningkatan kualitas batang sawit. Tanin diekstraksi menggunakan air pada suhu 75°C kemudian dikopolimerisasi dengan resorsinol dan formaldehida. Pencirian TRF dilakukan melalui analisis gugus fungsi menggunakan spektroskopi inframerah, dan kristalinitas menggunakan difraksi sinar X. Perekat TRF kemudian diaplikasikan dalam proses peningkatan kualitas pada batang sawit melalui proses kompregnasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktivitas tanin pada kulit kayu Acacia mangium sebesar 65,82%, komposisi optimal perekat TRF (v/v) = 1: 0,05: 0,05 dengan kadar padatan sebesar 8,33%, formaldehida bebas 0,09%, dan derajat kristalinitas 10,92%. Ekstrak tanin yang dihasilkan memiliki karakter spesifik pada bilangan gelombang yang sesuai dengan ciri yang dimiliki oleh standar tanin akasia impor. Adanya penambahan gugus fungsional baru dan peningkatan intensitas serapan pada beberapa bilangan gelombang melalui analisis spektroskopi inframerah pada TRF dan juga batang sawit hasil kompregnasi, mengindikasikan adanya ikatan yang dihubungkan oleh jembatan eter dan metilena pada TRF serta antara TRF dan komponen kimia pada batang sawit. Batang sawit hasil kompregnasi secara signifikan meningkat kerapatannya sebesar 104,61%, kekerasan menjadi enam kali lipat, dan penurunan pengembangan tebal sebesar 85,98%. Batang sawit hasil kompregnasi juga meningkat kualitasnya dari kelas kuat kayu V menjadi kelas kuat kayu III, sehingga berpeluang untuk digunakan dalam pembuatan produk eksterior.