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Biochemical Genetic Analysis Of Three Population Of Marble Grouper, Epinephelus polypekhadion Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Haryanti, Haryanti; Moria, Sari Budi; Giri, Nyoman Adiasmara; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 9, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jfs.32

Abstract

Genetic variations of marble groupers, Epinephelus polypekhadion were evaluated to know genetic performance of fish to support fish seed production. Fifty fish samples from three locations i.e. West Nusa Tenggara, South Sulawesi and East Java were collected for analysis. Genetic analysis has been examined through allozyme electrophoresis by using 11 enzymes (ADH, GPI, SDH, IDH, LDH, ME, PGM, 6PGD, MPI, SP, EST). The result showed that 16 loci were detected, and three of them were polymorphism enzymes namely Isocitric dehydrogenase (IDH*), Glucose Phosphate Isomerase (GPI-1*) and Esterase (EST-2*). One locus (EST-2) was polymorphic in the East Java and West Nusa Tenggara populations and three loci (EST-2, GPI-1 and IDH) were polymorphic in the South Sulawesi population. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.007 to 0.034. Rogers genetic distance between population pairs were ranged from 0.005 to 0.012 (average = 0.009). Differences between genetic populations were significant (P<0.05). East Java and West Nusa Tenggara populations have same gene pool.
PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE; DISEASES; SPF-BREEDING; AND RISK ISSUES CONCERNING WHITE SHRIMP, Penaeus vannamei INTRODUCTION INTO INDONESIA Sugama, Ketut; Novita, Hessy; Koesharyani, Isti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2006): (June 2006)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (710.924 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.1.1.2006.71-77

Abstract

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IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei) SURVIVAL Rahayu, Tb. Haeru; Sugama, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 10, No 2 (2015): (December 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (872.369 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.10.2.2015.137-142

Abstract

The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond) were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p&lt;0.05), and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year).
FREQUENT MONITORING OF WATER TEMPERATURE IN PEGAMETAN BAY, BALI: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT TOWARDS MANAGEMENT OF MARINE AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT Radiarta, I Nyoman; Erlania, Erlania; Sugama, Ketut; Yudha, Hirmawan Tirta; Wada, Masaaki
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1126.007 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.9.2.2014.177-185

Abstract

Aquaculture currently share for nearly half of the world’s food fish consumption, and continue to be the fastest-growing animal food producing sector. The viability of aquaculture operation has greatly been affected by the characteristic of marine environment. Inventory and monitoring of marine environment are necessary and can be done through information technology implementation. Frequent monitoring of water temperature, for almost one year observation, at four aquaculture sites in Pegametan Bay and Research and Development Institute for Mariculture was investigated. Water temperature data were obtained by using logger and buoy systems. These data were contrasted against marine fish mortality. On the other hand, the suitability of species requirements with the thermal conditions was evaluated by comparing temperature range to the optimum and lethal temperature information available on marine fish species of aquaculture interest. This research could be beneficial for enhancing productivity of marine aquaculture operation in terms of possible impact of climate change. It was also possible to find the ideal temperature range for culturing fish species, taking into account the variability associated with large-scale phenomena.
FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY REFLECT THE GROWTH OF HYBRID GROUPER Epinephelus fuscoguttatus AND Epinephelus polyphekadion Sugama, Ketut; Muzaki, Ahmad; Permana, I Gusti Ngurah; Haryanti, Haryanti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2014): (December 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (313.816 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/iaj.9.2.2014.97-102

Abstract

Fluctuating asymmetry has been widely used as a measure of developmental stability and as an indicator of individual fish growth. The present study compared fluctuating asymmetry in three bilateral meristic traits of F-1 hybrid between female Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and male Epinephelus polyphekadion and two F-1 pure parental progenies. The fishes were reared by communal and separate tank systems. Hybrids were confirmed by allozymes electrophoresis. After three months of rearing, the F-1 hybrids fish grew faster 45.9% and 66.6% compare to the F-1 pure parental progenies of E. fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion (P&lt;005) respectively. Development stability as measured by fluctuating asymmetry was lower in hybrid (20%-40%) than in the pure parental progenies (53%-80%). Among four enzyme loci examined, only Pgm locus showed variants and at that locus all hybrids fish were heterozygous. Heterozygous hybrids showed lower fluctuating asymmetry and related to higher developmental stability. The higher developmental stability positively reflected a faster growth rate. Thus this finding can be used to explain the reason that why hybrids groupers appeared grew faster than parental species.
YOLK OPAQUE SYNDROME PADA TELUR IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING (Thunnus albacares) Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Hutapea, Jhon Harianto; Sugama, Ketut
Media Akuakultur Vol 2, No 1 (2007): (Juni 2007)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15578/ma.2.1.2007.137-141

Abstract

Yolk opaque syndrome merupakan suatu kejadian di mana secara tiba-tiba telur atau larva yang menetas terserang endoparasit yang ditunjukkan dari warna telur atau larva keruh. Infeksi ini terjadi pada telur ikan tuna di Kinki University Jepang, larva ikan cod (Gadus morhua) dan ikan turbot (Scopthalmus maximus), serta ikan tuna sirip kuning (Thunnus albacares), sehingga perlu kiranya diketahui tentang penyebab dan cara pencegahan. Kemungkinan besar endoparasit ini termasuk protozoa karena mampu bergerak dengan menggunakan flagella. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa endoparasit (Icthtyodinium chabelardii) menyerang telur ikan tuna di dalam bak terkontrol dan infeksinya terjadi adalah secara horizontal yang berasal dari air media pemeliharaan.
BUDIDAYA RUMPUT LAUT, Kappaphycus alvarezii SECARA TERINTEGRASI DENGAN IKAN KERAPU DI TELUK GERUPUK KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT Radiarta, I Nyoman; Erlania, Erlania; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 9, No 1 (2014): (April 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (633.408 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.9.1.2014.125-134

Abstract

Budidaya ikan laut dalam keramba jaring apung menghasilkan banyak sisa pakan dan feses yang dapat meningkatkan kandungan nutrien berupa nitrogen dan fosfat perairan. Pemanfaatan nutrien tersebut dapat dilakukan melalui budidaya rumput laut di sekitar keramba ikan laut. Pengamatan pertumbuhan dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik terhadap dua varietas rumput laut (Kappaphycus alvarezii var. Maumere dan Tambalang) telah dilakukan di Teluk Gerupuk, Lombok Tengah untuk satu siklus musim tanam pada bulan September-Oktober 2013. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa performansi pertumbuhan rumput laut yang terintegrasi dengan keramba ikan laut sangat baik. Laju pertumbuhan spesifik terbesar ditemukan pada varian Maumere yaitu berkisar antara 4,26%-4,68%/hari dibandingkan dengan varian Tambalang yaitu berkisar antara 3,90%-4,20%/hari. Secara umum melalui sistem budidaya multi-tropik terintegrasi (IMTA) ini, peningkatan produksi rumput laut dapat mencapai 74% dibandingkan dengan sistem monokultur. Model IMTA sangat relevan dengan program ekonomi biru Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan dalam mendukung pengembangan perikanan budidaya yang berkelanjutan.
RESPON IMUNITAS BENIH LOBSTER, Panulirus homarus DENGAN PENGGUNAAN PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN MOIST Haryanti, Haryanti; Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Sudewi, Sudewi; Widiastuti, Zeny; Giri, I Nyoman Adiasmara; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 12, No 1 (2017): (Maret 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (599.419 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.12.1.2017.85-97

Abstract

Pemeliharaan benih lobster P. homarus masih menghadapi beberapa permasalahan, di antaranya infeksi penyakit bakteri (red body disease) dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus yang diberi pakan pelet basah (moist diets) dengan penambahan probiotik. Pemeliharaan benih lobster dilakukan secara individu (1 ekor/keranjang). Lama pemeliharaan selama tiga bulan. Bobot awal puerulus P. homarus adalah 0,37 ± 0,05 g. Perlakuan meliputi pemberian pakan moist yang ditambahkan (A) ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B) kombinasi probiotik, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 dan Bacillus cereus BC, dan (C) tanpa probiotik. Respons imunitas dianalisis dengan RT-qPCR melalui tujuh gen target terkait ekspresi imunitas, setelah diuji tantang dengan Vibrio harveyi (penyebab red body disease). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan benih lobster sebesar (A) 32,22%; (B) 29,63%; dan (C) 33,33%. Pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot benih lobster tidak berbeda nyata (P&gt;0,05). Respons imunitas benih lobster P. homarus pada perlakuan A dan B menunjukkan nilai ekspresi imun yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (tanpa probiotik). Ekspresi gen penyandi anti lipopolisakarida (ALFHa-1) meningkat pada (A) rata-rata sebesar 3,44 kali dan (B) 3,25 kali dibandingkan dengan perlakuan C (2,43 kali). Kelipatan ekspresi profenoloksidase (proPO) benih lobster meningkat pada perlakuan A (penambahan ragi) rata-rata sebesar 5,27 kali, sedangkan pada perlakuan B (kombinasi probiotik) sebesar 12,92 kali. Ekspresi Clotting sistem (transglutaminase, clotting protein) dan antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO) dan SAA juga mengalami peningkatan pada perlakuan A dan B.A number of contrains including disease infections and significant mortality have been occurring in lobster aquaculture. The aim of this research was to observe the immune response of juvenile lobster P. homarus culture fed by moist pellet supplemented with probiotic. Experimental juveniles were reared in individual system (one juvenile/basket). The experiment was conducted for three months. The treatments comprised (A) whole cell of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (B) combination of probiotics Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus sp. BC, and (C) without probiotic as control. Initial weight of juveniles were 0.37 ± 0.05 g. Immunity responses were analyzed using seven immunity related genes expression by RT-qPCR. The results showed that the survival rate of juvenile for treatments A, B, and C were 32.22%, 29.63%, and 33.33% respectively. The weight and length gain of the juvenile were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) among treatments. Based on immunity related gene expression analysis, it revealed that A and B treatments have shown differences in the increament of immunity responses. Expressions of ALFHa-1 genes were increased on (A) treatment with average of 3.44 fold and (B) treatment (3.25 fold) and higher than C treatment (2.03 fold). Prophenoloxidase (ProPO) expression was increase average up to 5.27 fold on A (yeast supplementated) treatment and B (combination of probiotic) were 12.92 fold. Gene expression on Clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein) and antioxidant defense mechanism (glutathione peroxidase/GPO) was increased on A and B treatments.
PEMBESARAN JUVENIL TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra DAN BENIH ABALON, Haliotis squamata DALAM SISTEM POLIKULTUR Sembiring, Sari Budi Moria; Wardana, Ida Komang; Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (Maret 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.209 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.13.1.2018.21-28

Abstract

Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji efisiensi pembesaran juvenil teripang pasir, Holothuria scabra dan benih abalon, Haliotis squamata pada sistem polikultur. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Besar Riset Budidaya Laut dan Penyuluhan Perikanan Gondol. Wadah percobaan berupa bak fiber volume 1 m3, abalone dipelihara dalam keranjang plastik ukuran 45 cm x 45 cm x 25 cm sebanyak dua buah/bak, sedangkan teripang dipelihara di dasar bak dengan sistem air mengalir. Kepadatan abalon 50 ind./keranjang dan teripang 100 ind./bak. Ukuran panjang dan bobot juvenil teripang yang digunakan adalah 3,17 ± 0,77 cm; 1,74 ± 0,64 g; dan benih abalone 3,16 ± 0,48 cm dan 4,82 ± 0,87 g. Jenis pakan abalon berupa rumput laut Gracilaria sp. dan Ulva sp. sedangkan teripang diberi pakan berupa bentos selama enam bulan pemeliharaan. Sebagai perlakuan adalah pemeliharaan teripang dan abalon: A (tanpa pemberian bentos), B (ditambah bentos), dan C (ditambah bentos dan tanpa abalon), masing-masing perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Parameter yang diamati meliputi pertumbuhan, sintasan, kualitas air, dan kandungan proksimat feses abalon. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan juvenil teripang pasir berbeda nyata (P&lt;0,05); rata-rata panjang total dan bobot badan pada perlakuan B lebih tinggi (4,45 ± 1,06 cm; 8,06 ± 1,19 g) dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Sebaliknya sintasan juvenil teripang pasir tidak berbeda nyata antar perlakuan (P&gt;0,05). Pertumbuhan bobot benih abalon berbeda nyata antar perlakuan (P&lt;0,05) dengan nilai rata-rata pada perlakuan A (16,75 ± 2,96 g) dan B (12,77 ± 2,69 g). Sedangkan pertumbuhan panjang cangkang dan sintasan tidak berbeda nyata (P&gt;0,05). Produktivitas polikutur pada perlakuan A mencapai 208,54 g untuk teripang dan 4.656 g untuk abalon; diikuti perlakuan B mencapai 118,55 g untuk teripang dan 3.493 g untuk abalon dan perlakuan C sebesar 34,50 g.The aim of the research was to examine the grow-out efficiency of sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, and abalone, Haliotis squamata fry in a polyculture system. The research was conducted in the Institute for Mariculture Research and Fisheries Extension, Gondol. Containers used in this research were nine fiberglass tanks each with a volume of 1 m3. The abalone fry were reared in two baskets sized 45 cm x 45 cm x 25 cm while sea cucumber fry were reared on the bottom of the tank and. Water exchange used a flow-through system. The density of abalone was 50 fry/basket and sea cucumber was 100 fries/tank. The averages of length and body weight of sea cucumber were 3.17 ± 0.77 cm and 1.74 ± 0.64 g, respectively. The abalone fry had the averages of length and body weight of 3.16 ± 0.48 cm and 4.82 ± 0.87 g, respectively. Feeds used for the abalone fry were Gracilaria sp. and Ulva sp. while for sea cucumber was benthos. These feeds were used during the six months of the research. Treatments were grow-out of sea cucumber and abalone: A (without benthos), B (with benthos), and C (with benthos but without abalone), each treatment had three replicates. Parameters measured were growth and survival rate, water quality, and proximate analysis of abalone feces. The results showed that the growth of sea cucumber was significantly different (P&lt;0.05), mean of total length and body weight of treatment B was higher (4.45 ± 1.06 cm; 8.06 ± 1.19 g) compared to the two other treatments. On the other hand, the survival rate of sea cucumber fry was not significantly different among treatments (P&gt;0.05). The growth of body weight of abalone was significantly different (P&lt;0.05) among the treatments in which the average for treatment A was 16.75 ± 2.96 g and treatment B was 12.77 ± 2.69 g. The growth of carapace length and survival rate were not significantly different (P&gt;0.05). The productivity of polyculture in treatment A reached 208.54 g for sea cucumber and 4,656 g for abalone; followed by treatment B of 118.55 g for sea cucumber and 3,493 g for abalone and treatment of C 34.50 g.
PEMIJAHAN DAN PEMBESARAN ANAK IKAN KARDINAL BANGGAI (Pterapogon kauderni Sugama, Ketut
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 3, No 1 (2008): (April 2008)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (269.625 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.3.1.2008.83-90

Abstract

Ikan kardinal banggai (Pterapogon kauderni) adalah ikan yang hanya terdapat di perairan kepulauan Banggai-Sulawesi Tengah dan diperjualbelikan di dunia sebagai ikan hias dalam akuarium. Ikan ini hampir punah dikarenakan penangkapan yang sangat intensif, sehingga diusulkan untuk dimasukkan kedalam CITES. Di Indonesia sampai saat ini belum ada laporan tentang penelitian perbenihannya. Makalah ini memaparkan hasil pengamatan pendahuluan tentang pemijahan dan pembesaran anak ikan. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa ikan ini aktif di malam hari (nokturnal), makan udang kecil (jembret), membentuk pasangan yang setia dan dapat dengan mudah memijah dalam bak. Pemijahan terjadi pada malam hari pukul 19.30--21.00. Jumlah telur yang dipijahkan berkisar antara 32--38 butir dengan diameter 240--308 mikron. Telur yang telah dibuahi dieram dalam mulut ikan jantan (mouth brooder) dan akan menetas setelah 18--19 hari dieram. Anak ikan baru dilepas ke alam setelah 3--4 hari menetas, dan langsung dapat makan rotifer atau nauplii Artemia. Dalam penelitian ini jumlah anak ikan yang dihasilkan dari tiga pasangan induk antara 12--32 ekor (rataan 21 ekor) dengan ukuran panjang tubuh rata-rata 1,16 cm. Dari hasil pengamatan ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa ikan kardinal banggai dapat dengan mudah dibenihkan dan memijah beberapa kali pertahun dengan tenggang waktu 42--50 hari. Penelitian yang diarahkan pada perbaikan mutu pakan induk dan anak serta penanganan penyakit sangat urgent dilakukan dalam rangka meningkatkan produksi telur dan anak yang sehat.The banggai cardinal fish (Pterapogon kauderni), endemic to the Banggai Island of Central Sulawesi in Indonesia, is extensively traded in the International aquarium market. This fish is very close to being placed on the endangered species (CITES) list because of over collection. In Indonesia, no report on breeding study of this fish being reporting. Present report dealing with spawning and growth of fish reared in concrete tanks. This fish is nocturnal feeder eating primarily crustacean, formed in pairs and easy to breed in a concrete tank. The fish spawned in night time (19:30--21:00 pm.), number of eggs spawned by two females are 32 and 38, with diameters of 240--308 micron. Fertilized eggs incubated in mouth of male for 18--19 days and released the young fish (BL 1.16 cm) to the water within 3--4 days after hatched. The young fish produced from three pairs are ranged from 12 to 32 fish (average 21 fish), and the fish is able to eat rotifer and Artemia nauplii. Based on the present observation, this fish is easy to breed in concrete tank and they tend to spawn several times a year with interval time of 42--50 days. The research directed to increase the fecundity, growth and diseases control is urgently required through improvement of the nutritional value of diets.