Sudikno Sudikno
Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat, Badan Litbangkes, Kemenkes RI, Jl. Percetakan Negara 29 Jakarta

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STATUS OBESITAS ORANG DEWASA MENURUT FAKTOR SOSIO DEMOGRAFI DAN PERILAKU: Studi Kasus di Kota Depok Sudikno, Sudikno; Sandjaja, Sandjaja
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan Vol 28, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan

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ABSTRACTBackground: Change in eating habits and physical activities of people who live in big cities cause nutritional problem such as obesity. Objectives: This research aims to measure nutritional obesity status and percentage difference of it based on socio-demographic and behavioral factors in Depok, 2004. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from 399 samples, 199 men and 200 women aged older than 18 years. Sampling method based on rapid assessment that developed by Expanded Program on Immunization/World Health Organization (EPI/WHO). Results: The result showed that there was a significant difference in the proportion of adult obesity between sex, among age groups, and among occupation groups. [Penel Gizi Makan 2005,28(2): 74-82]. Keywords: adult obesity, socio-demographic, habits.
CAKUPAN PENIMBANGAN ANAK BALITA DI INDONESIA Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Setyowati, Titiek; Sudikno, Sudikno
Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan Vol 28, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan

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ABSTRACTBackground: Monthly weighing session in Posyandu is an important activity for growth monitoring and promotion escpecially for children below five years old. By knowing weight every month, growth trajectory can be assessed and nutrition intervention and education can be applied. However, there has been a tendency of decreasing coverage of Posyandu in Indonesia during recent years. Objectives: To determine the coverage of children below five years old attending Posyandu or other weghing post. Methods: Data used for the analysis was from Susenas Modul (VSEN.2004.MPK). Samples were children aged 0 – 59 months weighted in Posyandu or other weighing post one month prior to data collection. Analysis of weighing coverage was based on some variables including province, urban rural area, age of children, frequency of visit to health facilities, and household expenditur. Results: Out of a total 21,932 children included in the analysis, 50.4% attended Posyandu or other weighing session, 47.9% not attended, and 2.1% did not know. The figure was lower than the target of 80% coverage set by MOH. The coverage varied among provinces, the lowest was found in North Sumatra (29.6%) and the highest in DI Yogjakarta (77.3%). The coverage was higher in urban areas (56.9%) than that in rural areas (45.3%). There was a trend of decreasing coverage by increasing age of children. The coverage of weighing participation of babies aged less than 6 months old was 68.2% and continued to decrease especially after the age of 24 months old to only 33.0% among children aged 48 months old or older. Poor families was more likely to have lower coverage (47.4%) than families of high socio economic status (60.1%). Conclusion: High coverage of children under five years old attending weighing session in Posyandu was found in certain province (DI Yogjakarta), urban areas, younger children, better health care behavior, and high socio economic status. [Penel Gizi Makan 2005,28(2): 56-65] Keywords: posyandu, weighing coverage
Back matter 40(1) sudikno, sudikno
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 40, No 1 (2017): Maret 2017
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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KONSUMSI MINYAK GORENG DAN VITAMIN A PADA BEBERAPA KELOMPOK UMUR DI DUA KABUPATEN Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Sudikno, Sudikno; Jus’at, Idrus
Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan (The Journal of Nutrition and Food Research) Vol 38, No 1 Jun (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Teknologi Terapan Kesehatan dan Epidemiologi Klinik

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ABSTRACTIndonesia plans to implement mandatory vitamin A fortification of cooking oil. A pilot study of voluntary vitamin A fortification in unbranded cooking oil showed that vitamin A status improved significantly a year afterfortification for five age groups except for children 12-23 months of age. The objective of the study was to measure cooking oil consumption and dietary consumption of vitamin A in children, women of reproductive age(WRA), and lactating mothers. The study was a cross-sectional study in Tasikmalaya and Ciamis, Indonesia, covering 1.594 samples randomly selected of poor households. Cooking oil was collected at household byrecall of usual cooking oil purchase and individual sample by 2x24h recall of food consumption. The results showed that households prefer bought unbranded cooking oil sold in plastic pouch at foodstall (warung) nearbyhome (96.2%), purchased oil every 1-3 days (60.6%), each purchace contained < 250 mL oil (73.9%). The average (mean+SE) cooking oil consumption at household was 27.5+1.0 mL/capita/day. Cooking oilconsumption at individual level on the average was 22.3+0.5 mL/capita/day lower compared to household consumption of oil, varied significantly of 2.4+0.4, 13.3+0.8, 23.0+1.0, 30.5+1.3, 33.5+1.2, 33.1+1.3 mL/day in 6-11, 12-23, 24-59 month old, 6-9 year old, WRA, and lactating mothers respectively. Cooking oil consumptionwas lower in children 6-11 and 12-23 months old which contributed to non-significant improvement of serum vitamin A level particularly in children 12-23 months old but not other groups since they consumed higher intake of cooking oil or still brestfed for children 6-11 month old.Keywords: cooking oil, food consumptionABSTRAKPemerintah Indonesia segera melaksanakan program fortifikasi wajib minyak goreng curah dengan vitamin A. Studi pilot fortifikasi vitamin A sukarela minyak goreng menemukan setelah satu tahun, serum vitamin Ameningkat signifikan pada 5 kelompok umur tetapi tidak signifikan pada kelompok 12-23 bulan. Tulisan ini bertujuan mengetahui tingkat konsumsi minyak goreng dan vitamin A dari makanan yang merupakan faktor penyebab naik atau tidak naiknya status vitamin A pada enam kelompok. Studi potong lintang dilakukan di Tasikmalaya dan Ciamis mencakup total 1.594 subjek anak 6 bulan - 9 tahun, wanita usia subur, dan ibu menyusui dari keluarga miskin. Konsumsi minyak goreng dikumpulkan di tingkat rumah tangga dengan recall frekuensi pembelian dan volume yang dibeli sedangkan tingkat individu dengan recall konsumsi makanan 2x24 jam termasuk makanan yang dimasak dengan minyak goreng. Hasil penelitian sebagian besar (96,2%) membeli minyak goreng curah dalam plastik, dibeli setiap 1-3 hari (70,6%), dengan volume < 250 mL (73,9%). Rerata konsumsi minyak goreng di rumah tangga 27,5+1,0 mL/kapita/hari lebih tinggi dibanding rerata konsumsi di tingkat individu 22,3+0,5 mL/kapita/hari. Konsumsi minyak goreng menurut kelompok umur berbeda signifikan dengan konsumsi untuk anak 6-11 bulan, 12-23 bulan, 24-59 bulan, 5-9 tahun, WUS, dan ibu menyusui masing-masing 2,4+0,4, 13,3+0,8, 23,0+1,0, 30,5+1,3, 33,5+1,2, 33,1+1,3 mL/hari. Kesimpulan penelitian konsumsi minyak goreng paling rendah pada anak 6-11 dan 12-23 bulan dibanding kelompoklainnya, yang memberi kontribusi tidak naiknya serum vitamin A pada kelompok 12-23 bulan, dibanding anak 6-11 bulan yang masih mendapat vitamin A dari ASI ataupun kelompok lainnya karena konsumsi minyak goreng yang jauh lebih tinggi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2015, 38(1): 1-10]Kata kunci: minyak goreng, konsumsi makanan
FAKTOR RISIKO OVERWEIGHT DAN OBESE PADA ORANG DEWASA DI INDONESIA (Analisis Data Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013) Sudikno, Sudikno; Syarief, Hidayat; Dwiriani, Cesilia Meti; Riyadi, Hadi
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 38, No 2 (2015): September 2015
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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ABSTRACT The problem of overweight and obese in Indonesia had a trend of rising along with the increasing age of the population. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with overweight and obese adults aged 25-65 years in Indonesia using Riskesdas 2013 data. The study design was cross-sectional. Samples were adults aged 25-65 years in Indonesia with the total of 458 591 people. Results showed that the prevalence of overweight and obese at the age of 25-65 years were found to be 26.1 percent and 7.20 per cent, respectively. The mean of Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.02 ± 3.70 kg/m2. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors associated with overweight and obese were age, sex, region, marital status, employment, economic status, and smoking habits. The result also showed that the habits of eating bread and biscuit were also associated with the incidence of obese. Hence, prevention efforts such as sufficient regular physical activities are needed. In addition, it is also necessary to promote food substitute for carbohydrates source to meet balanced nutrition both in number and type, as well as the quality. Keywords: risk factors, overweight, obese, Indonesian adults ABSTRAK Masalah overweight dan obese di Indonesia mengalami kecenderungan naik seiring dengan meningkatnya umur penduduk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan overweight dan obese pada orang dewasa umur 25-65 tahun di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan data Riskesdas 2013. Desain penelitian adalah cross-sectional. Sampel penelitian adalah orang dewasa berumur 25-65 tahun di Indonesia. Jumlah sampel yang dianalisis 458 591 orang. Hasil analisis menunjukkan prevalensi overweight pada usia 25-65 tahun ditemukan sebesar 26,1 persen, sedangkan prevalensi obese pada usia 25-65 tahun sebesar 7,2 persen. Rata-rata Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT) adalah 24,02±3,70 kg/m2. Dari hasil analisis regresi logistik menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan overweight dan obese adalah umur, jenis kelamin, wilayah, status kawin, pekerjaan, status ekonomi, kebiasaan merokok. Selanjutnya diperoleh hasil juga bahwa kebiasaan makan roti dan kebiasaan makan biskuit juga berhubungan dengan kejadian obese. Perlu adanya upaya pencegahan seperti dengan aktivitas fisik yang cukup setiap hari secara berkesinambungan. Di samping itu diperlukan juga upaya promosi pemilihan makanan pengganti sumber karbohidrat dalam pemenuhan gizi seimbang baik dalam jumlah maupun jenis, serta kualitasnya.
ASUPAN GULA, GARAM, DAN LEMAK DI INDONESIA: Analisis Survei Konsumsi Makanan Individu (SKMI) 2014 Atmarita, Atmarita; Jahari, Abas B; Sudikno, Sudikno; Soekatri, Moesijanti
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 1 (2016): Maret 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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ABSTRACTIndonesia is facing a very complex health problems. Non-communicable diseases is increasing, while infectious diseases still quite dominant. Among other contributing factors is the imbalance of daily required nutrients intake. Overweight is closely associated with daily intake level of consumed foods, especially the calorie contributors such as sugar and fat, besides, excessive salt intake drives people to eat more. This article is intended to determine the intake of sugar, salt and fat of Indonesian population that is exceeding the WHO recommendations. The analysis used the data of Individual Food Consumption Survey or SKMI 2014 that collected data and asked all food consumed in the last 24 hours from 45,802 households and 145,360 household members in all provinces in Indonesia. Descriptive analysis of all 17 food groups was undertaken to calculate the intake level of sugar, salt, and fat of each individual, and also calculated the proportion based on the characteristics of age group, sex, place of residence, socio-economic, and by province as well. The analysis showed that 77 million people or 29.7 percent of Indonesias population consumed sugar, salt, and fat exceeding WHO recommendations: sugar (> 50 g/day), salt (> 5 g/day), and fat (> 67 g/day). This should be anticipated due to the increasing trend of people with non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke which have already apparent from 2007 to 2013. It was suggested to reduce the intake of sugar, salt, and fat need of the population through advocacy, counseling, socialization at schools, food and beverage industries, restaurants, factories, and other relevant institutions.ABSTRAKIndonesia menghadapi masalah kesehatan yang sangat kompleks. Penyakit tidak menular semakin meningkat, sementara penyakit menular masih cukup dominan. Faktor penyebabnya antara lain adalah tidak seimbangnya asupan zat gizi yang dibutuhkan sehari-hari. Kelebihan berat badan sangat erat kaitannya dengan konsumsi makanan sehari-hari, terutama penyumbang kalori, seperti gula dan lemak, selain asupan garam yang cenderung membuat orang untuk mengonsumsi makan lebih banyak. Artikel ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui asupan gula, garam, dan lemak penduduk Indonesia yang melebihi rekomendasi WHO. Analisis menggunakan data Survei Konsumsi Makanan Individu (SKMI) 2014 yang mengumpulkan data dan menanyakan semua yang dikonsumsi 24 jam terakhir dari 45.802 rumah tangga dan 145.360 anggota rumah tangga di seluruh provinsi di Indonesia. Analisis deskriptif dari ke-17 kelompok makanan dilakukan untuk menghitung asupan gula, garam, dan lemak (GGL) dari setiap individu, dan juga dihitung proporsi berdasarkan karakteristik: kelompok umur, jenis kelamin, tempat tinggal, sosial-ekonomi, dan juga menurut provinsi. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa 29,7 persen penduduk Indonesia atau setara dengan 77 juta jiwa sudah mengonsumsi GGL melebihi rekomendasi WHO: gula (>50 gram/hari), garam (>5 gram/hari), dan lemak (>67 gram/hari). Hal ini perlu diantisipasi mengingat kecenderungan meningkatnya penderita penyakit tidak menular, seperti: obesitas, hipertensi, diabet mellitus, dan stroke yang sudah jelas dari tahun 2007 ke tahun 2013. Saran untuk mengurangi asupan GGL ini perlu segera dilakukan dengan target seluruh penduduk, melalui advokasi/penyuluhan/sosialisasi di sekolah, industri makanan-minuman, restoran, pabrik, dan institusi terkait lainnya. Kata kunci: asupan gula-garam-lemak, penyakit tidak menular, penduduk Indonesia
HUBUNGAN OBESITAS SENTRAL DENGAN PROFIL LIPID PADA ORANG DEWASA UMUR 25-65 TAHUN DI KOTA BOGOR (Baseline Studi Penyakit Tidak Menular di Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat) Sudikno, Sudikno; Syarief, Hidayat; Dwiriani, Cesilia Meti; Riyadi, Hadi; Pradono, Julianti
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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The global epidemic of obesity is rapidly becoming a major public health problem in many countries of the world. Rapidly changing diets and lifestyles are trigger to the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of central obesity and the relationship between central obesity and lipid profile in adults aged 25-65 years. This study used baseline data "Cohort Study of Non-Communicable Diseases" that was carried out in 2011-2012 in Bogor City, West Java Province. The study design was cross-sectional. A number of samples analyzed were 4554 subjects. Result of the analysis showed that the prevalence of central obesity was found 51.3 percent. The portion of subjects with high total cholesterol levels was 16 percent. The percentage of high LDL cholesterol levels was 17.6 percent. While the portion of low HDL cholesterol levels was 16.2 percent and the portion of high triglyceride levels was 8.5 percent. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that central obesity in adults aged 25-65 associated with lipid profile after controlling the variables of sex, age, and smoking habits. The need for preventive measures to prevent central obesity and abnormal lipid profiles evolve toward disease complications through the fulfillment of adequate daily physical activity and healthy eating habits.
Front matter 40(2) sudikno, sudikno
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 40, No 2 (2017): September 2017
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Front matter sudikno, sudikno
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 1 (2016): Maret 2016
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OBESITAS SENTRAL PADA ORANG DEWASA: STUDI KOHOR PROSPEKTIF DI KOTA BOGOR Sudikno, Sudikno; Riyadina, Woro; Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 41, No 2 (2018): September 2018
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Central obesity is one of the public health problems in developing countries. This study aims to analyze the dynamic risk factors for central obesity in adults. This study used secondary data "Cohort Study of Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors" observing period for six years. The study design was a prospective cohort. The subjects were all household members aged 25 years and above with the criteria remaining in the study area, healthy, non-physically disabled, non-pregnant, having normal abdominal circumference (male ≤ 90 cm and female ≤80 cm) on baseline study, not suffering from non-communicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) at the baseline of the study, and completeness of the data. The number of subjects at the baseline of the study were 1510, consisting of 613 men and 897 women. The results showed that a cumulative incidence of central obesity during the 6-year observation period of 837 (55.4%). Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that the risk factors for central obesity in adults were gender, age group, marital status, and physical activity. This study concluded that female subjects with physical inactivity had more central obesity compared to male subjects with physical inactivity.ABSTRAK Obesitas sentral merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat di negara berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor risiko dinamis terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder “Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular (FRPTM)” periode pemantauan selama enam tahun. Desain penelitian adalah kohor prospektif. Subjek adalah semua anggota rumah tangga yang berumur 25 tahun ke atas dengan kriteria tetap tinggal di wilayah penelitian, sehat, tidak cacat fisik, subjek perempuan tidak hamil, memiliki lingkar perut normal (laki-laki ≤ 90 cm dan perempuan ≤80 cm) pada awal studi, tidak menderita penyakit tidak menular (hipertensi, diabetes mellitus, kanker, strok, PPOK) pada awal studi, dan kelengkapan data. Jumlah subjek pada awal penelitian 1510 orang, yang terdiri dari 613 laki-laki dan 897 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kumulatif insiden obesitas sentral selama 6 tahun periode pengamatan sejumlah 837 orang (55,4%). Hasil analisis multivariat cox regression menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa adalah jenis kelamin, kelompok umur, status kawin, dan aktivitas fisik. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa subjek perempuan dengan aktivitas fisik kurang lebih cepat mengalami obesitas sentral dibandingkan subjek laki-laki dengan aktivitas fisik kurang. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, obesitas sentral, dewasa