Agung Sudaryono
Program Studi Budidaya Perairan, Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro

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USE OF AZOLLA (Azolla pinnata) MEAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR DEFATTED SOYBEAN MEAL IN DIETS OF JUVENILE BLACK TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon)

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 9, No 3 (2006): Volume 9, Number 3, Year 2006
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

A 42-day feeding experiment was conducted to study the feasibility of utilizing azolla (Azollapinnata) meal (AZM) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in the diets for juvenile Penaeusmonodon. The replacement levels of azolla meal protein in the diets were 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of thetotal soybean meal protein. All diets were isonitrogenous at 40% crude protein. Shrimp (mean initialweight, 0.49±0.02 g) were fed three times daily ad libitum at an initial feeding allowance of 10% totalbody weight per day. A completely randomized design was used in the study and shrimp were stocked ata density of 10 animals/72 L-tank in triplicates. There were not significant differences in weight gains(1.97-2.06 g), specific growth rates (SGR 3.81-3.89%/d), feed conversion ratios (FCR 2.06-2.77),protein efficiency ratios (PER 0.89-1.24), apparent protein utilization (APU, 43.3−56.7%), and survivalrates (99.1-100%) among shrimp groups (P>0.05). Feeding preference tests showed that either soybeanmeal-based diet or azolla meal-based diet was similarly preferred (P>0.05) by shrimp with thepreference values of 51 and 40% for soybean meal-based diet and azolla meal-based diet, respectively.The results of this study suggest that azolla meal protein can replace up to 100% of the soybean mealprotein in practical diet for juvenile black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon under laboratory conditionswithout any adverse performance. The use of azolla meal as an alternative plant protein source tosoybean meal may be able to reduce the feed costs for Penaeus monodon aquaculture.

PELLET WATER STABILITY STUDIES ON LUPIN MEAL BASED SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon) AQUACULTURE FEEDS : COMPARISON OF LUPIN MEAL WITH OTHER DIETARY PROTEIN SOURCES

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 4, No 3 (2001): Volume 4, Number 3, Year 2001
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

Nutritional quality of lupin based shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture feeds was evaluated in terms of pellet water stability. Two series of water stability experiments were carried out to study the effects of lupin meal inclusions as an dietary protein alternative for fish meal (Experiment 1) and soybean meal (Experiment 2) on percentage dry matter and protein leachings of the compounded test diets.  Increasing the replacement levels of dietary fish meal with lupin meal resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) of pellet water stability over the 480-minute immersion period. A significant improvement in water stability with the increase of the soybean meal replacement levels with lupin meal up to 50% was found, however, further increase above 50% substitution level resulted in reduced water stability of the diets. It is  concluded that lupin meal can not totally replace either fish meal or soybean meal in shrimp formulated diets and a 50% replacement level of dietary fish meal or dietary soybean meal with lupin gives a promising good result in terms of pellet water stability for P. monodon diets.

DIETARY PRACTICAL INGREDIENTS WITH EMPHASIS ON PROTEIN SOURCES FOR PENAEID SHRIMP

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 5, No 1 (2001): Volume 5, Number 1, Year 2001
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

Studies on the utilization of dietary practical ingredients, in particular protein sources, by penaeid shrimp juveniles were reviewed in this paper.  It has been proved by a number of researchers in shrimp nutrition that diets containing a mixture of two or more protein sources are better utilized by shrimp than those containing single protein sources.  In general, evaluation of the nutritive value of a feed ingredient for growth is based on both the quantity and the quality of the protein in the ingredient.  The amino acid composition and the relative proportions of other dietary nutrients are mostly relevant to the efficiency of protein assimilation by penaeids.  Based on the essential amino acid index (EAAI) used to screen some potential protein sources for penaeid shrimp, there were found that fish meal, shrimp meal, squid meal and soybean meal were good dietary potential protein sources with EAAIs between 0.87-0.98.

THE PERFORMANCE OF LUPIN MEAL AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FISHMEAL IN DIET OF JUVENILE PENAEUS MONODON UNDER POND CONDITIONS

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 6, No 2 (2003): Volume 6, Volume 2, Year 2003
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the performance of isonitrogenous practical diets containing different inclusion levels of dehulled lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) meal as an alternative for fish meal for juvenile Penaeus monodon (4.32 ± 0.57 g) reared in pens under pond conditions with a natural productivity. Five isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated to contain 0, 10, 20, and 30% dehulled lupin (L. angustifolius) meal with a corresponding reduction in fish meal from 24 (0% replacement; D1 as control) to 18 (25% replacement; D2), 12 (50% replacement; D3) and 6% (75% replacement; D4) and a diet containing dehulled lupin (L. albus) meal formulated to be similar to D2 which was designated as D5 and used for comparison. Each treatment was tested in quadruplicate and arranged in a completely randomised design. In addition, a group of shrimp put in four pond pens was not fed, to estimate the contribution of pond natural production to shrimp growth. There was no significant effect (P>0.05) of different dietary treatments on mean individual weight gain (13.3-14.2 g), survival rate (88-93%) of shrimp, and feed conversion ratio (1.45-1.55). The presence of natural food in the pond was important to boost shrimp production and approximately 36-67% of growth of shrimp in the present study was supplied by natural food.  Under such conditions, dehulled lupin (L. angustifolius) meal can replace up to 75% of protein from fish meal at inclusion levels of up to 30% in isonitrogenous practical diets without any adverse effects on growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio of juvenile P. monodon. Although this study was performed using a pond pen model on a small scale, the results obtained have provided useful information on the potential of lupin based meals in a commercial semi-intensive shrimp farming.

FATTY ACID PROFILES IN FISH SILAGE MADE FROM VARIOUS MARINE FEEDSTUFFS AS POTENTIAL NUTRITION SOURCES FOR AQUACULTURE FEEDS

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 8, No 3 (2005): Volume 8, Number 3, Year 2005
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate fish silage made from various marine feedstuffs (shrimp head, blue crab waste, mud crab waste, squid and tigawaja trash fish) as potential sources of n-3 fatty acids for aquaculture feeds. The marine feedstuffs and the fish silage were analysed for fatty acids contents. Results of fatty acid analysis showed that all the fish silage had higher levels of PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) of linolenic acid (LNA; 18:3n-3) and HUFA (highly unsaturated fatty acid) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) than the feedstuffs. This study indicates that the bioactive substances contents of n-3 fatty acids (LNA, EPA, DHA) in squid can be significantly improved by manufacturing the fish silage. Fish silage from squid was found to be the most potential source for PUFA (LNA; 5.08 vs 10.72) and HUFA (EPA; 8.07 vs 17.50 and DHA; 7.18 vs 18.08 g/100 g lipid) among the others and suitable for aquaculture feeds.

PENGARUH BAKTERI PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN DENGAN DOSIS BERBEDA TERHADAP EFISIENSI PEMANFAATAN PAKAN, PERTUMBUHAN DAN KELULUSHIDUPAN LELE DUMBO (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS)

Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology Volume 3, Nomor 4, Tahun 2014
Publisher : Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology

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Abstract

Probiotik merupakan mikroba hidup yang memiliki pengaruh menguntungkan bagi inang melalui modifikasi bentuk keterikatan (asosiasi) dengan inang atau komunitas mikroba lingkungan hidupnya sehingga dapat memiliki pengaruh memperbaiki kecernaan makanan, melindungi dari serangan patogen dan memperbaiki kualitas lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan jumlah probiotik yang berbeda yang berasal dari usus lele terhadap efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan, pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus). Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah lele dumbo sebanyak 240 ekor berukuran  6-7 cm dan bobot 2,35 ± 0,05 g. Bakteri probiotik yang digunakan sebagai bakteri uji adalah Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lincheniformis dan Psidomonas putida telah diisolasi dari usus lele. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan perlakuan A (tanpa probiotik), B (dosis probiotik 106 CFU/mL), C (dosis probiotik 107 CFU/mL), dan D (dosis probiotik 108 CFU/mL) dengan menyemprotkan probiotik pada pakan. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan perlakuan D memiliki nilai EPP terbaik yaitu (70,83±4,60 %), PER (2,23±0,15), SGR (2,61±0,06 %/hari), panjang mutlak (4,50±0,72 cm) dan mempunyai SR (96,67±0,24%). Penambahan probiotik pada pakan menunjukkan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap EPP (Efisiensi Pemanfaatan Pakan), PER (Protein Eficiency Ratio), SGR (Specific Growth Rate), Pertumbuhan panjang mutlak, dan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap serta SR (Survival Rate) lele dumbo. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dosis probiotik terbaik yaitu perlakuan D (108 CFU/mL). Probiotic is a microbial life, that give to the advantageous effect for a fish culture (host) it through modification which have bounded (association) with host or microbial community of those habit so that have affected to improve feed utilization efficiency, resistance to pathogen and improve the environment quality. The purpose of this research was to know the effected of bacterial probiotic isolated from intestinal catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with the different  dosage on the feed utilization efficiency, growth and survival rate of catfish (C. gariepinus). The fish samples used were 240 tails of total which have average length 6-7cm and average wight 2,35 ± 0,05 g. The bacterial samples used were Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus lincheniformis and Psidomonas putida. The experimental method was employed in this research with completely randomized design. The research was carried out 4 (four) treatments with  3 (three) replicates respectively. Those treatments were A treatment (no added probiotic), B treatment (with addition of 106 CFU/mL), C (with addition of 107 CFU/mL), and D (with addition of 108 CFU/mL) spraying the probiotic on the feed. The results showed that D treatment had the EPP of (70.83±4.60%), PER of (2.23±0.15), SGR of (2.61±0.06 %/day), absolute length (4.50±0.72 cm) and had SR (96.67±0.24 %). The use of probiotic  had significally affected on EPP (feed efficiency utilization), PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio), SGR (Survival Growth Rate), absolute length for dumbo catfish, and Indicated that they were not significantly different on C. gariepinus SR (survival rate). Therefore the dosage of D treatment appears to be the best dosage.

LUPIN MEAL UTILISATION IN AQUACULTURE FEEDS

JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT Vol 3, No 1 (1999): Volume 3 Number 1 Year 1999
Publisher : JOURNAL OF COASTAL DEVELOPMENT

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Abstract

The paper review nutritional value and production of lupin meal and its uses in aquaculture feeds. Feed is the major cost variable in a aquaculture system representing up to 60% of total operating costs. The utilization of cost effective feeds would improve profitability of a aquaculture business. Commercial aquaculture feeds have been traditionally based on fish meal as the main dietary animal protein source and soybean meal as the dietary plant protein source. Lupin meal as an alternative dietary protein source has a favorable amino acids profile as compared to soybean meal. Lupin meal is consistently available, cost effective, palatable and highly digestible to most species of fish. It has been demonstrated that lupin meal will replace a considerable amount of soybean meal with no loss in production and fish performance. Manganese and methionine levels must be considered when utilizing high level of lupin in aquaculture feeds. Lupin meal is comparable nutritionally with soybean meal, it is more cost effective.

Pengaruh Pemberian Pakan Buatan dengan Sumber Protein yang Berbeda Terhadap Efisiensi Pakan, Laju Pertumbuhan, dan Kelulushidupan Benih Abalone Hybrid

Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology Vol 2, No 3 (2013) : Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology
Publisher : Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology

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Abstract

Feeding with artificial feeds in the abalone aquaculture is rarely conducted by abalone farmers. Feeding with artificial feed in the abalone aquaculture is rarely conducted by abalone farmers. Feeding with artficial feed in different protein sources is expected to produce a better quality abalone. This research aimed to determine the effects of different protein sources in artificial feeds on the on levels of feed intake, feed efficiency, growth rate and survival rate of hybrid abalone seeds and to know the best protein sources.This research used an experimental by using a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments, in 4 replicates, respeatively. The seeds of hybrid abalone used in this research were with average length size of 2,5 ± 0,08 cm and average weight sized of 3,12 ± 0,28 g. The treatments were (A) Awabi commercial feed from Japanese product; (B) feed with 100% from animals sources; (C) feed with 100% from vegetables sources; and (D) feed combination with 50% animals and 50% vegetables sources. This research was conrried in in November 2012 - January 2013 at Marine Culture Instute of Lombok. The results of this research indicated that feeding abalone with different protein sources was signifantly different (P<0,05) on levels of feed intake, highly significant effect (P<0,01) on the feed utilization efficiency and growth rate but no significant affect (P≥0,05) was observed on the survival rate of hybrid abalone seeds. Awabi feed from Japanese product performed the best effect on the growth of hybrid abalone.

PENGARUH KOMBINASI PAKAN BUATAN DAN CACING TANAH (Lumbricus rubellus) TERHADAP EFISIENSI PEMANFAATAN PAKAN, PERTUMBUHAN DAN KELULUSHIDUPAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus)

Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology Vol 3. No 2 (2014): Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology
Publisher : Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology

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Abstract

 Pemanfaatan cacing tanah (L. rubellus) sebagai pakan lele dumbo (C. gariepinus) dalam budidaya lele dumbo diharapkan dapat meningkatkan konsumsi pakan, efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan, dan pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh kombinasi pakan buatan dan cacing tanah (L. rubellus) terhadap efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan, pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan lele dumbo (C. gariepinus). Variabel yang diamati meliputi nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan (EPP), laju pertumbuhan spesifik (SGR), dan kelulushidupan (SR). Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) dengan  5 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan itu adalah kombinasi pakan buatan 0% dan cacing tanah 100% (A), kombinasi pakan buatan 25% dan cacing tanah 75% (B), kombinasi pakan buatan 50% dan cacing tanah 50% (C), kombinasi pakan buatan 75% dan cacing tanah 25% (D) dan kombinasi pakan buatan 100% dan cacing tanah 0% (E). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi pakan buatan 25% dan cacing tanah 75% memberikan nilai EPP yaitu sebesar 89,5±0,5% dan pertumbuhan terbaik (P<0,05) sebesar 2,04±0,2%BW/hari tetapi tidak berpengaruh (P>0,05) pada SR lele dumbo. Berdasarkan pada hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kombinasi 25% pakan buatan dan 75% cacing tanah mampu meningkatkan nilai EPP dan SGR dalam budidaya lele dumbo. The utilization of earthworm as feed in the culture is to increase the feeding consumption, feeding efficiency  and the growth of catfish. The research aimed to examine the effect of combination the artificial feed and earthworm on feeding efficiency, growth and survival rate of african catfish. The variables measured were feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR), and survival rate (SR). This research apllied a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 replicates, respectively. The treatments were combination of 0% artificial feed and 100% earthworm (A), combination of 25% artificial feed and 75% earthworm (B), combination of 50% artificial feeds and 50% earthworm (C), combination of 75% artificial feeds and 25% earthworm (D) and combination of 100% artificial feed and 0% earthworm (E). The results showed that the combination of 25% artificial feed and 75% earthworm have resulted in the feeding efficiency utilization value of 89,5±0,05% and the best growth of 2,04±0,2%/day, but no significantly effect (P>0,05) on the survival rate of catfish. It was suggested to use the combination of 25% artificial feed and 75% earthworm to increase FE and SGR value for the culture of catfish.

GAMBARAN PROFIL DARAH IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus) YANG DIBERI PAKAN DENGAN KOMBINASI PAKAN BUATAN DAN CACING TANAH (Lumbricus rubellus)

Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology Vol 3. No 2 (2014): Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology
Publisher : Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology

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Abstract

Pengembangan budidaya ikan lele dumbo sering terkendala karena mahalnya harga pakan dan terjadinya infeksi penyakit. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasinya adalah dengan memberikan kombinasi pakan buatan dan cacing tanah untuk menghasilkan pertumbuhan lebih baik dan dapat meningkatkan imunitas ikan lele dumbo (C. gariepinus). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil darah lele dumbo yang diberi pakan dengan kombinasi pakan buatan dan cacing tanah (Lumbricus rubellus). Metode eksperimen dikembangkan dalam penelitiaan ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 5 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan itu adalah pemberian pakan dengan 100% pakan buatan (A), 75% pakan buatan dan 25% cacing  tanah (B), 50% pakan buatan dan 50% cacing tanah (C), 25% pakan buatan dan 75% cacing tanah (D), dan 100% cacing tanah (E). Pengukuran darah seperti eritrosit, leukosit dan hemoglobin menggunakan alat hematologi analizer dan glukosa darah dengan alat spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele dumbo yang diberi pakan buatan dan cacing tanah dengan dosis yang berbeda berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05) terhadap jumlah eritrosit tetapi tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05) terhadap konsentrasi hemoglobin, leukosit dan glukosa darah. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa ikan lele dumbo yang diberi pakan buatan dan cacing tanah (L. rubellus) dengan persentase yang berbeda mengalami jumlah eritrosit 1,22–2,52x 106 sel/mm3, leukosit 102,2-135,1x 103 sel/mm3, hemoglobin 8,2-10,5 g/dl dan glukosa darah 73,3-107,1 mg/L masih kisaran yang normal. African catfish aquaculture development is often hampered by the high cost of feed and desease infection. One of the problem solving is giving a combination of artificial and earthworms for the best growth and increasing imunity of the African catfish culture. The objective of research was  to determine the effect of a combination of artificial feed and of earthworms (L. rubelus) in the description of  erythrocytes , leukocytes , hemoglobin, and blood glucose of African catfish (C. gariepinus). The experimental method was employed in this research with used completely randomized design (CRD) 5 treatments and 3 replications, respectively.  Those treatments were feeding with 100% of artificial feed (A),75%  of artificial feed and 25% of earthworm (B), 50% of artificial feed and 50% of earthworm (C), 25% of artificial feed and 75% of earthworm (D), and 100% of earthworm (E). Blood requreiment of erythrocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin where hused by hematology analyzer and blood glucose by a spectrophotometer.  The results showed that the African catfish feed combination of artificial feed and earthworms have given significant effect(P<0.05) in the erythrocytes number but not significant effect (P>0.05) on the concentration of hemoglobin , leukocytes and blood glucose. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that African catfish feed with artificial feed and earthworms (L. rubellus) with different percentage will have the amount of erythrocytes 1,22–2,52x 106 sel/mm3, leukocytes 102,2-135,1x 103 sel/mm3, hemoglobin 8,2-10,5 g/dl, and blood glucose 73,3-107,1 mg/L  still in the normal range.