, Sudarsono
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Faperta, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Efektivitas Ekstrak Tumbuhan untuk Mengeliminasi Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pada Benih Tomat Zainal, Aprizal; Anwar, Aswaldi; Ilyas, Satriyas; Sudarsono, ,; Giyanto, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Objectives of experiments were to evaluate (1) in vitro inhibitory effects of plant extracts on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), (2) inhibitory effects of plant extracts on Cmm infected tomato seeds, and (3) effectiveness of seed treatment plus plant extracts to eliminate Cmm. After evaluating 20 plant extracts, curcuma rhizome and betel vine leaf extract, cinnamon and clove oil were selected for further test. Tomato seeds were artificially inoculated with Cmm to obtain high level of infection. Part of the seeds were dipped in either suspension of selected extracts for 20 minutes and the others were matriconditioned using a mixture of burned rice hull (at 22 °C and RH 60-70%) plus either of plant extracts oils, respectively. Elimination of Cmm level from infected seeds was observed at 10 days after treatments. Results of the experiment indicated curcuma extract, betel vine extract, cinnamon oil or clove oil showed in vitro inhibitory effects on Cmm. Moreover, dipping infected seeds in either 5% of curcuma, betel vine extract, or 0.5% of clove oil or matriconditioning plus these extracts oils were effective to eliminate Cmm from infected seeds. These treatments may potentially be used and developed commercially for eliminating seedborne Cmm on infected tomato seeds.   Keywords: Bacterial cancer, seedborne-pathogen, seed-treatments
Radiosensitivitas Pisang cv. Ampyang dan Potensi Penggunaan Iradiasi Gamma untuk Induksi Va rian Indrayant, Reni; Mattjik, Nurhajati Ansori; Setiawan, Asep; Sudarsono, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Banana is commonly propagated vegetatively by suckers since most of edible banana are triploid, male sterile and parthenocarpic, use of conventional breeding for banana improvement is difficult.  Mutation induction and in vitro technique are alternative tools for banana improvement. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine radiosensitivity of banana cv. Ampyang against gamma irradiation, and  (2) to evaluate performance of plantlets regenerated from gamma irradiated explants of banana cv. Ampyang.  Explants of in vitro grown shoots were exposed to gamma irradiation at 0, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Gy to determine their radiosensitivity. Growth and development of regenerated plantlets were recorded after 10 months of proliferation and regeneration periods. The CurveExpert ver. 1.4 analysis results indicated that lethal doses of irradiation reducing 20% to 50% of shoot growth (LD20-50) were 51.07 - 64.54 Gy.  All regenerated plantlets from irradiated explants produced less numbers of roots, and some of regenerated plantlets, showed significantly less plantlet fresh weight and height than the control one. Plantlets regenerated from explants irradiated with 25, 40, 50 Gy have longer leaves than the control. The regenerated plantlets from gamma irradiation treatments were successfully transferred into soil and they would be used to evaluate existence of variants among regenerated banana plantlets.   Keywords: induced mutation, gamma irradiation, lethal dose (LD20-50)
Evaluation of Somaclones Peanut Plants Regenerated from Repeat Cycles of In Vitro Selection Against Drought Stress Hemon, A Farid; Sudarsono, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of somaclonal peanut plants regenerated from repeated cycles of in vitro selection on medium containing 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG; w /v, corresponding to - 0.41 Mpa osmotic potential) against drought stress. The R2 generation of peanut plants were used in this experiment with cv "Kelinci" and "Singa" as control cultivars. Drought treatment was the plants irrigated with water to fi eld capacity (optimum condition) while other plants were grown under water deficit. Drought treatment was given at 16 to 85 days old peanut plants; after 85 days old, the plants were treated under optimum condition until plants were ready to harvest. Drought stress was measured using drought sensitivity index value (S) on scored parameters. Results of the experiment showed that peanut lines produced from repeated cycles of in vitro selection in medium containing 15% PEG were more tolerant to water deficit, had a better vegetative growth, a higher dry pod yield, and a lower dry pod yield reduction. This research demonstrated that repeated cycles of in vitro selection method was effective to produce drought tolerant peanut genotypes with a higher proline content than genotypes without in vitro selection.   Keywords : somaclonal variation, polyethylene glycol, drought tolerance
Pengaruh Perlakuan Benih Secara Hayati pada Benih Padi Terinfeksi Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae terhadap Mutu Benih dan Pertumbuhan Bibit Agustiansyah, ,; Ilyas, Satriyas; Sudarsono, ,; Machmud, Muhammad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Bacterial leaf blight, the disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a seedborne pathogen, has been known to reduce rice yield by 50%. In this study, two consecutive experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of various biological seed treatments applied on rice seeds artificially infected by Xoo on seed quality and seedling growth. Laboratory experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design while greenhouse experiment was arranged in a completely randomized block design. In both experiments, 12 seed treatments were applied: un-infected seeds (negative control) without seed treatment, Xoo infected seeds (positive control) without seed treatment, infected seeds soaked in bactericide Agrept  0.2%, infected seeds soaked in biological agent suspension isolate A6, infected seeds soaked in A54 isolate, infected seeds soaked in 5/B isolate, infected seeds soaked in 11/C isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A6 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + A54 isolate, infected seeds matriconditioned + 5/B isolate, and infected seeds matriconditioned + 11/C isolate. Soaking seeds either in Agrept  0.2% or in biological agent suspension was conducted for 30 h. Matriconditioning was conducted using ratio of seeds to carrier (burned rice hull 32 mesh) to biological agent suspension or bactericide solution of 1.0 (g) :0.8 (g): 1.2 (ml) for 30 h in air-conditioned room ca. 25 oC. Results of experiments showed that all biological seed treatments could suppress Xoo in rice seeds. Matriconditioning plus biological agent (isolate A6), biopriming with isolate A6 or isolate A54 were the best seed treatments to improve seed viability and vigor. In greenhouse experiment, matriconditioning plus isolate A54 was the best seed treatment to increase seedling growth.   Keywords: biopriming, matriconditioning, rhizobacteria, seed health, viability, vigor
Uji Inokulasi dan Respon Ketahanan 38 Genotipe To mat terhadap Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis Zainal, Aprizal; Anwar, Aswaldi; Ilyas, Satriyas; Sudarsono, ,; Giyanto, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Identifi kasi ketahanan genotipe adalah langkah awal dalam pengembangan kultivar tahan terhadap serangan patogen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (i) mendapatkan cara inokulasi dengan jumlah dan konsentrasi inokulum Cmm yang efektif untuk mengevaluasi ketahanan tomat terhadap Cmm di rumah kaca, (ii)  mendeterminasi reaksi ketahanan berbagai genotipe tomat akibat inokulasi Cmm. Percobaan ini menggunakan 38 genotipe tomat yang terdiri dari 7 genotipe tomat lokal, 15 genotipe tomat komersial, dan 16 genotipe koleksi Pusat Studi Pemuliaan Tanaman IPB Bogor (PSPT/IPB). Agen penyebab penyakit yang digunakan adalah 6 isolat Cmm hasil percobaan sebelumnya. Cara inokulasi Cmm yang efektif terhadap tomat cv. Marta (sangat rentan),  uji reaksi ketahanan berbagai genotipe tomat terhadap Cmm telah dilakukan di rumah kaca.  Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (i) inokulasi dengan menyuntikkan inokulum Cmm 5 µl konsentrasi 106 cfu/ml pada beberapa tempat di ketiak daun (daun pertama, daun tengah dan pucuk) merupakan cara yang paling efektif mengevaluasi ketahanan tomat terhadap Cmm, (ii) berbagai genotipe tomat yang diuji belum ada yang tahan teradap Cmm, genotipe tomat lokal ada yang agak rentan dan agak tahan.Kata kunci: kultivar tahan, suspensi bakteri, tomat
Aktivitas Kitinase dan Peroksidase dari Ekstrak Kasar Protein Asal Kalus dan Berbagai Jaringan Tanaman Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Artika, I Made; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 3 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Chitinase and peroxydase are important bioactive proteins or are specific enzymes that are related to plant resistance to pathogens. The aims of the research were to analyze the chitinase and peroxidase activities of crude protein extract from calli, stem, leaves and roots of T. cucumerinavar. anguina. In the first experiment, chitinase and peroxydase activities were analyzed from in vitro calli, leaves and roots obtained from 2-month-old of field grown plants. The media for calli induction were Murashige and Skoog medium with addition of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA, 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA, 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA, or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA. In the second experiment, the chitinase and peroxydase activities from crude protein extract of roots, stems and leaves were analyzed. The extracts were from 3-week-old seedling (less than a month), 1-month and 2-month-old plants. The first and the second experiment results showed that crude protein extracts of plant roots from the field grown plants had the highest chitinase and peroxidase activities. Stem of field grown plants had the similar level of chitinase activities with the plant roots. Chitinase activities of in vitro calli were not significantly different from those of plant roots so that it could be used as an alternative for plant roots in studying chitinase from T. cucumerinavar. anguina. Chitinase activities in crude protein extracts of roots appeared constant whereas peroxidase tend to increase with plant age. Keywords: calli, enzyme activities, leaves, roots, stem
Aktivitas Kitinase dan Peroksidase dari Ekstrak Protein Daun, Akar, Kalus dan Tunas In Vitro Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Wiyono, Suryo; Artika, I Made
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

A number of Trichosanthes species has been reported as a source of bioactive protein associated with defense mechanisms such as chitinase. Chitinase and peroxidase of crude protein extracted from leaves, roots, in vitro calli and shoots of T. tricuspidata had been analysed. Calli were induced on MS medium containing combinations of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA  (K1), 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA (K2), 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA (K3), or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA (K4). Shoots were cultured in MS with 1 mg/l of BA, while leaves and roots were harvested from six-month old plants grown on the field. Results of the experiment suggested that K1-K4 medium could be used to induce calli although weight of calli from all medium composition  was not significantly different (0.19-0.31 g/explant/4 weeks). Calli from K1 medium had the highest of total crude protein content (3.24 mg/ml). The highest of chitinase activity was found in in vitro shoots (6.51 mM pNP/hour/mg protein) and the highest peroxidase activity was in the plant roots (0.25 ∆ 420/minute/mg protein).   Key words:  in vitro calli, shoots, crude protein, chitinase and peroxidase activities
PENGARUH ALGIFERT DAN CYCOCEL TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI BAWANG PUTIH (Allium sativum L.) VARIETAS LUMBU PUTIH Sugiyanta, ,; Sudarsono, ,; Mufidah, Siti
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 23, No 1 (1995): Buletin Agronomi
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of plant growth regulator (Cycocel) and algifert in growth and bulb production of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. ´Lumbu Putih´. The experiment was set up randomized complete block design. Treatments were consisted of combination of algifert and cycocel applications. Algifert treatments consisted of spraying 0 (A0), 2 (A1), 4 (A2), 6 (A3) and 8 (A4) ml/l algifert solution on to garlic plants, while cycocel treatments consisted of spraying 0 (C0), 500 (C1), 1000 (C2) and 1500 (C3) Cycocel solution. Algifert spraying was conducted at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 week after planting, while cycocel was at 8 week and 10 week after palnting. Result of the experiments indicated algifert and cycocel treatments did not significantly affect growth and bulb yield of garlic. However, interaction affect of algifert and cycocel significantly reduced total number of cloves of each garlic bulb. Comparation mean analyzis showed A2C3 (algifert 4 ml/l with cycocel 1500 mg/l) treatment resulted in significantly lower total number of cloves of each garlic bulb than A2C0 or A2C1 (algifert 4 ml/l with or with out cycocel 500 mg/l) treatments, respectively. Treatment combination A2C3 significantly reduced the total number of cloves each bulb. However, the reduction of total number of cloes was not followed by increased in the size of the cloves. The result of the experiment also indicated the presence of positive correlation among parameters recorded. The total weight of harvested biomass were positively correlated with diameter of the bulb, number of clove, dry weight of the bulb, and dry matter contain of the bulb, respectively.
Perbaikan Teknik Kultur Embrio Kelapa Kopyor (Cocos nucifera L.) Asal Sumenep Jawa Timur Melalui Penambahan Bahan Aditif dan Pengujian Periode Subkultur Sukendah, ,; Sudarsono, ,; Witjaksono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 1 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The success of culturing of "Kopyor" coconut (matured coconut with broken meat particles due to abnormal formation of endosperm) through embryo culture depends on the medium used.  A revised protocol on medium embryo culture was done to increase embryo germination and plantlet production of kopyor coconut obtained from Sumenep.  Embryos excised from mature nuts were cultured in solid Eeuwens basal media supplemented with 150 ml coconut water, 150 ml coconut milk, 50 mg/l thio-urea, and 100 mg/l thio-urea. Germinating embryos were transferred to solid Eeuwens basal media containing 100, 150, and 200 ml/l coconut water.  Subsequent transfers of the germinating embryos to fresh media to complete seedling development were done at different periods of subculture, i.e., 1, 2, 3, and 4 months. The highest viability of kopyor embryo was shown by 150 ml/l coconut water, about 95% embryos in this medium germinated. At plantlet phase, addition of coconut water did not give a positive result to the growth of kopyor plantlets.  However, coconut water could increase the complete plantlet, i.e., plantlet with shoot and good root. Growth and number of kopyor plantlets obtained were the best when the plantlets transferred into fresh medium every 2 months.   Key words:  Embryo culture, kopyor coconut, additive agents, period of subculture
Perbaikan Pertumbuhan dan Kualitas Tanaman Lidah Buaya di Tanah Gambut dengan Aplikasi Mikoriza Arbuskula dan Pemupukan Sasli, Iwan; Yahya, Sudirman; Sudradjat, ,; Setiadi, Yadi; Sudarsono, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 3 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

This research was aimed at studying the effectiveness of  mycorrhiza, inorganic and organic fertilizer (fish and shrimp waste) on growth, yield and quality of Aloe in peat soil. The study was conducted on peat area, North Pontianak, West Kalimantan. Mycorrhizal application levels (without mycorrhiza, Mycofer and mycorrhizal from pineapple´s rhizosphere) were as main-plot. The inorganic fertilizer (composition of N:P:K:Mg) rates (without inorganic fertilizer;  5 : 4 : 7.5 : 2.5 g/plant;  10 : 8 : 15 : 5 g/plant; and  20 : 16 : 30 : 10 g/plant) were as sub-plot.  Organic fertilizers: (fish; shrimp; fermented fish; and fermented shrimp wastes) were as sub-sub plot. The observed variables were: leaf width, leaf length, leaf fresh weight, plant dry weight, and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg). The results showed that mycorrhizal application improved growth performance and increased N, P, Mg uptake. The best plant growth performance was achieved by N : P: K : Mg  =10 : 8 : 15 : 5 g/plant and fermented shrimp waste treatments.  The highest  N, P, K, Mg nutrients uptake was achieved by application of fermented organic  fertilizer.  Combination of mycorrhiza from pineapple´s  rhizosphere with fermented fish and shrimp waste resulted in higher amino acids content compared to standard cultivation of  Aloe vera Center in Pontianak.   Key words:  Aloe vera, arbuscular mycorrhiza, inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer