Slamet Sudarmadji
Faculty of Agricultural Technology Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta

Published : 15 Documents
Articles

Found 15 Documents
Search

Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare) Oil during Storage at 30 and 40 0 C

Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (276.225 KB)

Abstract

The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined) used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4?C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30?C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.Key words: Canarium nut oil, peroxide value, TBARS

Sensitivitas Bakteri Gram Positif terhadap Katekin yang Diekstraksi dari Gambir (Uncaria gambir)

Agritech Vol 28, No 4 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Research about sensitivity of Gram-possitive bacteria toward catechin extracted from gambir product has been con-ducted. The results showed that treatment with 6 % catechin extracts affects the growth of Gram-possitive bacteria (Staphylococcus mutans, S. aureus, and B. subtilis). Both S. mutans and S. aureus were inhibited significantly by the extract. Antibacterial activities of (+)-catechin extracted from gambir caused the cell damage irreversibly. Even by ad4bactericidal property. Furthermore, addition of 4, 6, and 8 % (w/v) of the extracts to the media had been carried out toinvestigate the rate of inhibition. The results showed that the  addition of 4 % of the extracts slightly inhibit the Gram- possitive bacteria. The addition of 6 and 8 % of the extract showed that the growth of  both S. mutans and S. aureus decline during one hour, while B. subtillis still resistant to the catechin. It could be concluded that S. mutans was the most sensitive bacteria to the catechin extracted from gambir followed by S. aureus and B. subtilis.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian tentang sensitivitas bakteri Gram positif terhadap katekin yang diekstraksi dari gambir.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan dengan ekstrak ketekin 6 % mempengaruhi pertumbuhan bakteri Gram positif (Staphylococcus mutans, S. aureus, and B. subtilis). S. mutans dan S. aureus dihambat oleh ekstrak secara nyata. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak katekin dari gambir menyebabkan kerusakan sel secara permanen. Sel tetap tidak dapat tumbuh meskipun ke dalam medium ditambahkan MgSO . Hal itu berarti bahwa ekstrak ketein dari gambir mempunyai sifat bakterisidal. Penambahan ekstrak katekin ke dalam medium dengan konsentrasi 4, 6 dan 8 % sudah dilakukan un-tuk melihat laju penghambatan pertumbuhan bakteri. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa penambahan 4 % ekstrak ketekin sedikit menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Gram positif. Penambahan 6 dan 8 % ekstrak ketekin ke dalam medium menyebabkan pertumbuhan S. mutans dan S. aureus menurun setelah satu jam, sedangkan B. subtillis tetap tahan terhadap ekstrak ketekin. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa S. mutants paling sensitif terhadap ekstrak katekin dari gambir, diikuti oleh S. aureus dan B. subtilis.

Phenolic content and antibacterial properties of various extracts of gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb)

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 18 No 3, 2007
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (185.053 KB)

Abstract

Extraction of gambir product with various solvents gave vary in amount of yields, phenolic contents, and its antibacterial properties. Extraction was performed by maseration and Soxhlet methods with some solvents; chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, water, and their combination. The results showed that the highest yield of extract obtained from the solvent combination of ethanol and water (1:1 v/v) both at the maseration and Soxhlet metods, i.e. 84.77 and 87.69 %, respectivelly. Soxhlet method gave the yield of extract higher than that of maseration method. The highest phenolic content was found at the extracts using ethyl acetate both in maseration and soxlet methods, i.e. 88,30 and 90,85 %, respectivelly. Antobacterial properties on the Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, indicated that the extracts extracted by using ethyl acetate gave highest inhibitory properties. On the other hand, the extracts did not inhibit Gram-negative bacteria. Extraction was continued by using solvent combination of ethanol and water at the various proportion and at the three levels of temperature, 4, 30, and 60 °C. The results showed that solvent combination of ethanol and water (1:2), gave the highest yield of extracts but lower in phenolic contents and aantibacterial properties.Key words: antibacterial, phenolic content, extract of Uncaria gambir Roxb

Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare) Oil during Storage at 30 and 40 0 C

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol 19, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (276.225 KB)

Abstract

The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined) used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4?C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30?C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.Key words: Canarium nut oil, peroxide value, TBARS

Prinsip dan Penggunaan Amino Acid Analyzer

Agritech Vol 1, No 3 (1980)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

.

Kandungan Fenolik Ekstrak Daun Gambir (Uncaria gambir Roxb) dan Aktivitas Antibakterinya

Agritech Vol 27, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Research about processing gambir leaves (young, midle, and old shoots) to gambir products with two methods, wet method (boilling-pressing-setling-drying) and dry method (drying- grinding-infusion-setling-drying) had been done. The results showed that young leaf gave the highest gambir product both for wet and dry process. For the wet process, for young, midle, and old leaves gave the yields 10,03±0,11, 9,46±0,15, and 9,03±0,19 %, respectivelly. Furthermore, dry process for young, midle, and old leaves gave the products 7,15±0,32, 6,82±0,32, and 6,13±0,18 %, respectivelly. The highest phenolic contents such as polyphenol extract (with ethyl acetate), total phenol, and (+)-catechin found in the product from the midle leaves. On the wet process, polyphenol, total phenol, and (+)- catechin content were 64,96±0,41 %, 51,08±0,17 %, and 39,17 %, while on the dry process were 62,73±1,14%, 50,10±0,1 %, and 16,90%, respectivelly. Gambir products and their polyphenols had shwon antibacterial activities both produced by wet and dry methods. Using Staphylococcus aureus, the midle leave product and polyphenols from wet process gave clear zone as high as 6,89±0,10 mm and 9,45±0,25 mm. (in diameter) as well as dry process 5,39±0,10 mm and 6,39±0,10 mm, respectivelly. Both gambir product and polyphenol had not shown an antibacterial activities for Escherichia coli.ABSTRAKDalam penelitian ini dilakukan pengolahan daun gambir muda, sedang, dan tua menjadi gambir dengan dua cara yaitu cara basah (perebusan-pengepresan-pengendapan-pengeringan) dan cara kering (pengeringan- penghancuran-penyeduhan-pengambilan padatan-pengeringan). Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa daun muda menghasilkan rendemen produk gambir paling tinggi baik pada pengolahan basah maupun kering. Pada pengolahan basah, untuk daun muda, sedang, dan tua secara berurut-urut memberikan rendemen sebesar 10,03±0,11, 9,46±0,15, dan 9,03±0,19 %. Selanjutnya, rendemen produk dengan pengolahan cara kering dari daun muda, sedang, dan tua adalah 7,15±0,32, 6,82±0,32, dan 6,13±0,18 %. Namun demikian, senyawa yang termasuk dalam golongan fenolik, seperti; ekstrak polifenol, total fenol, (+)-katekin paling tinggi pada daun sedang. Pada pengolahan basah, ekstrak polifenol (dengan etil asetat), total fenol, dan (+)-katekin pada daun sedang secara berurut-urut adalah 64,96±0,41 %, 51,08±0,17 %, dan 39,17 % dan pada pengolahan kering adalah 62,73±1,14%, 50,10±0,1 %, dan 16,90%. Selain itu, pada pengolahan basah, produk dan ekstrak polifenol dari daun sedang menghasilkan sifat antibakteri (dinyatakan sebagai diameter daerah hambat, DDH) terhadap Staphylococcus aureus paling tinggi, yakni 6,89±0,10 mm dan 9,45±0,25 mm. Pengolahan kering memiliki DDH lebih rendah yaitu 5,39±0,10 mm dan 6,39±0,10 mm. Baik produk maupun ekstrak polifenol tidak menghambat Escherichia coli.

Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Minyak Kenari

Agritech Vol 27, No 4 (2007)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Research about physical and chemical properties of canarium oils was done. The aims of the research were to study of the fatty acid composition and physico-chemical propertis of canarium oils from Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The oils were extracted by different methods, i.e., compression, maceration, and soxhlet extraction. The results showed that oil derived from Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare extracted by compression and hexane extraction had relative density 0.904 – 0.912 g/cm 3, refractive index 1.463 – 1.464 at 30 o C, and melting point 22 – 23 C. Free fatty acids content of this oil ranged from 0.27 – 2.59 as oleic acid, peroxide value 1.74 – 3.60 meq/kg, iodine value 57 – 61, saponification value 177 – 195 mg KOH, vitamin E  710 – 1140 ppm and total carotene 292 – 619 µg/100 g. The fatty acids found in canarium oil were oleic acid (44 – 47 %), palmitic acid (24 – 26 %), stearic acid (13 – 15 %), and linoleic acid (11 – 13 %).ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi asam lemak dan sifat fisikokimia minyak biji kenari dari spesies Canarium indicum dan Canarium vulgare dari beberapa metode ekstraksi yaitu pengepresan, maserasi, dan soxhlet. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak kenari dari spesies Canarium indicum dan Canarium vulgare yang diekstraksi dengan pengepresan dan penggunaan pelarut heksan, mempunyai kisaran densitas relatif 0,904 – 0,912 g/cm. Sedangkan indeks bias pada suhu 30 ºC adalah 1,463 - 1,464 dan titik cair 22 – 23 °C. Kandungan asam lemak bebas adalah 0,27 - 2,59% (sebagai asam oleat). Angka peroksida 1,74 - 3,60 meq/kg. Angka iodine 57 – 61 dan angka penyabunan 177 – 195 mg KOH. Vitamin E 710 – 1140 ppm dan total karoten adalah 292-619 µg/100 g. Komposisi asam lemak minyak kenari adalah asam oleat (44-47 %), asam palmitat (24-26 %), asam stearat (13-15 %), dan asam linoleat (11-13 %).

Asam Fitat dan Fitase dalam Fermentasi Tempe Kedele

Agritech Vol 2, No 1 (1981)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

.

Produksi Asam Asetat oleh Sel Acetobacter pasteurianus INT-7 Amobil pada Variasi Konsentrasi Etanol

Agritech Vol 24, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter pasteurianus 1NT-7 immobilized cells with alginate gel on various ethanol concentration was investigated. Immobilized acetic acid bacteria cells were prepared with alginate gel 3% concentration with ratio cell suspension and alginat gel 1:3 (v/v) and conditioning time 24 hours. Fermentation using 10% immobilized cells (beads), medium of fermentation is YEPE (yeast extract pepton ethanol) with three ethanol concentration 5%, 7,5% and 10% respectively. Fermentation is going on shaker incubator with condition 100 rpm, 30" C for 10 days. The acetic acid production, pH and cells number were monitored for evey day. The immobilized cell fermentation was compared with free cells fermentation. The yield of free cells fermentation on 5% ethanol concentration is higher (84,6%) than immobilized cells yield (64,25 %), but on 7,5% and 10% ethanol concentration the immobilised cells yield is higher (62,77% and 45,44% respectively) than free cells yield ( 61,23% and 2,54% respectively).So the acetic acid fermentation using immobilized cells is effective on 7,5% ethanol concentration, while fermentation using free cells is effective on 5% ethanol concentration

Pengurangan Asam Fitat Biji Kedele dengan Cara Pengupasan

Agritech Vol 10, No 2 (1990)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Attempts have been made to reduce phytic acid level in soybean by mechanical dehulling process. Dehulling was carried out mechanically by using abrassive roller at of 750 to 1450 rpm. for 10 to 30 seconds. Mechanical dehulling at 750 rpm for 25 seconds was able to reduce approximately 81 per cent of the original content of phytic acid This hulling procedur gave about 87 per cent recovery of the hulled soybean.