Hertanto Wahyu Subagio
Bagian Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Kedokteran UNDIP Semarang

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HUBUNGAN TINGKAT KECUKUPAN GIZI, ASUPAN TEMBAGA, SERAT DAN FITAT DENGAN KADAR SENG SERUM ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR BERTUBUH PENDEK DI KARANGAWEN DEMAK

JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA Vol 2, No 1 (2005): JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA

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Abstract

Background : Zinc deficiency cause of some inadequate function of the body such as slowed growth and recuce development children. Many factor affect the absorption and excretion zinc in the body that increase risk of zinc deficiency, likes infection disease, physical condition, dan diet factor. Nutrient and phytate in food influences zinc absorption. Objective. Purpose of this research is to know relation between nutrient and phytate with zinc serum level.Method . crosss sectional observasional design with cross sectional method. 1 13 Sampel for research are 1 " and 2 "d grade elementary school student at Karangawen, Demak who has stunted nutrition status (based on height-for-age < -2 to Z point WHO-NCHS score). Secondary data gained from food frequency semiquantified and result of zinc serumlevel from laboratorium assessment. Data analysis used Pearson Product Moment test. Resalt. From data analyze got significant correlation between adequacy rate of vitamin A, dietary fiber intake phytate intake and copper intake with zinc serum level (p < 0,05). Otherwise no significant correlation adequacy rate of protein, and adequancy rate of ironwith zinc serum level. (p > 0,05).Conclusion .Used the other different measurement zinc level method in order to minimize weakness and complete each other.Key words: Stunted Elementary School Student, Serum zinc level, Copper, phytate intake.

Pajanan Pestisida Sebagai Faktor Risiko Hipotiroidisme pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Pertanian

MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2012:MMI VOLUME 46 ISSUE 2 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for hypothyroidism in women at childbearing age in agricultural areasBackground: Hypothyroidism in women at childbearing age (WCA) will cause reproduction disorder, i.e. infertility, spontaneous abortion, impaired growth and development of foetus, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Pesticide exposure is suspected to cause hypothyroidism. The research objective is to prove that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for hypothyroidism among WCA in agricultural areas.Methods: Case-control studies were used as study designs. Study subjects were 44 WCA as cases and 45 WCA as controls. Pesticide exposure was measured by asking WCA’s involvement in agricultural activities using structured questionnaire and by checking their levels of cholinesterase. Hypothyroidism was determined based on the results of TSH, FT4, and T3 level. Confounding variables were also measured. These variables were age, body mass index (BMI), participation in hormonal contraception, liver function, urinaryiodine excretion, urinary thiocyanate level and blood lead level. Chi-square test, OR (95% CI), and multivariate logistic regression were implemented to test the hypothesis.Results: Pesticides exposure is a risk factor for hypothyroidism (crude-OR=3.04; 95% CI=1.20-7.81; nilai p=0.033 and adjusted OR=3.31, 95% CI=1.25 to 8.78, p=0.016). The higher the degree of exposure, the greater the risk of having hypothyroidism.Conclusion: Pesticides exposure is a risk factor for hypothyroidism among WCA in agricultural areas.Keywords: Pesticide exposure, risk factor, hypothyroidism, women at childbearing age, agricultural areaABSTRAKLatar belakang: Hipotiroidisme pada kelompok wanita usia subur (WUS) dapat menyebabkan gangguan reproduksi, seperti infertilitas, abortus spontan, gangguan tumbuh-kembang janin, dan kelahiran prematur. Pajanan pestisida dapat mengganggu fungsi tiroid. Tujuan penelitian adalah membuktikan bahwa pajanan pestisida merupakan faktor risiko hipotiroidisme pada WUS di daerah pertanian.Metode: Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah kasus-kontrol. Subyek penelitian adalah 44 WUS sebagai kasus dan 45 sebagai kontrol. Pajanan pestisida diukur menggunakan kuesioner dan pemeriksaan kadar kolinesterase. Kejadian hipotiroidisme diukur menggunakan parameter kadar TSH, FT4 dan T3. Variabel perancu yang diukur meliputi umur, indeks massa tubuh (IMT), penggunaan KB hormonal, fungsi hati, ekskresi yodium urin, kadar tiosianat urin, dan kadar Pb darah. Uji hipotesis yang digunakanadalah uji Chi-square, uji OR (95%CI), dan regresi logistik multivariat.Hasil: Pajanan pestisida merupakan faktor risiko hipotiroidisme pada WUS di daerah pertanian (crude-OR=3,04; 95%CI=1,20- 7,81; nilai p=0,033 dan adjusted OR=3,31; 95%CI=1,25-8,78; p=0,016). Semakin tinggi derajat pajanan pestisida, semakin besar risiko terjadinya hipotiroidisme.Simpulan: Pajanan pestisida merupakan faktor risiko kejadian hipotiroidisme pada WUS di daerah pertanian.

HUBUNGAN PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP, DAN MOTIVASI DENGAN KEPATUHAN KONSUMSI TABLET BESI FOLAT PADA IBU HAMIL

Journal of Nutrition College Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Journal of Nutrition College
Publisher : Nutrition Science Department

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Background: The benefit of giving free iron folic tablets to prevent iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is often inhibited by the compliance of iron folic tablets consumption in pregnant women. Compliance is a behavior that can be influenced by many factors, such as knowledge, attitude and motivation. The purpose of this study is to determine association between knowledge, attitude, and motivation with compliance of iron folic tablets consumption in pregnant women. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, with 56 pregnant women as sample which are selected by consecutive sampling in Halmahera health center, Semarang. Data of compliancy on iron folic tablets consumption was measured by tablet calculation. Data of knowledge, attitude and motivation are taken from interviews using questionnaire. Bivariate analysis performed by Rank Spearman test. Results: This study showed 41,1% of subjects complied iron folic tablet consumption. The average compliance of iron folic tablet consumption in 10 days is 62.86%. Majority of pregnant women have a good knowledge (50%), good attitude (51.8%) and good motivation (57.1%). This study showed association between knowledge (r = 0.370, p = 0.005), attitude (r = 0.343, p = 0.010), and motivation (r = 0.616, p = 0.000) with compliance of iron folic tablets consumption. Conclusion: Motivation is the most dominant factor. The higher the motivation given  the more compliance the pregnant women of taking iron folic tablets consumption.

KEPATUHAN KONSUMSI TABLET BESI FOLAT PADA IBU HAMIL DAN FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI

Journal of Nutrition College Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Journal of Nutrition College
Publisher : Nutrition Science Department

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Backgrounds : Anemia in pregnant women can effect maternal death, increased fetal morbidity and mortality. Iron supplementation programs should have a high success rate because the iron folate tablets are easily available and free of charge. But in reality. the compliance rate of iron folate tablets is still lowPurpose: analyze compliance rate of iron folate tablets in pregnant women at Puskesmas Halmahera and the factors influenced.Method: An analytic observational research with cross-sectional design. The subjects in this study is 56 pregnant women who went on Puskesmas Halmahera. Subject was taken by consecutive sampling technique with the criteria pregnant women trimester 2 and 3. Compliance data, knowledge, education, family support and health care obtained through interviews with a questionnaire. Normality of data was tested using Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Bivariate analyzes performed using Rank Spearman testResult: there is a association between knowledge scores with compliance (r = 0.370, p = 0.005), there is no significant association between education level and compliance (r = 0.032, p = 0.817 there is no significant association between family support and compliance (r = 0.216, p = 0.115) and there is no significant association between health service and compliance (r = 0.217, p = 0.108)Conclusion: more than a half of respondents (58,9%) did not comply consume iron folate tablets. Based on the data can be seen that the knowledge is the most influental factor.

Pengaruh suplementasi vitamin e (α-tokoferol) terhadap kadar gamma glutamil transferase (ggt) dan kadar nitric oxide (no) pada tikus (Studi pada tikus rattus novergicus strain wistar jantan terpapar inhalasi uap benzene)

JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 3, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA

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Latar Belakang : Paparan benzene dapat menyebabkan stres oksidatif, diantaranya ditandai dengan peningkatan kadar GGT dan kadar NO. Vitamin E dapat mengurangi dan mencegah produksi radikal bebas. Reaktivitas hidrogen fenolik pada kelompok hidroksil α-tokoferol akan menstabilkan elektron tidak berpasangan pada radikal bebas. Tujuan : Membuktikan pengaruh suplementasi vitamin E terhadap kadar GGT dan kadar NO pada tikus jantan terpapar uap benzene. Metode : Penelitian ini adalah penelitian eksperimen pada binatang coba dengan rancangan post test only controlled group design. Sampel 35 ekor tikus strain wistar jantan dibagi secara random dalam enam kelompok yaitu kontrol negatif, kontrol positif dan empat kelompok perlakuan suplementasi vitamin E dosis bertingkat (X1 = 1,8 IU;  X2 = 3,6 IU; X3 = 7,2 IU; dan X4 = 14,4 IU per hari untuk setiap 200 gram berat badan tikus). Setiap kelompok kecuali kontrol negatif dipapar 300 ppm uap benzene selama 2 minggu (6 hari/minggu, 6 jam/hari). Pengukuran kadar GGT menggunakan metoda Kinetik Colorimetric dan kadar NO menggunakan metoda Colorimetric Gries dilakukan pada setiap kelompok. Hasil : Suplementasi vitamin E berpengaruh menurunkan  kadar GGT (p=0,0001). Pengaruh paparan benzene terhadap peningkatan kadar GGT dapat dicegah dengan baik pada dosis suplementasi vitamin E 14,4 IU/200gr BB tikus/hari. Suplementasi vitamin E tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar NO. Simpulan : Ada pengaruh suplementasi vitamin E terhadap penurunan kadar GGT dan  tidak ada pengaruh suplementasi vitamin E terhadap penurunan kadar NO.

HUBUNGAN TINGKAT KECUKUPAN GIZI, ASUPAN TEMBAGA, SERAT DAN FITAT DENGAN KADAR SENG SERUM ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR BERTUBUH PENDEK DI KARANGAWEN DEMAK

JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA Volume 2. No. 1. Tahun 2005
Publisher : JURNAL KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA

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Abstract

Background : Zinc deficiency cause of some inadequate function of the body such as slowed growth and recuce development children. Many factor affect the absorption and excretion zinc in the body that increase risk of zinc deficiency, likes infection disease, physical condition, dan diet factor. Nutrient and phytate in food influences zinc absorption. Objective. Purpose of this research is to know relation between nutrient and phytate with zinc serum level.Method . crosss sectional observasional design with cross sectional method. 1 13 Sampel for research are 1 " and 2 "d grade elementary school student at Karangawen, Demak who has stunted nutrition status (based on height-for-age < -2 to Z point WHO-NCHS score). Secondary data gained from food frequency semiquantified and result of zinc serumlevel from laboratorium assessment. Data analysis used Pearson Product Moment test. Resalt. From data analyze got significant correlation between adequacy rate of vitamin A, dietary fiber intake phytate intake and copper intake with zinc serum level (p < 0,05). Otherwise no significant correlation adequacy rate of protein, and adequancy rate of ironwith zinc serum level. (p > 0,05).Conclusion .Used the other different measurement zinc level method in order to minimize weakness and complete each other.Key words: Stunted Elementary School Student, Serum zinc level, Copper, phytate intake.

Pengaruh Intervensi Diet dan Olah Raga Terhadap Indeks Massa Tubuh, Lemak Tubuh, dan Kesegaran Jasmani pada Anak Obes

Sari Pediatri Vol 12, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (BP-IDAI)

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Latar belakang. Obesitas telah berkembang menjadi epidemi baik di negara maju maupun negaraberkembang. Diduga bahwa intervensi diet dan olah raga dapat menurunkan risiko obesitas.Tujuan. Mengetahui pengaruh intervensi diet dan olah raga terhadap indeks massa tubuh, lemak tubuhdan kesegaran jasmani pada anak obesMetode. Uji intervensi one group pre and post test design pada anak SD usia 9–10 tahun di SD BernardusSemarang pada bulan Juni-September 2009. Intervensi diet berupa konseling pada anak dan orangtua.Intervensi olahraga tiga kali 45 menit per minggu selama 8 minggu. Pengambilan data pada awal danakhir penelitian berupa data antropometri dengan menggunakan timbangan Tanita BC 545 Inner ScanBody Composition dan tingkat kesegaran jasmani diukur menggunakan 20 meter shuttle run test, kemudiandilakukan analisis data dengan t-test berpasangan dan analisis multivariat.Hasil. Dua puluh subjek (17 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan) menyelesaikan penelitian. Didapatkan penurunanrerata indeks massa tubuh 0,6 kg/m2 (p=0,006) dan peningkatan rerata tingkat kesegaran jasmani sebesar1,66 ml/kg/menit (p=0,000), tetapi tidak didapatkan perbedaan secara bermakna terhadap lemak tubuh.Asupan diet harian berkurang 421,3 kkal/hari. Berdasarkan analisis multivariat, asupan makanan merupakanvariabel yang lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan dengan olahraga (rsquare=0,33, p=0,018).Kesimpulan. Intervensi diet dan olahraga selama 8 minggu menurunkan indeks massa tubuh, meningkatkantingkat kesegaran jasmani, tetapi tidak didapatkan pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap lemak tubuh. Asupandiet merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh.

Ketersediaan dan Pola Distribusi Garam Beriodium di Kabupaten Jepara

JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Vol 3, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Latar belakang : Konsumsi garam beriodium oleh masyarakat atau Universal Salt Iodization (USI) merupakan program utama penanggulangan GAKI di Indonesia. Ketersediaan dan distribusi garam beriodium sesuai SNI yang belum merata menjadi kendala tercapainya USI di beberapa wilayah Indonesia termasuk Jepara. Jepara merupakan salah satu daerah penghasil garam di Jawa Tengah. Sebagian besar garam dijual keluar daerah sedangkan seluruh kebutuhan garam beriodium disuplai dari luar daerah. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan, pola distribusi dan tingkat konsumsi garam beriodium di Kabupaten Jepara.Metode : Metode kualitatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Informan utama terdiri dari 5 orang anggota tim penanggulangan GAKI dan 11 orang pelaku garam. Informan triangulasi terdiri dari 30 orang ibu hamil di wilayah Pakis Aji. Pengumpulan data melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam, Focus Group Discusion dan telaah dokumen. Analisis data menggunakan content analysis.Hasil : Terdapat 76 merk garam beriodium yang beredar di Jepara, 75 %  mengandung iodium  < 30 ppm. Tingginya peredaran garam ini disebabkan oleh lemahnya law enforcement di Jepara. Pola distribusi yang berbeda mengakibatkan ketersediaan garam beriodium di setiap wilayah juga berbeda. Sebagian besar responden telah mengonsumsi garam beriodium. Persepsi responden gondok merupakan dampak utama GAKI. Garam beriodium tersedia di pasar atau warung dengan harga terjangkau, rasa dan kualitas garam menjadi kendala dalam mengonsumsi garam beriodium sesuai SNI setiap hari.Simpulan : Sebagian besar (75%) garam beriodium yang beredar mengandung iodium < 30 ppm. Terdapat 8-14 merk garam serta penjual garam krosok curah dan kemasan di setiap wilayah. Sebagian besar responden telah mengonsumsi garam beriodium.

Zinc supplementation improves heme biosynthesis in rats exposed to lead

Universa Medicina Vol 34, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

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BACKGROUNDLead acetate (Pb) inhibits heme biosynthesis through inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (δ-ALAD), copro porphyrinogenoxidase, and ferro chelatase. Zinc supplementation increases lead-bindingmetallothionein proteins. The purpose of this study was to find evidence that zinc supplementation prior to lead exposure improves heme biosynthesis in ratsMETHODSThis was a randomized post-test only control-group design study involving 28 rats assigned to 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). The treatment groups were supplemented with zinc at doses of 0.2, 0.4, and0.8 mg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. From week 4 to 13, all groups wereexposed to lead 0.5 g/kg BW/day by gavage. At the end of week 13, δ-ALAD, erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP), and heme concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. One-way ANOVA, followed byBonferroni’s test was used to analyse the data.RESULTSMean δ-ALAD concentrations decreased from the control group down totreatment group 3 (0.24 ± 0.20; 0.15 ± 0.15; 0.12 ± 0.11; 0.05 ± 0.06 ng/mean per unit). Mean EPP concentrations decreased from the control group down to treatment group 3 (1.96 ± 0.50; 1.24 ± 0.24; 1.03 ± 0.05; 0.62 ± 0.16 ng/mL). Mean heme concentrations increased from the controlgroup up to treatment group 3 (8.07 ± 2.64; 10.11 ± 2.27; 10.04 ± 1.65;11.41 ± 2.58 μM). ANOVA followed by Bonferroni showed that EPP concentrations differed significantly between the control group and treatment group 3 (p=0.00).CONCLUSIONZinc supplementation prior to lead exposure improves heme biosynthesis in rats exposed to lead.

Zinc supplementation decreases basophilic stippling in rats exposed to lead

Universa Medicina Vol 33, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

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BACKGROUND Lead acetate inhibits pyrimidine-5’-nucleotidase resulting in ribonucleic acid and ribosome accumulation in erythrocytes (RBC), visible as basophilic stippling (BS). Lead exposure disrupts RBC membrane, shortens the RBC life span and decreases hematocrit. Zinc supplementation increases lead-binding proteins (metallothioneins). The study objective was to determine whether zinc supplementation prior to lead exposure decreases BS and increases the hematocrit in rats. METHODS The study was a randomized post-test only control-group trial, using 28 rats allocated to one control and 3 intervention groups (Zinc I, Zinc II, Zinc III) receiving 0.2 mg, 0.4 mg, and 0.8 mg of zinc by oral gavage daily for 3 weeks. All groups were then exposed to lead at 0.5 g/kg BW/day by gavage for 10 weeks. On the last day of the 10 weeks BS was determined from Giemsastained blood smears and hematocrit by hematology analyzer. Between-group differences were tested with one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferroni’s test. RESULTS Mean BS was significantly decreasing 7.93 ± 0.99% in controls, 6.91 ± 1.04%, 4.66 ± 0.79%, and 1.73 ± 0.88%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000). Mean hematocrit was significantly increasing 26.16 ± 3.60% in controls, and 30.33 ± 6.12%, 36.83 ± 3.31%, and 40.00 ± 4.77%, respectively, in intervention groups (p=0.000). One-way Anova and Bonferroni’s test showed significant differences in BS and hematocrit between controls and intervention groups receiving zinc supplementation of 0.4 and 0.8 mg (p=0.000). CONCLUSION Zinc supplementation before lead exposure significantly decreases basophilic stippling and increases hematocrit level in rats exposed to lead