I Made Suastika
Udayana University

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GEGURITAN (MANUSCRIPT) OF I GEDE BASUR AND I KETUT BUNGKLING WRITTEN BY KI DALANG TANGSUB: INTERTEXTUAL AND RECEPTIONAL ANALYSIS Suardiana, I Wayan; Kutha Ratna, Nyoman; Cika, I Wayan; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal of Linguistics Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
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This study employs the texts of I Gede Basur and I Ketut Bungkling contained inthe text of Kidung Prembon (abbreviated into KP) as the data source to explain theintertextual relationship and receptive process of the texts of Geguritan I Gede Basur(abbreviated into GIGP) and Geguritan I Ketut Bungkling (abbreviated into GIKB)written by Ki Dalang Tangsub. The reason is that when this study was conducted theneither the text of GIGB nor GIKB written by the authoritative Ki Dalang Tangsub wasfound. Then the text of KP has multiple functions; on one side, as an existing text, it isassumed to contain the texts of GIGB and GIKB written by the authoritative Ki DalangTangsub, and on the other side, it is a receptive text of the texts of GIGB and GIKBwritten by Ki Dalang Tangsub.The theories of intertexts, reception and discourse were used as the means ofanalysis in this study. The theory of intertexts could reveal the historical process of thetexts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub and the creation process of thetext of KP. The theory of reception was basically used to explain the process of how thereaders gave responses to the texts of GIGB and GIKP written by Ki Dalang Tangsub.The process of how the readers gave responses was revealed by the text of KP (in clockstories) as well as the other individual texts.Intrinsically, the texts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub giveparticular colors to the texts of the responses given, as Pupuh/Tembang Ginada (strophe)is entirely adopted in the texts of responses given the readers making the particularcharacteristics of the hypogram texts compared to the following texts clear. Havingmagical and social critical themes, many hyperboles, similes and sarcasms are used in thetexts of GIGB and GIKB written by Ki Dalang Tangsub. The plots of the texts of GIGBand GIKB are made up of 28 big sequences and 29 small sequences with the maincharacters are I Gede Basur and I Ketut Bungkling (Mantri as one of the characters).
NEWLY-PACKAGED BALI TOURIST PERFORMING ARTS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Ruastiti, Ni Made; Parimartha, I Gde; Sedyawati, Edi; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
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This research is focused on the newly packaged tourist performing arts; they are anew concept and seem to be different from the general tourist performing arts. They arepackaged from various components of Balinese arts and managed as large scale-touristperforming arts in terms of materials, space, and time of their performances. The researchercalls them new types of Bali tourist performing arts because how they are presented isnew and different from the traditional tourist performing arts which are simply performed.In this research, the newly-packaged performing arts are analyzed in the perspective ofcultural studies.The research was carried out at three palaces in Bali; they are Mengwi Palace inBadung regency, Anyar Palace at Kerambitan, Tabanan regency, and Banyuning Palace atBongkasa, Badung regency. There are three main problems to be discussed: firstly, how dothe tourist performing arts emerge in all the palaces? Secondly, are they related to thetourist industry developed in the palaces?, thirdly, what is the impact and meaning of themfor the sake of the palaces, society, and Balinese culture? The researcher uses a qualitativemethod and an interdisciplinary approach as characteristics of cultural studies. The theoriesused are hegemony, deconstruction, and structuration.The result shows that the tourism development at all the palaces has made the localsociety become more critical. The money-oriented economy based on the spirit of gettingbenefit has made the emergence of comodification in all sectors of life. The emergence oftourist industry at the palaces has led to the idea of showing all of the useful art and culturalpotentials which at the palaces and their surroundings. Theoretically, the palaces can bestated to have deconstructed the concept of presenting the Bali tourist performing arts into anew one, that is, “the newly packaged Bali tourist performing arts”.It has been observed that all the palaces have developed t “Newly packaged Balitourist Performing Arts” but they are different in themes. At Mengwi Palace the theme is‘procession of religious rituals’, at Anyar Palace, Kerambitan, the theme is “ritualprocession of welcoming the kingdom’s guests” and at Banyuning Palace, Bongkasa, thetheme is “ritual procession of wedding”. The differences can be seen in the componentspresented in the performances.
ENCULTURATION AND GENDER IN WOVEN FABRICT INDUSTRY AT SUBDISTRICT OF SANGKARAGUNG, DISTRICT OF NEGARA, JEMBRANA Sukardja, Putu; Parimartha, I Gde; Ardika, I Wayan; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
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This research reveals the process of enculturation and gender in the woven fabricindustry at Sangkaragung, district of Negara, Jembrana. The weaving tradition andenculturation process give the women at Sangkaragung a hope to change their ideology ingender and socio cultural construction. This study aims at discussing the factors makingthe women at Sangkaragung do weaving activities, the process of weaving enculturationand the development of gender taking place there, and the impacts and meaning of theweaving enculturation on their socio-cultural life.In analyzing the problems above, the theory of post-structuralism, the theory ofpractice, and the theory of social change were used. To find out the relevant data, aqualitative method was applied in which the data were collected by deep interviews,observation, and documentation.The result shows that the factors making the women do such activities are: mythson women and weaving activities; globalization and socio-cultural changes, and fulfillmentof daily needs. The process of weaving enculturation done through cultural transmissionand socialization in weaving results in acculturation and enculturation which then give adeeper understanding to the society of the pattern and system related to the weavingactivities. The weaving enculturation also causes some forms of changes at Sangkaragungsuch as work division between men and women. The weaving enculturation and thedevelopment of gender have affected the ways in which decisions are made in someaspects of life such as in the context of traditional and religious rituals, the expenditures forprimary family needs, health care, and children’s education. Although the women areacknowledged and appreciated that they have economically contributed to their families,full emancipation has not been given to them due to patriarchal, social and cultural systemswhich are still attached to the society.
SPATIAL ALTERATION AT UBUD TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, GIANYAR, BALI IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: A CULTURAL STUDY Artha Ardhana Sukawati, Tjokorda Oka; -, Sulistyawati; Parimartha, I Gde; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
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In the era of globalization much spatial alteration has taken place at Ubud TraditionalVillage, Gianyar Regency, Bali as the consequence of fast development of tourism. The aspectswhich have changed, as the result of the shift from agricultural culture to tourism culture since1970, include the spatial relationship between man and God (parhyangan), the spatial relationshipbetween man and his environment (palemahan), and the spatial relationship between man and hisfellow being or the three things which cause physical and spiritual prosperity among human beings.This research in cultural studies was conducted to reveal the spatial alteration which hadtaken place at Ubud Traditional Market in the globalization era especially since 1970 as theconsequence of the fast development in tourism. The data were analyzed by applying qualitativeanalysis technique, eclecticism of the theory of change, the theory of space, the theory ofhegemony, and critical and practical theories. The research was conducted by employing qualitativemethod which features cultural studies.The results of the research show that the increase in population and in what is needed bytourism has led to the spatial alteration in parhyangan in the village and home levels. The spatialalteration in pawongan as a unity of membership (krama) does not take place and the spatialalternation in families does not either. This indicates that Ubud Traditional Village is getting morecomplex in facing modern and global condition with its commercial culture. Its tradition,agricultural culture and nature have contributed to the development of tourism. In regard topalemahan, catus patha has not been the only center of orientation any more. The settlement of thepopulation has followed the development of tourist facilities. Tourism has also altered the landusefulness causing zero-settlement based on groups of banjar (neighborhood under a traditionalvillage) to be irrelevant. In regard to the patterns of space occupied by families, the walls built toseparate one family from another have been demolished; the buildings (bale) have beenrehabilitated, teba (the unoccupied part of a compound where animals raised for sale are usuallykept and rubbish are usually gathered) has been exploited. The change in people’s behavior frombeing non commercial into commercial has blurred the layout and function of the buildings built inthe zones of madya (immediate level) and nista (lower level).
IMPLEMENTATION OF HINDU RELIGION EDUCATION AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Tanu, I Ketut; Suastika, I Made; Parimartha, I Gde; Subagia, I Wayan
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
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Religious education was firstly implemented based on the Act of Number 4 year1950, concerning education and teaching. In one of its articles, it is stated that Indonesia is areligion-based country. The govern ment has the right and is obliged to arrange religiouseducation starting from Kindergarten to University and the time allocated for this is 2 (two)hours per week. However, an imbalance has occurred as far as Hindu Religion education isconcerned, that is, the students at particular educational institutions are not provided withHindu Religion education as intended by the Act.In Article 30 of the Act of Number 20 year 2003 concerning national educationsystem, on the other hand, it is stated that: any religious education can be carried out by thegovernment and or a community’s group belonging to a particular religion in accordancewith the applicable regulations. It is also stated that religious education is functioned toprepare the students to be able to comprehend and apply their religious teaching values and orto be experts in religions. In addition, it is also stated that religious education can be formallyand informally conducted in the forms of diniyah, pesantren, pesraman, phabaja, smnera,and the like.How Hindu Religion educa tion is implemented at Elementary School Number 17Dauh Puri and Dwijendra Elementary School Depasar cannot be separated from theinfrastructure, facilities, curri culum and teachers available, and the government’s policy.Therefore, this study is focused on 1) the existence of the components needed forimplementing Hindu Religion education, 2) the factors influencing the implementation ofHindu religion education, and 3) the meaningfulness and attempts done to implement HinduReligion education if related to the inventory of Balinese culture.This study is conducted to explain, describe, criticize, and analyze theimplementation of Hindu Religion education at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri andDwijendra Elementary School Denpasar. The benefit that is intended to be achieved in thisstudy is to contribute to the inventory of Hinduism and to serve as something to be taken intoaccount when any decision related to Hindu Religion education is made.Researches on Hinduism have been conducted by some researchers. However, onlya few have been carried out related to Hindu Religion education. Further matters related toHindu Religion education provided at elementary school need to be done. The concepts madeavailable in this study are very essential. The reason is that such concepts serve as theguidelines in this study. The concepts employed are those related to the implementation ofeducation, general education, Hindu Religion education, Elementary School, and culturalstudies.The theories employed to answer the matters related to the implementation of HinduReligion education at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri and Dwijendra Elementary School Depasar are: 1) the Derida’s theory of deconstruction, 2) Gramsci’s theory ofHegemony, and 3) Piaget’s constructivistic theory. In addition, a research model is alsoemployed in this study. The reason is that it serves as the researcher’s thinking flow indescribing and reporting the research.The methods employed in this study include the research planning, the researchlocation, the types and sources of data, the informant determination, the researchinstruments, the data collecting technique, the data analysis, and how the results arepresented. The purpose is to obtain objective data concerning the implementation of HinduReligion education at elementary school. The objective research method is able to describetotally and objectively how Hindu Religion education is implemented at Elementary SchoolNumber 17 Dauh Puri and Dwijendara Elementary School Denpasar.The novelty in this study is that the learning infrastructure and facilities needed tocarry out Hindu Religion education both at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri andDwijendra Elementary School Depasar have not been in accordance with the minimumstandard of service , that the curriculum has not been totally oriented towards the schools’potentials and students, that the teachers have not been innovated in the learning process, andthat the government’s policy has not been made for multicultural education. In the process oflearning Hindu Religion, the schools have attempted to increase the quality of Hindu Religioneducation, to develop school-based management, and to apply multidisciplinary approach.
BARONG MEETING AT PUCAK PADANG DAWA TEMPLE BATURITI TABANAN REGENCY: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Dana, I Wayan; Dibia, I Wayan; Putra Agung, A.A. Gde; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
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This dissertation contains research findings on the Barong Meeting, a multidimentionalcultural event performed at Pucak Padang Dawa Temple, Baturiti Tabanan Regency. Such ameeting is attended by more than sixty various barongs and rangdas of various types comingfrom various areas in Central Bali, and is the biggest in Bali. The research on such a culturalphenomenon is intended to reveal holistically the existence of the Barong Meeting while theprocess of modernization is taking place in Bali nowadays.Such a cultural phenomenon was investigated based on the problems formulated inseveral research questions. (1) How is the Barong Meeting performed at Pucak Padang DawaTemple, Baturiti, Tabanan Regency?; (2) what ideology is referred to by the Barong Meeting atPucak Padang Dawa Temple, Baturiti, Tabanan Regency?; (3) What does the Barong Meetingmean viewed from the socio cultural system of the Balinese society?By applying qualitative method and regarding the Barong Meeting as a multilayerentity, this study is intended to understand and analyze the ideology and meaning contained inthe Barong Meeting, which is believed to have centralistic strength making the cultures fromvarious areas of Central Bali meet. The problems were solved by applying some relevanttheories such as the theory of power relationship, the theory of religions, the theory of esthetics,and the theory of semiotics.Five important findings of this study are; Firstly, the Barong Meeting at Pucak PadangDawa Temple is a cultural event with religious, social and theatrical dimensions. Secondly, theBarong Meeting is an old religious ritual viewed from what is stated in Purana of the LuhurPucak Padang Dawa Temple. Such a Barong Meeting is still carried out by the society membersat Bangli Village. Thirdly, the Barong Meeting is a cultural event covering the areas of CentralBali such as Tabanan Regency, Negara Regency, Badung Regency, Gianyar Regency and BangliRegency. Fourthly, the Barong Meeting is not an event which is habitually carried out but aritual ceremony which is dynamically repeated by absorbing innovations which still refer to thephilosophy and ethics of Hinduism, making it able to develop collective awareness respectingdiversity featuring the era’s life. Fifthly, the Barong Meeting is a religious event realizingconcrete, real and direct actions based on Hindusm. Such a ritual ceremony densely containingartistic values emphasizes the dynamic relationship and integratedness of performance of artsand art performance in the cultural activities performed in Bali Hindu.What can be concluded in this study shows that the Barong Meeting at Pucak PadangDawa Temple, Baturiti, Tabanan Regency, serves as an inviting and attending processioncovering the initial, the essence, and the end which is both centripetal and centrifugal. Theideology referred to is worshipping, power, and performance. The integration of these three basicideas present ritual ceremony dimension, social activity, and art performance, making the BarongMeeting a multidimensional event. The Barong Meeting contains multilayer senses such asmagic religious, socio unifier, politics of authority, economics and esthetics.
ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN BANYUMAS REGENCY: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Hudijono, Singkir; Sirtha, I Nyoman; Parimartha, I Gde; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 Januari 2010
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This study discusses about an Alternative Dispute Resolution in BanyumasRegency as a non-litigation dispute resolution. The problem observed was a breakthroughtaken by the Society in Banyumas Regency in overcoming the so far deadlock of lawenforcement and the attitude of not trusting the justice enforcement. It has been a publicsecret that the dispute resolutions employing the legal centralism paradigm have beendominated by the judicial network. This has caused the acknowledgement of the state lawto decrease, being a commodity that can be traded. The research aims at finding out anddescribing how the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) emerges as an alternativemechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism; interpreting and describing what ismeant by the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the development of progressive law.This research was conducted employing qualitative method. In this context, theresearcher explored various pieces of related information with the reason that the societyin Banyumas Regency has chosen the alternative dispute resolution mechanism as themechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism. The research was conducted asfollows: the problems were identified, the theories for analyzing the data were selected,the primary and secondary data were collected, the collected data were analyzed andinterpreted, and finally, the results of the research were written and constructed. Thetheories employed were critical legal studies, deconstruction, and large narration criticismtheories.The results of the research show that: firstly, the alternative dispute resolution hasemerged because of the awakened local knowledge, as the form of anticipation to theineffective formal law domination. With regard to the effect of global intercourse, thealternative dispute resolution has emerged because of the refusal against the culturalhomogeneity. Secondly, the implementation of the alternative dispute resolution hasbecome the preferred mechanism in deconstructing the law centralism because it can beimplemented effectively and efficiently, and ensures the win-win solution. Thirdly,denotatively, the alternative dispute solution reduces the confronting and antagonisticconceptions. Connotatively, the alternative dispute resolution is the legal culture ofBanyumas society. It has functioned as the legal dynamisator creating and implementinglaw.
THE HEGEMONY IMPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT AND THE RESISTANCE OF WETU TELU SASAKNESE ETHNIC GROUP AT BAYAN DISTRICT, NORTH LOMBOK REGENCY Wirata, I Wayan; Parimartha, I Gde; Suastika, I Made; Subagiasta, I Ketut
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 Januari 2010
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This research is entitled “The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok”.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1) how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2) what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3) what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci),the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida), and the theory of discourse (Foucault).The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the people of the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing atBayan District is that there has been imbalanced communication between the followersof Islam Waktu Lima (which collaborates with the government) and the Wetu TeluSasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District leading to a social conflict. The othereffects have been that such a social conflict has disturbed the social life of the community, has led to a paradox of cultural preservation, and has narrowed the power ofthe Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District. From the meaningpoint of view, what has taken place at Bayan District has philosophical and multiculturalmeaning as well as the meanings of struggle for identity, cultural preservation anddynamism.
IDENTITY REPRODUCTION AND IMAGE OF MAHAGOTRA PASEK SANAK SAPTA RSI TOWARD HINDU COMMUNITY IN MATARAM CITY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA Ardhi Wirawan, I Wayan; Ardika, I Wayan; Suastika, I Made; Mariyah, Emiliana
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 Januari 2010
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Identity reproduction and image which actualized by soroh (clan) of Pasekorganized in paguyuban (group) of Mahagotra Pasek Sanak Sapta Rsi (MPSSR)toward Hindu community in Mataram City, West Nusa Tenggara has closelyrelation with social religious movement which has the effort to restructurepermanent Hindu practices. This movement has the effort to represent theirancestor practice contemporarily in term of social religious space in whichmonolithic one it is accumulated to restructure the priest symbols. Thisphenomenon is indicated by the struggle in appointing pandita mpu as priestsymbol from MPSSR. Bhisama (spiritual message) deriving from their ancestorsoroh Pasek is based on operational basis of social religious movement actualizedby MPSSR which is explicitly narrated that the ancestor of soroh Pasek hasprevilese to be religious priests. Bhisama also says that the generation of sorohPasek can unite their family binding in term of indigenous relations. Thisphenomenon implies reunification among soroh Pasek for disposition torestructure permanent sidhikara system since the history of Hindu community inMataram city.This social religious of MPSSR is legitimated through the image for theeffort to establish positive image to be distributed toward Hindu community inMataram city. The image creation is conducted by applying investment strategy ofany capitals such a economy, culture, social and symbolic one in accordance withcapital concept proposed by Pierre Bourdieu to explain power relations. Identityreproduction and image of MPSSR toward Hindu community in Mataram citythough the appointment of pandita mpu and reunification of indigenous basiswhere it is closely related with the struggle in reaching symbolic power in Hindupractices.
DECONSTRUCTION OF THE SYMBOLIC MEANING OF THE KERATON SURAKARTA ARCHITECTURE S. Pitana, Titis; Semadi Astra, I Gde; Suastika, I Made; Yudha Triguna, I. B. Gde
E-Journal Of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 2 Juli 2010
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This dissertation is the result of a study entitled ”Deconstruction ofthe Symbolic Meaning of the Keraton Surakarta Architecture.” This studyis intended not to understand the Keraton Surakarta architecture as aphysical materialization of architectural planning and design. Rather, inthis study, the Keraton Surakarta is the material object of a study on thedeconstruction of the symbolic meaning which focuses on three mainproblems: (1) the cause of the deconstruction of the symbolic meaningtoward the Keraton Surakarta architecture; (2) the deconstruction processof the symbolic meaning; and (3) the implication of the deconstructiontoward the social-cultural life of the keraton people and Surakarta society.