Bambang Srijanto
Agency Assessment and Application of Technology, Jl. M. H. Thamrin No. 8 Jakarta

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Perilaku Disolusi Ketoprofen dan Indometasin Farnesil Tersalut Gel Kitosan-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, its fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This researchs purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drugs preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN DAN INDOMETASIN FARNESIL TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-GOM GUAR Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Srijanto, Bambang; arifin, budi; amelia, fithri; mubarok, mahdi
Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi Vol 12, No 1 (2010): JURNAL SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Jurnal Sciene dan Teknologi

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Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it’s fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research’s purposes were to study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid,38.1 mL of gg solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules and 0.05, 0.19, and 0.33% (w/v) for infar microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules, and 4, 4.5, and 5% (v/v) for infar microcapsules. All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. All mixtures wereshaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into each  microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added, whereas solution of 100 mg of in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added into each microcapsule mixture for infar. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Everymixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. The data of [gg], [glu], and medicine’s content from each microcapsule were treated with Minitab 14 software to obtain optimum [gg] and [glu] for microencapsulation. The dissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen and infar microcapsules were investigated. The result of optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions of [gg] and [glu] were 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and4.00% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic).
Perilaku Disolusi Ketoprofen dan Indometasin Farnesil Tersalut Gel Kitosan-GG Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Sjahriza, Achmad; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it's fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research's purposes were to determine rheological properties of chitosan-guar gum gel, to study diffusion and dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum gel membrane and microcapsule, respectively, and to test the coating stability of both medicines by the gel microcapsules, which are new drug's preparation, to determine their shelf lives and to predict the degradation mechanisms. This research was designed in six (6) steps: (1) chitin isolation and chitosan synthesis; (2) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel membrane; (3) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar diffusion behaviour through the optimum membrane; (4) synthesis and optimization of chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule to coat ketoprofen and infar; (5) in vitro study of ketoprofen and infar dissolution behaviour from the optimum microcapsule; and (6) physical and chemical microcapsule stability test using relative humidity (RH) and temperature controlled climatic chamber method. Studies on ketoprofen diffusion through chitosan-guar gum membrane showed that the formation of membrane small pores were appeared to be caused by membrane swelling, which was supported by the forcing force resulted from the difference of ketoprofen concentrations in the diffusion cells and from the temperature increase. This unique pore opening process is excellent for drug delivery process as a microcapsule. Spray drying process had successfully coated ketoprofen and infar in chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions studied, [gg] and [glu] of 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and 4.00% (v/v), respectively were optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic). From stability test, formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, ·with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1 and 18.92 months, respectively. The degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core. In the other hand, the formulation with composition of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.19% (w/v) gg, and 5.00% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best microcapsule, with infar percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 77.67%, 0.0008 %-2 week-1 , and 4.28 week or about 30 days, respectively. The degradation of infar was presumably caused by hydrolysis.   Keywords: Chitosan-guar gum, diffusion, dissolution, stability
PERILAKU DISOLUSI KETOPROFEN DAN INDOMETASIN FARNESIL TERSALUT GEL KITOSAN-GOM GUAR Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Srijanto, Bambang; arifin, budi; amelia, fithri; mubarok, mahdi
Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Chitosan, a modification of shrimp-shell waste, has been utilized as microcapsule. However, it’s fragile gel property needs to be strengthened by adding glutaraldehyde (glu) and natural hydrocolloid guar gum (gg). This research’s purposes were to study dissolution behaviour of ketoprofen and infar through optimum chitosan-guar gum microcapsule. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid,38.1 mL of gg solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules and 0.05, 0.19, and 0.33% (w/v) for infar microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62mL of glu was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules, and 4, 4.5, and 5% (v/v) for infar microcapsules. All mixtures were shaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. All mixtures wereshaked for 20 minutes for homogenization. Into each  microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added, whereas solution of 100 mg of in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added into each microcapsule mixture for infar. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Everymixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. The data of [gg], [glu], and medicine’s content from each microcapsule were treated with Minitab 14 software to obtain optimum [gg] and [glu] for microencapsulation. The dissolution behaviour of optimum ketoprofen and infar microcapsules were investigated. The result of optimization by using Minitab Release 14 software showed that among the microcapsule compositions of [gg] and [glu] were 0.35% (w/v) and 3.75% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat ketoprofen, whereas [gg] and [glu] of 0.05% (w/v) and4.00% (v/v), respectively, optimum to coat infar, at constant chitosan concentration (1.75% [w/v]). In vitro dissolution profile showed that chitosan-guar gum gel microcapsule was more resistant in intestinal pH condition (rather basic) compared with that in gastric pH (very acidic).
STABILITY OF KETOPROFEN COATED BY CHITOSAN-GUAR GUM GEL Sugita, Purwantiningsih; Srijanto, Bambang; Arifin, Budi; Setyowati, Ellin Vina
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 9, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (356.602 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21504

Abstract

The coating stability of ketoprofen by chitosan-guar gum gel has been studied. Into 228.6 mL of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan solution in 1% (v/v) acetic acid, 38.1 mL of guar gum (gg) solution was added with concentration variation of 0.35, 0.55, and 0.75% (w/v) for ketoprofen microcapsules, and stirred with magnetic stirrer until homogenous. Afterwards, 7.62 mL of glutaraldehyde (glu) was added slowly under stirring, with concentrations varied: 3, 3.5, and 4% (v/v). All mixtures were shaked for 20 min for homogenization. Into each microcapsule mixture for ketoprofen, a solution of 2 g of ketoprofen in 250 mL of 96% ethanol was added. Every mixture was then added with 5 mL of 2% Tween-80 and stirred with magnetic stirrer for an hour at room temperature. Conversion of suspension into fine powders/granules (microcapsules) was done by using spray dryer. Every microcapsule formula was packed into capsules, as much as 100 g per capsule. The capsules were contained in 100-mL dark bottles and the bottles were kept in climatic chamber at (40 ± 2) °C and RH (75 ± 5) % for 3 months. The microcapsule stabilities were tested chemically and physically. The result showed that formulation of ketoprofen preparation composed of 1.75% (w/v) chitosan, 0.35% (w/v) gg, and 3.50% (v/v) glu, was relatively the best, with ketoprofen percentage left in microcapsule after 3 months, degradation rate constant, and shelf life of 80.33%, 0.0351 % week-1, and 18.92 months, respectively. Reaction kinetic model for this formula followed Prout-Tompkins equation and the degradation of ketoprofen was seem to follow autocatalytic reaction mechanism controlled by the formation and growth of reaction core.   Keywords: Ketoprofen, chitosan-guar gum gel
Ekstraksi Kurkuminoid dari Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb.) secara Perkolasi dengan Pelarut Etanol Paryanto, Imam; Srijanto, Bambang
JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA Vol 4 No 2 (2006): JIFI
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

A study has been carried out to find out the effect of temperature, solvent flow rate and ethanol-water solvent composition on curcuminoid content in the extract produced from the extraction process (percolation) of Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb. Experiment was designed and analysed using complete random analysis with 3 factors and 2 duplications. Observed variables were: (1) varied extraction temperatures of 35°C, 45° C and 55° C; (2) varied solvent flow rates of 40 ml/minute, 60 ml/minute and 80 ml/minute; and (3) various solvent (ethanol 96%-water) compositions of 100:0,75:25 and 50:50, respectively. The measurement of curcuminoid content in the extract was done using spectrophotometer UV-visible light with wavelength setting of 420 nm. The results of analysis statistically explained that temperature and solvent flowrate did not affect significantly on curcuminoid content in the extract, but ethanol-water (solvent) composition did significantly influence on extracted curcuminoid content each shown in F table 0.01. Therefore, the optimum result of the study showed that the higher the ethanol concentration in the solvent was, the higher the curcuminoid content in the extract became. The highest curcuminoid content of 10.7% in extract was resulted at temperature of 35° C, solvent flow rate of 40 ml/minute and ethanol: water (solvent) composition of 100:0.