cover
1.339
P-Index
Yati Soenarto
Departments of Pediatric, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Department of Pediatric, Dr.Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta
Articles
8
Documents
SEMBILAN LANGKAH PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN TENTANG PERAWATAN DAN PENCEGAHAN DIARE

PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL 2014: PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL KEPERAWATAN
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

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Abstract

Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan utama pada anak dan penyebab kematian kedua di dunia setelah pneumonia. Kejadian diare akut pada anak di rumah sakit di Wonosobo tahun 2013 menduduki urutan pertama dari keseluruhan penyakit anak. Salah satu faktor risiko terjadinya diare dan meningkatnya risiko anak untuk dirawat adalah kurang pengetahuan. Keterlibatan ibu dalam perawatan anak diare sangatlah penting, sehingga diperlukan pendidikan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian mengidentifikasi pengaruh pendidikan kesehatan dengan 9 (sembilan) langkah terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap ibu dalam merawat pasien balita diare. Penelitian quasi experimental design dengan rancangan nonrandomized control group pre test post test. Responden berjumlahh 33 ibu dari balita penderita diare di dua rumah sakit di Wonosobo pada masingmasing kelompok (kelompok intervensi dan kontrol). Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner. Pendidikan kesehatan menggunakan 9 langkah dari Gagne dengan media booklet dan video dari MTBS. Analisis data menggunakan Paired T test, T test independent. Hasil penelitian, karakteristik responden meliputi usia, pendidikan, pendapatan, pengalaman dan pernah mendapat informasi dari kedua kelompok adalah homogen. Hasil post test antara kelompok intervensi dan kontrol terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (α=0,05) pada rata-rata nilai pengetahuan (p=0,007) dan sikap (p=0,047). Rata-rata peningkatan nilai pengetahuan dan sikap antara kelompok intervensi dan kontrol menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna (p=0,000). Pendidikan kesehatan dengan 9langkah, berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan pengetahuan dan sikap ibu dalam merawat pasien diare.Rekomendasi, Pendidikan kesehatan 9 langkah sebaiknya digunakan dalam memberikan pendidikan kesehatan di tempat pelayanan kesehatan agar terjadi peningkatan pengetahuan dan sikap.Kata Kunci : diare, pendidikan kesehatan, perawatan diare balita.

NEED ASSESSMENT PERENCANAAN PULANG ANAK DIARE

PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL 2014: PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL KEPERAWATAN
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

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Abstract

Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat lazim terjadi pada anak dan menjadi penyebab utama angka kematian anak baik di dunia maupun di Indonesia. Kegiatan perencanaan pulang harus menjadi salah satu intervensi pada perawatan anak diare di rumah sakit karena denganpemberian perencanaan pulang, dapat mengurangi dampak dari suatu keadaan kesehatan, meningkatkan kepuasan sekaligus mencegah rehospitalisasi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengeksplorasi kebutuhan pasien dan keluarga untuk perencanaan pulang anak diare ditinjau dariperspektif orang tua, dokter, perawat, dan ahli gizi di rumah sakit. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan exploratif single case study dengan holistic unit analysis. Penentuan responden dengan purposive sampling. Responden berjumlah 14 orang yang terdiri atas 6 orang tua, 2 dokter spesialis anak, 5 perawat dan 1 ahli gizi. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara mendalam dan diskusi kelompok terarah. Analisis data dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif terhadap kasus. Hasil: Kebutuhan yang teridentifikasi dalam penelitian ini terdiri atas tiga kategori utama yaitu kebutuhan terhadap informasi yang meliputi informasi tentang penyakit diare dan perawatannya, kebutuhan pelayanan oleh dokter, perawat dan ahli gizi serta kebutuhan metode pemberian perencanaan pulang yang meliputi waktu, tempat, metode dan media.Kata kunci: anak, diare, need assessment, perencanaan pulang

Genotyping of Rotavirus by Using RT-PCR Methods

Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 18, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

There is a great diversity of rotavirus genotypes circulating worldwide, with dominant genotypes changing from year to year. Rotavirus genotyping was performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specifi c-primers. Since rotavirus is a RNA virus that has high mutation rate, there was a possibility of technical diffi culty in genotyping due to mutation in the primer binding sites. During Indonesian rotavirus surveillance study 2006-2009, it was reported that 17% of samples subjected for G type and 21% of samplessubjected for P type were untypeable. The objective of this study was to identify genotypes of the samples that were untypeable previously using RT-PCR based on the method described by Das et al. (1994) and Gentsch et al. (1992). There were 30 samples subjected to G type and 61 samples subjected to P type to be re-typed using method described by Gouvea et al. (1990) and Simmond et al. (2008) for G and P typing, respectively. By using another set of primer, the genotype of all samples was identifi ed. This study highlights the importance of a constant reconsideration of primer sequences employed for the molecular typing of rotaviruses.Key words: rotavirus, G typing, P typing

Diare Rotavirus pada Anak Usia Balita

Sari Pediatri Vol 13, No 5 (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (BP-IDAI)

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Abstract

Latar belakang. Rotavirus merupakan penyebab tersering diare akut berat pada anak balita. Peningkatan yang pesat di bidang teknologi diagnostik memungkinkan dilakukan identifikasi genotipe rotavirus penyebab diare. Belum banyak penelitian di Indonesia yang melaporkan hubungan antara genotipe rotavirus dengan manifestasi klinisnya. Tujuan. Mengetahui hubungan antara genotipe rotavirus dengan gambaran klinis.Metode. Penelitian potong lintang dengan subyek pasien diare akut yang berobat di Poliklinik Anak atau dirawat inap di RS DR Sardjito. Subyek yang bersedia berpartisipasi dalam penelitian diambil data klinis dan sampel tinja untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan rotavirus dengan enzyme immunoassaydan deteksi genotipe dengan pemeriksaan RT-PCR (Gentsch, 1992). Dilakukan penilaian derajat keparahan diare menggunakan 20-point severity scoring systemyang dimodifikasiHasil.Selama Januari 2006 - Maret 2007 didapatkan 353 kasus diare akut, 116 (32,68%) di antaranya positif terinfeksi rotavirus. Prevalensi tertinggi dijumpai pada kelompok usia 6-23 bulan (65,5%). Diare rotavirus menunjukkan gejala klinis yang lebih berat (severity score>11) dibanding diare karena penyebab lain (RR=1,27, IK 95% 1,08-1,49). Jenis genotipe rotavirus yang paling banyak ditemukan adalah G1 (27,5%) diikuti dengan G9 (18%), G2 (17%), G4 (3%), G3 (2%). Kombinasi G-P terbanyak adalah G1 P[6] (20%). Tipe untypeable(28.6%) dan G 1 (28.6%) paling sering memberikan gejala klinis berat (severity scoring >11) diikuti dengan G 9 (23.8%). Kesimpulan. Pasien diare rotavirus yang untypeable dan G 1 lebih sering mengalami dehidrasi dan muntah serta memberikan gambaran klinis yang lebih berat. Sangat penting mendeteksi lebih jauh jenis genotipe dari untypeableuntuk kepentingan pembuatan vaksin rotavirus yang mampu melindungi terhadap berbagai macam galur rotavirus.

Penyebaran Spesialis Anak di Indonesia Tahun 2004: Implikasinya Terhadap Kebijakan Kesehatan dan Pendidikan

Sari Pediatri Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (BP-IDAI)

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Abstract

Komposisi penyebaran tenaga dokter spesialis anak (SpA) di tingkat propinsi di Indonesiamasih belum merata. Distribusi penyebaran tenaga spesialis ini hampir 70% berpusat diJawa dan Bali, bahkan tercatat di beberapa propinsi lain yang tidak memiliki satupuntenaga SpA. Tulisan ini menyajikan distribusi penyebaran SpA di setiap di propinsi diIndonesia dan proporsi pertumbuhan SpA berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Dalam tulisan inijuga didiskusikan beberapa implikasi terhadap kebijakan yang mungkin dapat dijadikanpertimbangan dalam pengembangan model distribusi tenaga SpA.

Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52, No 1 (2012): January 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea anddehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of diseasein Indonesia is limited.Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirusinfection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in MohammadHoesin Hospital, Palembang.Methods In January- December 2006, a prospective, hospitalbasedsurveillance was carried out in children aged less thanfive years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples wereexamined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA).G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed tobe positive by EIA.Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children weretested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of thespecimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%). Incidence ofrotavirusdiarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%).Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present withdehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94%vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03).Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen foundin children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% ofpediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This findingwarrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease,such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr lndones.2012;52:22-7].

Antidiarrheal characteristics of tempe produced traditionally and industrially in children aged 6-24 months with acute diarrhea

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 41, No 2 (2001): March 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

A randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate tempe-based formulated foods fortreatment of young Indonesian children suffering from acute diarrhea. A total of 214 cases aged between 6 and 24 monthsvisiting two teaching hospitals, i.e., Sardjito hospital (n=102) in Yogyakarta and Karyadi hospital (n=112) in Semarang. Twocases from one hospital were dropped because they moved to other towns. In addition to their hospital food given duringhospitalization and daily food at home, 72 cases were given tempe-based formulated foods with tempe produced traditionally(group TT), 72 were given tempe produced industrially (group IT), whereas a control group of 68 received soybean powderformulated foods (group IS). Formula feedings were started immediately following WHO (world health organization) standardoral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued at the patients homes for up to 90 consecutive days, including feedings duringhospitalization. Follow-up observations at patients homes were conducted twice weekly. The initial clinical characteristics ofthe cases in each group were similar. Using analysis of variance there was a non significant trend towards a shorter durationof diarrhea in the groups using tempe based formula (p=0.079). Using the t-test, the duration of diarrhea appeared to besignificantly shorter only for the group using formula with traditional tempe compared with the group using soy formula(p=0.035). The total amount of feeding formula and the total amount of calories consumed at the hospital and at home wassimilar for all three groups, although the group receiving the control formula consumed a somewhat higher amount of breastmilk (p=0.045) and a lower amount of solid food at home. Weight for age was below normal at the start of the study or afterrehydration (Z-score between -1.0 and -1.4) and approached the normal value at the end of the study for all three groups (Zscorebetween -0.51 and -0.27). The increase in Z-score was highest in the groups receiving tempe based formula (+1.0 inthe TT group and +0.9 in the IT group) and lowest in the IS group (+0.7). This implies that a tempe based formula can diminishthe duration of acute diarrhea and improve weight gain following an episode of acute diarrhea.

Risk of nutritional status on diarrhea among under five children

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 55, No 4 (2015): July 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background Diarrhea is still the leading cause of children’s mortality worldwide and the main cause of malnutrition. Meanwhile, malnourished children are proven to have more severe, prolonged, and frequent episodes of diarrhea, making them a vicious circle.Objective To investigate the risk of nutritional status on diarrheal severity and duration as well as length of hospital stay.Methods We conducted a cross sectional study involving 176 under five children who admitted to Mataram Province Hospital with acute diarrhea since January until December 2013. We analyzed data using logistic regression model.Results Most subjects were infants (median 12 months, range 1-53), male (56.8%), well-nourished (85.8%), admitted with acute watery diarrhea (97.2%), mild-to-moderate dehydration (71.6%), diarrhea severity score ≥11 (74.4%), duration of diarrhea ≤7 days (96.6%), and length of stay <5 days (73.3%). Logistic regression model indicated significant risk of nutritional status on length of hospital stay (adjusted OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 6.38), but neither diarrheal severity (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.38 to 2.80) nor duration of diarrhea (adjusted OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.13 to 10.89) indicated significant risks. However, malnourished children had more severe (76% versus 74.2%) and longer duration (4% versus 3.3%) of diarrhea than well-nourished children.Conclusion Nutritional status is the risk for length of hospital stay in under-five children admitted with acute diarrhea. [