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Pembentukan Identitas Etnik di Arena Ekonomi Politik Lokal Sjaf, Sofyan; M. Kolopaking, Lala
Jurnal Sodality Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Departemen SKPM FEMA IPB

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Abstract

Pembentukan identitas etnik di arena ekonomi politik lokal penting untuk dikaji dalam rangka memahami pluralisme di Indonesia. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk mempelajari pembentukan identitas etnik di arena ekonomi politik lokal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan paradigma non-positivistik perspektif struktural-konstruktivisme. Unit analisis dalam penelitian ini adalah masyarakat yang tinggal di Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam, wawancara tertruktur dan Focus Grup Discussion (FGD) yang dilakukan aktor dari latar belakang berbagai etnis (Tolaki, Muna, Buton, dan Bugis) dan berbagai profesi (politisi, birokrasi, akademisi, and aktivis LSM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan identitas etnik di arena politik lokal dipengaruhi oleh sejarah kelompok etnis (posisi) dan pengalaman aktor (disposisi). Dari keduanya, bentuk garis yang berkelanjutan membentuk suatu interaksi (kesenangan) yang dinamakan pembentukan identitas etnik. Struktur ini mengacu pada dua bentuk: (1) bentuk identitas etnik dengan skala besar dan (2) pembentukan batas identitas etnik. Kedua struktur tersebut merupakan penentu arena ekonomi politik lokal. Psinsip hirarki ganda (prinsip hirarki heteronomus dan autonomus) memberikan kontribusi pada pembentukan identitas etnik yang disebabkan oleh mobilisasi [identitas], positif atau negatif.Kata Kunci: struktur pembentukan identitas etnis, politik identitas, ekonomi politik lokal.
Pembentukan Identitas Etnik di Arena Ekonomi Politik Lokal Sjaf, Sofyan; M. Kolopaking, Lala
SODALITY: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : SODALITY: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan

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Abstract

Pembentukan identitas etnik di arena ekonomi politik lokal penting untuk dikaji dalam rangka memahami pluralisme di Indonesia. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah untuk mempelajari pembentukan identitas etnik di arena ekonomi politik lokal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodologi kualitatif dengan paradigma non-positivistik perspektif struktural-konstruktivisme. Unit analisis dalam penelitian ini adalah masyarakat yang tinggal di Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam, wawancara tertruktur dan Focus Grup Discussion (FGD) yang dilakukan aktor dari latar belakang berbagai etnis (Tolaki, Muna, Buton, dan Bugis) dan berbagai profesi (politisi, birokrasi, akademisi, and aktivis LSM). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan identitas etnik di arena politik lokal dipengaruhi oleh sejarah kelompok etnis (posisi) dan pengalaman aktor (disposisi). Dari keduanya, bentuk garis yang berkelanjutan membentuk suatu interaksi (kesenangan) yang dinamakan pembentukan identitas etnik. Struktur ini mengacu pada dua bentuk: (1) bentuk identitas etnik dengan skala besar dan (2) pembentukan batas identitas etnik. Kedua struktur tersebut merupakan penentu arena ekonomi politik lokal. Psinsip hirarki ganda (prinsip hirarki heteronomus dan autonomus) memberikan kontribusi pada pembentukan identitas etnik yang disebabkan oleh mobilisasi [identitas], positif atau negatif.Kata Kunci: struktur pembentukan identitas etnis, politik identitas, ekonomi politik lokal.
Class, Income, and Class Consciousness of Labor Fishers Kinseng, Rilus A; Sjaf, Sofyan; Sihaloho, Martua
Journal of Rural Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Departement of Communication and Community Development

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Abstract

There have been debates on the role of class in “influencing” income inequality in contemporary societies.  Some argue that class position is no longer relevant in determing one’s income, while others argue that class still counts.  Therefore, it is very interesting to investigate relations between class structure and income among fishers in Indonesia. Furthermore, Marxian argued that class position will determine class consciousness. Therefore, it is interesting to study the class consciousness of labor fishers in Indonesia. Analyzing relations between class structure and income as well as class consciousness of labor fishers in Indonesia is especially very interesting and important since fishers have a very typical patront-client relationships. Moreover, study of this subject in Indonesia is still limited. This study has three main objectives: first to investigate the class structure of fishers and how this structure has been formed, second to analyse the income of fishers in different class locations, and third to analyze class consciousness of labor fishers. This study uses combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was conducted in Indramayu, West Java in 2013. Our analysis shows that the class structure of fishers consists of four main classes, namely large-scale, medium-scale, small-scale, and labor classes. These classes have been formed through complex and long processes, including the so-called “modernization” programmes promoted by the government.  In term of income, the study shows that there are significant differences of income among fishers in different class locations. The Gini Ratio is very high, that is 0.88. Thus, class structure does influence fishers’ income significantly. Furthermore, this study finds that class consciousness of labor fishers has not fully developed yet. Labor class is a class in itself, but not class for itself. © 2014 Journal of Rural Indonesia [JoRI] IPB. All rights reserved.Keywords: fishers, class structure, income, class consciousnessReceived: 14th October 2014; Accepted: 15th November 2014[How to Cite: Kinseng, R., Sjaf, S., & Sihaloho, M. (2014). Class, Income, and Class Consciousness of Labor Fishers. Journal Of Rural Indonesia, 2(1), 93-104. Retrieved from http://ejournal.skpm.ipb.ac.id/index.php/ruralindonesia/article/view/296]
SISTEM MONITORING DAN TEKNIK PERAMALAN HARGA DAGING SAPI DI INDONESIA Pamungkas, Wahyu w; Sjaf, Sofyan
Seminar Nasional Informatika (SEMNASIF) Vol 1, No 4 (2012): Information System and Application
Publisher : Jurusan Teknik Informatika

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Abstract

Pemanfaatan teknologi telah terbukti sangat membantu kehidupan bermasyarakat dalam suatu negara. Sistem monitoring harga daging sapi seperti yang diterapkan di dalam Sistem Informasi Pasar, Kementerian Perdagangan Republik Indonesia merupakan salah satu contohnya. Langkah demikian dilakukan mengingat peran dan nilai strategis daging sapi di Indonesia. Seperti diketahui bahwa daging sapi merupakan sumber protein bagi sebagian besar masyarakat Indonesia. Tujuan pusat monitoring harga ini adalah untuk menyediakan informasi mengenai harga daging sapi di seluruh wilayah Indonesia, memantau perkembangannya secara harian. Dengan demikian, sistem informasi ini berfungsi untuk memberikan notifikasi dini jika diprediksi akan terjadi gejolak perubahan harga, serta memantau disparitas harga di provinsi-provinsi di seluruh Indonesia, sehinggaPemerintah Indonesia, dalam hal ini yaitu Kementerian Perdagangan Republik Indonesia dapat secara dini mengambil langkah-langkah strategi yang sesuai untuk mengatasi gejolak tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada tahun 2010. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dari pasar-pasar rujukan di setiap kota atau kabupaten di wilayah Indonesia, sedangkan analisis harga dilakukan dengan identifikasi faktor-faktor penentu harga komoditas. Rekomendasi akhir diusulkan sebagai langkah mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang harus dicek di lapangan jika terjadi kenaikan harga daging sapi.
Canalization of Ethnic Politics in Makassar Sjaf, Sofyan
Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan Vol 5, No 2 (2017): Sodality
Publisher : Departement of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22500/sodality.v5i2.17968

Abstract

ABSTRACTLiberal democracy in the multicultural society provides practical consequences for the existence of ethnic political practices in local politic arena. This research aimedto found the canalization of ethnic politic in Makassar by using qualitative research method and actor-structural perspective, it emphasize on subjectivism, objectivism, and historical perspective.The units of analysis in this study were various actors who come from different ethnic backgrounds (Bugis, Makassar, Toraja, Mandar, and Chinese descent) in the city of Makassar, South Sulawesi. Data was collected by researchers through in-depth interviews, structured interviews, and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with people from different backgrounds such as politicians, bureaucracy, academia, and NGO activists.Although the ethnic groups in Makassar have always shared the common value system, inter-ethnic relations are determined by three factors; the history of ethnicity, ethnic demographic structure, and dynamics of local politics based on ethnic. The three factors have various implications to the control of political and economic structure in the realm of ethnic politic. Thus, the result performed that is the pattern of political dynasty becomes an inevitable necessity.Keywords: Canalization, ethnic politic, Makassar, desentralizationABSTRAKPilihan demokrasi liberatif dalam masyarakat multikulturalisme memberikan konsekuensi hadirnya praktik-praktik politik etnik dalam arena politik lokal. Penelitian yang bertujuan menemukan pola kanalisasi politik etnik di Makassar ini menggunakan metode kualitatif berperspektif aktor-struktur dengan sifat penelitian subyektivisme, obyektivisme, dan historis. Unit analisis penelitian adalah aktor yang berasal dari latar belakang etnik berbeda (Bugis, Makassar, Toraja, Mandar, dan Cina) yang berdomisili di Makassar. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara mendalam, wawancara terstruktur, dan Focus Group Discussion (FGD) beragam profesi (politisi, birokrasi, akademisi, dan aktivis NGO). Terjadi pembauran kelompok etnik di Makassar dan siri? sebagai nilai-nilai bersama yang diakui etnik Bugis maupun Makassar, namun relasi antar etnisitas di arena politik lokal ditentukan tiga faktor, yaitu sejarah etnisitas, struktur demografi etnik, dan dinamika politik lokal berbasis etnik. Selanjutnya ketiga faktor tersebut, berimplikasi terhadap penguasaan struktur politik dan ekonomi dalam kerangka politik etnik. Alhasil, pola kedinastian di arena politik lokal menjadi keniscayaan yang tidakterhindarkan.Kata kunci: Kanalisasi, politik etnik, Makassar, desentralisasi
Agricultural Innovation Action Strategy Based on Community Development Sujimin, Sujimin; Kolopaking, Lala M; Sjaf, Sofyan
Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan Vol 7, No 1 (2019): Sodality
Publisher : Departement of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22500/sodality.v7i1.24441

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The development of agriculture innovation tends to be oriented towards the increasing of the farm productivity rather than the equitable distribution living standard for farmer. Thus, the innovations have not only caused the social inequality in villages, but also the inequality of the relationship between rural and urban area. This study emphasizes two objectives, namely to conduct a critical evaluation of an organization that has created many agricultural innovations and to formulates new strategies from the organization to reduce social inequality. The data were gathered using some approaches: literatures study, structured quetionaires interviews, field survey, observation, and focus group discussion. The data collecting was started by reviewing literatures data and continued by interviews to 60 respondents using structured evaluation quetionnaires. The respondents were selected by accident sampling technic. Field survey conducted in the head office of organization, Yayasan Mutiara Keraton Solo (YMKS), Sukamantri Village (Tamansari Sub-District, Bogor Regency) and Sambirejo Village (Plupuh Sub-District, Sragen Regency) started from March to June 2018. In depth interviews were orginised in focus group discussion to 16 informans. The focus group discussion was conducted to construct the strategies of the organizational action in the future. The result of the study indicate that the performance of YMKS, established in 1994, is in a good criteria. However, the YMKS has a business vulnerability that is not continuous if the organization does not find a new strategy to maintan its existence. The organization has come characteristics such as innovative agricultural institution with involving society, social business organization for increasing farm productivity, and institution for citizen development. This study concludes that there are 5 (five) strategies and 4 (four) action programs that should be developed by the YMKS containing basic social values related to the importance of the increasing quantity and quality of human resources carried out together to create the farmer regeneration as youth agricultural innovators. In addition, the strategy and action also include the development of ideas so that actions are carried out on the basis of strengthening for the collaborative network in the ?Working Together? shceme to establish Business-Community as a driving factor for community development acitivities. The thesis, however, highlight that this action is a new way of agricultural innovation encouring efforts to overcome social inequality.
Value System and Resilience in the Management of Rawa Lebak Rezeky, Shinta Mutiara; Pandjaitan, Nurmala K; Sjaf, Sofyan
Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan Vol 6, No 3 (2018): Sodality
Publisher : Departement of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22500/sodality.v6i3.22482

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Rawa lebak is the main source of livelihood for the people living around it. Climate change makes it difficult for community to predict the arrival of the rainy season. The community is vulnerable to crop failure. In addition, the existence of regional regulations governing the management of rawa lebak in the flood season increasingly pressured the community. Communities also become vulnerable to food insecurity The purpose of this study is to identify the social values, economic values, and political values of rawa lebak, and to see the resilience of the community to the food insecurity conditions in the rawa lebak area. This research uses qualitative method. Qualitative data is obtained in three ways, observations, indepth interview, and documentations on an ongoing basis. The result of this research is rawa lebak has the social values through various rituals conducted by the community before rice planting season. The economic values of rawa lebak is its function as the  main source of  livelihood for the community. The political values of rawa lebak is the ownership system of rawa lebak. The community in Tapus Village is still at the level of resilience as stability because it has not been able to perform an optimum adaptive capacity. In addition, the domination of the political value of the rawa lebak makes people less able to make optimum use of the economic value of the swamp swamp. This makes community  more sensitive and vulnerable to food insecure.
The Local Institutional Effectiveness in the Democratic’s Practice at the Desa Kelangdepok, Pemalang, Central Java Nur Ariyati, Sofi; Sjaf, Sofyan
Sodality: Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan Vol 2, No 3 (2014): Sodality
Publisher : Departement of Communication and Community Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22500/sodality.v2i3.9426

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Efektivitas kelembagaan desa dalam praktik pemilihan kepala daerah dipengaruhi oleh empat faktor, yaitu faktor kelembagaan, faktor anggota kelembagaan, faktor sarana/fasilitas pendukung, dan faktor sosialmasyarakat. Pada efektivitas kelembagaan, faktor mana yang lebih berpengaruh pada tingkat efektivitas. Kemudian, pada masing-masing tingkatan dan keseluruhan praktik pemilihan kepala daerah, akan terlihat faktor yang paling dominan. Akan terlihat bahwa keanggotaan kelembagaan adalah faktor yang paling efektif diantara anggota formal dan informal. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif data. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa faktor anggota kelembagaan mempunyai pengaruh paling signifikan terhadap tingkat efektivitas. Pada tahap persiapan, faktor yang memiliiki pengaruh paling signifikan adalah faktor sarana/fasilitas pendukung. Sementara itu, pada tahap penerapan. Keempat faktor tersebut tidak berpengaruh signifikan. Untuk keseluruhan praktik, faktor sarana/fasilitas pendukung merupakan faktor yang paling berpengaruh sama seperti pada tahap persiapan. Kinerja anggota yang lebih efektif pada keseluruhan praktik adalah anggota formal. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, anggota informal diperkirakan menjadi lebih dilibatkan lagi dan anggota formal kinerjanya lebih ditingkatkan.  Kata kunci : demokrasi, desa, kelembagaan
Conflicts of Utilization and Sustainable Production Forest Management in Forest Management Unit of Meranti in South Sumatera Napitu, Ja Posman; Hidayat, Aceng; Basuni, Sambas; Sjaf, Sofyan
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol 23, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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Abstract

Utilization conflicts among users threatening the sustainability of forest management. This study is to determine the intensity of conflict and the sustainability of forest management in FMU Meranti by integrating the convergent parallel mixed method and Rapid Land Tenure Assessment. Data was collected through interviews with key informants, literatures, maps, documents, and histories studies; as well as focus groups discussions in eight villages around the FMU Meranti. The results showed that the people's bundle of right, the interaction and social capital, dispute against the coorporation's financial modal. Generally, the interaction and social capital elements are owned by the local community, while the financial modal is owned by the permit holder and the local elite. Based on the power analysis on each object, the power of both community and permit holders are equally strong. The conflict intensity is subdivided into three conflict categories, i.e.: open (31%), appear (44%), and latent conflicts (25%). The special area (wilayah tertentu) and open access area are highly prioritized, that need conflict resolution. The existence of the environmental damages, unclear ownership rights, lack of stakeholder supporting, and non-optimal institutional performance lead the sustainable forest management to bad category (40.6%).
Analisis Respon Masyarakat terhadap Pengelolaan Dana Desa untuk Pembangunan Pedesaan Arifiani, Tisha Alya; Sjaf, Sofyan
Jurnal Sains Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat [JSKPM] Vol 2, No 3 (2018)
Publisher : Departemen Sains Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, IPB

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.29244/jskpm.2.3.317-332

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ABSTRACTGovernment effort for increasing and leveling rural development done by village funds allocation as mandated by UU No. 6 Tahun 2014 about also by Goverment Regulation (PP) No. 60 Tahun 2014 about village funds that sourced from APBN. Referred to village funds purpose which is for increasing community welfare so for the management community should involve. The purpose from this research is analyzing how’s the community’s attitude and participation towards village funds management and to analyze how’s the level of inequality distribution of development results. The methods that being used in this research is quantitative methods supported with qualitative data and using analysis of multiple linear regression test. The results of this research shown if community’s attitude who joined village discussion tend positively and the participation level is high, while the community’s attitude who wasn’t join the village discussion tend negatively and the participation level is low. The community’s responses is affecting the transparency level and accountability of village funds management.Key words: community’s responses, village development, village funds-----------------------ABSTRAKUpaya pemerintah untuk meningkatkan dan memeratakan pembangunan desa dilakukan melalui pengalokasian dana desa sebagaimana amanat UU No.6 Tahun 2014 tentang Desa serta Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No. 60 Tahun 2014 tentang Dana Desa yang bersumber dari APBN. Merujuk tujuan dari dana desa yaitu untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat maka pengelolaannya harus melibatkan masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis bagaimana sikap dan partisipasi masyarakat terhadap pengelolaan dana desa serta untuk menganalisis bagaimana tingkat ketimpangan pendistribusian hasil pembangunan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kuantitatif yang didukung data kualitatif dengan menggunakan analisis uji regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap masyarakat yang mengikuti musyawarah desa cenderung positif dan tingkat partisipasinya tinggi, sedangkan masyarakat yang tidak mengikuti musyawarah cenderung memiliki sikap yang negatif dan tingkat partisipasi yang rendah. Respon masyarakat tersebut mempengaruhi tingkat transparansi dan akuntabilitas pengelolaan dana desa.Kata kunci: dana desa, pembangunan pedesaan, respon masyarakat