. Siswanto
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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PEMBERIAN SUSPENSI BUBUK KEDELAI DAPAT MENURUNKAN KADAR MALONDIALDEHID (MDA) SERUM PADA TIKUS PUTIH DIABETUS MELITUS YANG DIINDUKSI STREPTOZOTOZIN Siswanto, .
GASTER Vol 9, No 2 (2012): AGUSTUS
Publisher : GASTER

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Latar Belakang: Penyakit DM merupakan  salah  satu penyakit degeneratif yang dari  tahun ketahujumlahnya meningkat  terus  dan menimbulkan  berbagai  komplikasi. Pengobatan  dan pencegahanpun mengalami perkembangan sejalan dengan tumbuhnya berbagai macam penyakit.. Segala upaya mulai digalakkan salah satunya dengan back to nature. Kedelai kuning merupakansalah satu alternatif tumbuhan yang dapat dimanfaatkan karena kandungannya yang bermanfaatsebagai  antikarsinogenik, antioksidan, antibiabetik dan antilipidemik. Pemanfaatan Tumbuhansebagai salah satu alternatif pilihan.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kadar MDA serum,akibat pemberian suspensi bubuk kedelai pada tikus jantan DM yang diinduksi STZ. MDA serummerupakan  salah  satu  indikasi  yang  dapat menunjukkan adanya peroksidasi  lemak  sebagai akibat dari stress oksidatif. Metoda: jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen murni ,pre post testcontrol group design terhadap tikus jantan galur Wistar. Sampel terdiri dari 30 ekor tikus (Rattusnorvegicus) jantan usia 6-7 minggu dengan berat badan 150 - 300 gram yang dibagi menjadi 5kelompok, yaitu K1 : tidak diinduksi STZ dan tidak diberi suspensi bubuk kedelai kuning , K2 :diinduksi STZ dan tidak diberi suspensi bubuk kedelai kuning, K3 : diberi suspensi bubuk kedelaikuning dosis I ( 200 mg/kgBB/hr ) setelah diinduksi STZ dan terjadi hiperglikemi, K4 yang diberisuspensi bubuk kedelai kuning dosis II (400 mg/kgBB/hr)   setelah diinduksi STZ dan  terjadi hiperglikemi, K5 yang diberi suspensi bubuk kedelai kuning dosis III ( 800 mg/kgBB/hr )  setelahdiinduksi STZ dan terjadi hiperglikemi.Sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan dilakukan pemeriksaanglukosa. Hasil: Hasil analisis data t-test dan Anova menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan rerata glukosa darah, Kesimpulan pemberian suspensi bubuk kedelai kuning dapat menurunkan kadarglukosa pada tikus diabetes yang diinduksi streptozotocinKata Kunci: Kedelai Kuning, Diabetes Melitus,MDA
Eksplorasi dan karakterisasi bakteri aerob ligninolitik serta aplikasinya untuk pengomposan tandan kosong kelapa sawit Exploration and characterization of ligninolytic aerobic bacteria and its application in composting oil palm empty fruit bunch PRAKOSO, Haryo Tejo; WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SUHARYANTO, .; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 1: Juni 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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AbstractLignin is a complex compounds that makes up the cell walls of plants and is quite difficult to degrade at normal ambient condition.  One of the organic materials with high  lignin content is empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm. So far, the well-studied microorganism to degrade lignin is of a class of fungi. Utilization of bacteria to degrade lignin in EFB has rarely been reported although application of the bacteria is very important if it is associated with aerobic composting which requires regular turning process and supporting clean development mechanism (CDM). The objective of this study was to explore and characterize the bacteria having capability to degrade lignin in EFB. The result showed that from 14 types of sample, 12 and 11 isolates were obtained through non enrichment and enrichment methods respectively. Qualitative test was performed using a lignin derivative dye (methylene blue/MB) suspended in Luria Bertani (LB) solid media and the formation of the clear zone was observed, while quantitative assay was performed with enzyme activity assays of laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (Mn-P), and lignin peroxidase (Li-P). The best isolate (FS isolate) was obtained from enrichment method that able to make 0.6 cm clear zone of LB media + MB and actively produced laccase, manganese peroxidase with and without addition of Mn with an activity of 2.68, 20.02, and 0.36 U/mL, respectively. While the best isolate from non enrichment method was CRK 1, that was able to make   0.3 cm clear zone and produced Mn-peroxidase with and without addition of Mn as much as 2.09 and 0.23 U/mL, respectively. Application of the decomposer formula could speed upthe declining rate of C/N ratio and suppressing Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.in EFB compost produced. Abstrak Lignin merupakan senyawa kompleks yang menyusun dinding sel tanaman dan cukup sulit didegradasi secara alami. Salah satu bahan organik yang mempunyai kadar lignin tinggi adalah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS). Sejauh ini, mikroorganisme yang banyak dipelajari dalam mendegradasi lignin adalah dari golongan jamur. Peng-gunaan bakteri dalam mendegradasi lignin pada TKKS belum banyak dilaporkan walaupun peran bakteri lignino-litik aerob sangat penting jika dikaitkan dengan proses pengomposan secara aerob yang membutuhkan pembalikan secara berkala danprogram clean development mechanism (CDM). Penelitian ini bertujuan mengeksplorasi dan meng-karakterisasi  bakteri  yang  berpotensi  mendegradasi lignin  dalam pengomposan TKKS. Dari 14 jenis sampel diperoleh sebanyak 12 dan 11 isolat melalui metode tanpa dan dengan pengkayaan. Uji kualitatif dilakukan dengan mengukur terbentuknya zona bening pada media Luria Bertani (LB) padat yang mengandung senyawa warna turunan lignin (biru metilen/MB).Uji kuantitatif dilakukan dengan mengukur aktivitaslakase, Mn-peroksidase, dan lignin peroksidase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolat FS  merupakan isolat terbaik dari metode pengkayaan yang mampu membentuk zona bening pada medium LB + MB  0,6 cm, sedangkan isolat terbaik dari metode tanpa pengkayaan adalah CRK 1 dengan zona bening 0,3 cm pada medium yang sama setelah inkubasisemalam. Isolat FS memiliki aktivitas lakase, Mn-peroksidase dengan dan tanpa Mn berturut-turut adalah sebesar 2,68; 20,02; dan0,36 U/mL, sedangkan isolat CRK 1 memiliki aktivitas Mn-peroksidase dengan dan tanpa Mnberturut-turut adalah 2,09 dan 0,23 U/mL. Aplikasi formula dekomposer pada pengompos-an 200 ton TKKS mampu mempercepat laju penurunan nisbah C/N dan menekan populasi Escherichia coli dan Salmonella sp.
Purification, characterization, and bioassay of putative protease inhibitors from Hevea brasiliensis latex PUTRANTO, Riza Arief; SISWANTO, .; MULYATNI, Agustin Sri; BUDIANI, Asmini; TISTAMA, Radite
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 84, No 2 (2016): Desember 2016
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Lateks yang menyerupai cairan susu putih diperoleh dari penyadapan kulit batang tanaman karet (Hevea brasiliensis). Lateks merupakan sitoplasma dari jaringan pembuluh bernama latisifer yang didalamnya terkandung berbagai macam komponen, termasuk protein-protein penting. Berbagai jenis enzim yang memiliki fungsi terkait pertahanan tanaman dari serangan patogen dan pelukaan telah berhasil dideteksi di dalam lateks, di antaranya protease inhibitor (PI). Protease inhibitor memiliki aktivitas senyawa antifungi sehingga berpotensi untuk  dimanfaatkan sebagai biofungisida. Pada penelitian ini, protease  inhibitor putatif yang berasal dari serum B (lutoid) lateks tanaman karet telah berhasil diisolasi menggunakan teknik Ion Exchange Chroma-tography. Dari total 70 fraksi protein yang diekstrak dari kolom, hanya 26 fraksi yang menunjukkan kadar protein yang terukur. Kandungan protease inhibitor putatif yang di-peroleh berkisar antara 0,0067 hingga 0,022 mL/g serum B dari hasil 3 fraksi terpilih. Aktivitas penghambatan terhadap empat enzim protease (subtilisin A, tripsin, α-kimotripsin, dan papain) menunjukkan karakteristik protease inhibitor putatif tersebut sebagai serine dan/atau cysteine inhibitor protease dengan persentase hambatan di atas 15% terhadap protease target. Hasil SDS-PAGE memperlihatkan pemisahan protein dominan yang diperkirakan merupakan protease inhibitor putatif dengan berat molekul sebesar 21,5 kDa. Uji bioassay aktivitas antifungi secara in vitro dari protease inhibitor memperlihatkan penghambatan pertumbuhan miselium dari fungi Ganoderma boninense, Sclerotium sp., dan Rigidosporus lignosus. [Kata kunci : protease inhibitor, Hevea brasiliensis, lateks, serum B, ion exchange chromatography]AbstractLatex, a milky white liquid, is the main product from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Latex is the cytoplasm of complex cellular networks named laticifers in which it contains many different components, including important proteins. Various types of enzymes carrying functions associated with plant defense against pathogen and wounding have been detected in latex in which one of these enzymes is protease inhibitor (PI). Plant protease inhibitor has tremendous potential as an antifungal agent which can be developed as biofungicide. In this work, protease inhibitors from B-serum (lutoid) of rubber tree latex were isolated and purified using Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEC) technique. Of the total 70 fractions of proteins extracted from the columns, only 26 fractions showed measurable levels of protein. The concentration of obtained putative protease inhibitors (three fractions of IEC) ranged from 0.007 to 0.022 mL/g B-serum. Inhibitory activity against four protease enzymes (subtilisin A, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, and papain) showed the characteristics of Hevea putative protease inhibitors from B-serum as serine and/or cysteine protease inhibitors with more than 15% inhibitory activity of target protease. Based on SDS-PAGE visualization, the molecular weight of dominant protein considered as Hevea putative protease inhibitors was 21.5 kDa. In vitro bioassay test of antifungal activity for Hevea putative protease inhibitors showed reduced mycelium growth of Ganoderma boninense, Sclerotium sp., and Rigidosporus lignosus.[Keywords: protease inhibitor, Hevea brasiliensis, latex, B-serum, ion exchange chromatography]
Overexpression of chitinase gene with a GC-rich synthetic enhancer in tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Overekspresi gen kitinase dengan enhancer sintetis kaya GC pada tanaman tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum L.) SANTOSO, D; CHAIDAMSARI, T; BUDIANI, A; MINARSIH, H; UTOMO, S DWI; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 2: Desember 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Ringkasan Perakitan tanaman perkebunan toleran terhadap serangan cendawan patogenik  dilakukan dengan mengoverekspresikan gen penyandi kitinase. Untuk itu elemen DNA peningkat ekspresi (enhancer E52) yang berupa oligonukleotida 52 pb dan kaya kandungan basa purin (GC) disisipkan di ujung 5’ konstruk 35S-chi. Penyisipan E52 tersebut dilakukan secara lebih terarah pada situs ganda HindIII-SalI dari MCS pCAMBIA2301. Melalui situs HindIII yang terletak tepat di ujung 3’ E52, konstruk 35S-chi kemudian disambungkan dengan E52 pada pCAMBIA tersebut. Transformasi DNA rekombinan ke dalam sel tembakau dikerjakan melalui perantaraan Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. Sel tanaman transgenik     diseleksi    dan  diregenrasi dalam media  yang    mengandung  3%  sukrosa, 0,5 mg/L diregenerasikan pada media   MS   padat  benzilaminopurin   (BAP)  dan  50 mg/L kanamisin. Pada media ini tunas transgenik    tembakau   mulai   terbentuk    setelah 5 minggu penanaman. Analisis  tingkat aktivitas enzimatis menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas kitinase pada tembakau transgenik 40 hingga 80 kali lebih tinggi daripada non-transgenik. Pengujian hibridisasi protein menggunakan antibodi anti-kitinase, dot blot dan western blot, membuktikan bahwa enhancer tersebut dapat meningkatkan ekspresi transgen chi pada tanaman tembakau.Summary Development of estate crops tolerant to pathogenic fungi is conducted by overexpressing chi gene. For this purpose, a synthetic enhancer consisting of 52 base pairs and GC-rich was inserted at immediate 5’ end of a 35S-chi cassette. Insertion of the E52 was directed at HindIII-SalI restriction sites of  the pCAMBIA2301 MCS.  With HindIII restriction site located just after the 3’ end of the E52 sequence, the 35S-chi construct was then ligated with the E52 of the pCAMBIA. Transformation of the resulting recombinant DNA into tobacco cells was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The transgenic cells were selected and regenerated on a solid MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.5 mg/L benzylamino purine (BAP) and 50 mg/L kanamycin. Tobacco   shoots   were   initiated  after 5 weeks inoculation on the selection media. Enzymatic analysis demonstrated that chitinase activity of transgenic tobacco was 40 to 80 folds higher than that of the control plant. Analysis of  enzymatic activity using hybridization with anti-chitinase antibody indicated that the level of chitinase activity in the transgenic tobacco carrying the enhancer is higher than that  without enhancer. These data suggest that the enhancer improved the expression of chi transgene in tobacco. 
Optimasi pembuatan membran chitosam dalam penurunan COD dan BOD POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) [Optimization of the membrane production process to COD and BOD removal of POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent)] WAHYUNI, Sri; SISWANTO, .; DAMAYANTI, Alia
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 84, No 1: Oktober 2016
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Palm oil is one of the main commodities that cultivated in Indonesia as the biggest palm oil producer. One of the main problems in palm oil industry is the difficulty to degradate the palm oil mill effluent (POME) due to the high quantity and content of COD and BOD. In physico-chemical, POME can be processed using membrane filtration technology. Chitosan is one of the most widely used material forproducing membrane filtration. Composite of Chitosan-PVA-PEG is a highly mixture absorbent, which possibly can be used as a membrane in filtration process of POME. The experiment was started with the production of composite membrane, and then filtration application using cross-flow reactor system. The variables of this experiment were chitosan and PVA ratio (3:7, 4:5, 1:1, 6:4 and 7:3 (v/v)), and stirring speed (100 rpm and 300 rpm). The reactor test was conducted for 50 minutes and permeate were taken every 10 minutes. Filtration output parameters that were analyzed flux, COD and BOD. The result showed that the highest flux values in the variation of the stirring speed of 100 rpm and 300 rpm were 40.20 L/m2.hr and 27.15 L/m2.hr, respectively. The highest rejection values of COD and BOD were obtained in membrane ratio variation of 1:1 (v/v) and stirring speed of 300 rpm, which are 97.24% and 97.60%, respectitively.
Optimasi pertumbuhan dan aktivitas enzim ligninolitik Omphalina sp. dan Pleurotus ostreatus pada fermentasi padat Optimization of growth and ligninolytic enzymes activity of Omphalina sp. and Pleurotus ostreatus using solid state fermentation WIDIASTUTI, Happy; SISWANTO, .; SUHARYANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 75, No 2: Desember 2007
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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SummarySolid wastes of bagasse and empty fruitbunch (EFB) respectively from sugarcane andpalm oil mill in Indonesia are abundant. Nowdays, up to now these solid wastes have not yetbeen optimally utilized so that the added valueis still very low and even cause an environ-mental problem. Research on bioconversion ofbagasse and EFB with two culture of white-rotfungi (WRF) i.e., Omphalina sp. and Pleurotusostreatus to produce ligninolytic enzymes wasconducted to provide added value to thislignocellulosic waste. Production of extracellular enzymes from WRF was not onlydetermined by the type of isolate but also theculture condition. This research was aimed todetermine the optimum culture condition ofsolid state fermentation in producing lignino-lytic enzymes at laboratory scale. In thisresearch, WRF was examined for ligninolyticproducing enzymes (laccase, lignin peroxidase/ LiP and Mn-peroxidase / MnP), using mediaconsisting of bagasse and EFB separately asmain substrate with supplementation of ricebran, Cu 2+ with or without rice bran. Theobservation was based on their growth andligninolytic enzyme activities. Characteristicsof optimum pH of LiP, MnP and laccaseactivity were also determined. The resultsshowed that addition of supplement was notable to increase the Cu 2+ growth of myceliaespecially in the first and second months but inthe third month the addition of supplementenhanced the mycelia growth. The growth ofmycelia on the addition of Cu 2+ with or withoutrice bran significantly lower compared to thecontrols both of Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatusin bagasse and EFB. The optimum pH oflaccase, MnP, and LiP activities was five bothfor Omphalina sp. and P. ostreatus at EFBand bagasse. Omphalina sp. was better thanP. ostreatus in producing laccase on bagasseand EFB without any supplementations. Thehighest laccase activity showed by P. ostreatuswith bagasse and EFB media treated with Cuand Cu + rice bran. Supplementation withCu 2+ was more effective in increasing laccaseactivity than rice bran. Activities of Li-P onbagasse and EFB for the two WRF cultureswere significantly influenced by supple-mentation of both of rice bran and Cu 2+ . Li-Pactivity on EFB was slightly higher than thaton bagasse. Mn-P activity was not influencedby rice bran, Cu 2+ or the combination of both.However, these enzymes activities on EFBwere higher compared to bagasse especiallyfor P. ostreatus. Suplementation of Cu wasenhance the activity of laccase and LiP both ofP. ostreatus and Omphalina sp in baggasse andEFB though inhibited the growth of those fungiespecially in the initial growth.RingkasanLimbah padat bagas tebu dan tandankosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) masing-masingdari proses pengolahan gula tebu dan minyaksawit di Indonesia jumlahnya melimpah dansampai saat ini belum mendapat penangananyang efektif sehingga nilai tambahnya masihsangat rendah dan bahkan mengganggulingkungan. Penelitian biokonversi limbahpadat bagas tebu dan TKKS menggunakan duaisolat fungi pelapuk putih (FPP) yaituOmphalina sp. dan Pleurotus ostreatus untukproduksi enzim ligninolitik dilakukan untukmeningkatkan nilai tambah limbah ligno-selulosa tersebut. Penelitian ini, mengujiaktivitas enzim ekstraseluler dari FPP antaralain lakase, lignin peroksidase (LiP), dan Mn-peroksidase (MnP) dari dua spesies FPP yaituOmphalina sp. dan P. ostreatus. Penelitianbertujuan menetapkan kondisi optimum mediafermentasi untuk produksi enzim ligninolitikdari bagas tebu dan TKKS sebagai substrat dankarakterisasi pH optimum enzim ligninolitikdari dua FPP yaitu Omphalina sp. danP. ostreatus. Pengamatan dilakukan berdasar-kan laju pertumbuhan dan aktivitas enzimligninolitik. Enzim lakase, MnP, dan LiPdiekstraksi dan dikarakterisasi pH optimumaktivitasnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkanbahwa pemberian suplemen menghambatpertumbuhan miselia pada satu dan dua bulanpertama inkubasi, namun laju pertumbuhanmiselium khususnya pada perlakuan pemberianCu 2+ dan Cu 2+ + dedak meningkat tajam padabulan ketiga setelah inkubasi. Pertumbuhanmiselium Omphalina sp dan P. ostreatus padamedium yang ditambah Cu 2+ dan Cu 2+ +dedaklebih rendah dibandingkan dengan kontrol.Pada inkubasi tiga bulan, aktivitas optimumlakase, MnP dan LiP diperoleh pada pH 5, baikuntuk Omphalina sp. maupun P. ostreatusyang diekstrak dari bahan lignoselulosa bagastebu dan TKKS. Aktivitas lakase dariOmphalina sp. lebih tinggi daripadaP. ostreatus pada substrat TKKS dan bagastebu tanpa suplementasi. Pemberian suplemenberupa Cu 2+ dan dedak atau kombinasinyameningkatkan aktivitas lakase baik pada bagastebu maupun pada TKKS. Aktivitas lakasetertinggi ditunjukkan oleh isolat P. ostreatuspada medium bagas tebu dan TKKS padaperlakuan pemberian Cu 2+ dengan atau tanpadedak. Aktivitas lakase nampaknya lebihdipengaruhi oleh penambahan Cu 2+ dibanding-kan dengan pemberian dedak. Aktivitas LiPbaik pada bagas tebu maupun TKKS untukkedua FPP yang diuji pada perlakuanpenambahan dedak dan Cu nyata lebih tinggidibandingkan dengan aktivitas LiP yangdiekstrak dari medium tanpa penambahansuplemen. Aktivitas LiP pada TKKS lebihtinggi dibandingkan dengan pada bagas tebukhususnya untuk P. ostreatus. Sedangkanaktivitas MnP tidak dipengaruhi penambahandedak dan Cu 2+ demikian pula kombinasikeduanya. Aktivitas MnP yang diekstrak dariTKKS lebih tinggi dibandingkan denganaktivitas MnP yang diekstrak dari bagas tebukhususnya untuk P. ostreatus. PenambahanCu 2+ meningkatkan aktivitas lakase dan LiPP. ostreatus dan Omphalina sp yang ditum-buhkan pada bagas dan TKKS walaupun ionlogam ini menghambat pertumbuhan keduaJPP ini khususnya pada awal pertumbuhan.
Immuno-chemiluminescense detection of allergenic proteins from rubber gloves and natural rubber latex Deteksi protein allergen secara imunokimia dari sarung tangan dan lateks karet alam Siswanto, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 83, No 1: Juni 2015
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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AbstrakLateks alam maupun produk jadi yang berasal dari karet alam diketahui mengandung protein alergen. Namun demikian identifikasi jenis protein allergen belum banyak dilaporkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi protein alergen dari sarung tangan dan lateks karet alam menggunakan metode immuno-chemiluminescense. Protein di-ekstrak dari tiga fraksi sentrifugasi lateks (serum B, serum C dan partikel karet) serta tujuh jenis sarung tangan komersial, kemudian dipisahkan berdasarkan berat molekulnya melalui Gel elektroforesis 1-D (SDS PAGE) dan 2-D. Selanjutnya untuk deteksi protein allergen secara immuno-chemiluminescense dilaku-kan imunobloting menggunakan serum Ig_E tiga pasien yang terbukti positif alergi terhadap protein asal sarung tangan lateks, kemudian diwarnai dengan Sypro Ruby protein blot fluorescence. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa  berdasarkan hasil analisis Western blot one-DE sampel protein lateks menggunakan serum tiga orang tenaga medis yang terbukti positif alergi terhadap protein lateks, maka dapat diidentifikasi 14 jenis protein alergen pada sarung tangan lateks, empat diantaranya merupakan pita major yaitu Berat Molekul (BM) 35, 38, 46 dan 56 kDa. Protein allergen pada sarung tangan tersebut kemungkinan berasal dari bagian C-serum terutama protein  BM 46 dan 56 kDa ataupun campuran antara C-serum dan B-serum dari lateks karet alam. Hal ini dibuktikan bahwa dari sampel C-serum lateks dapat teridentifikasi 12 protein alergen,  empat diantaranya merupakan pita major yaitu BM 42, 46, 51 dan        56 kDa. Sedangkan dari sampel B-serum teridenti-fikasi tiga pita major dengan BM 14, 16 and 51 kDa. Hasil analisis Western blot 2-DE ekstrak protein sarung tangan menggunakan serum tiga orang tenaga medis yang terbukti positif alergi terhadap protein lateks, maka dapat diidentifikasi 12 - 13 spot protein alergen dengan pI at 4.0 to 7.0 dan yang paling dominan adalah dengan BM 23, 35, 38, 42, 45, 46 kDa.Abstract  Natural rubber latex and finished products derived from natural rubber is known to contain allergenic proteins. Nevertheless identification of allergenic protein has not been widely reported. This study aims to detect the protein allergens from the glove of hands and natural rubber latex using immuno-chemiluminescense. Proteins extracted from the latex centrifugation three fractions (serum B, serum C and rubber particles) as well as seven types of commercial gloves, then separated by molecular weight through 1-D gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and 2-D. Furthermore, for the detection of allergen proteins in immuno-chemiluminescense performed immunoblotting using the serum IgE three patients who tested positive for allergy to latex gloves native protein, and then stained with fluorescence Sypro Ruby protein blot. The results showed that based on the results of Western blot analysis of one-DE latex proteins using serum samples three medical personnels who tested positive for allergy to latex proteins, we can identify 14 types of protein allergens in latex gloves, four of which are major bands that having Molecular Weight (MW) 35, 38, 46 and 56 kDa. Protein allergen on the gloves are likely to come from the C-serum protein mainly MW 46 and 56 kDa, or a mixture of C-serum and B-serum of natural rubber latex. It was proved that from C-serum samples could be identified as many as 12 protein latex allergens, four of which were major bands that MW 42, 46, 51 and 56 kDa. While the B-serum samples identified three major bands with MW 14, 16 and 51 kDa. Results of Western blot analysis of 2-DE protein extracts glove using the serum three medical personnel who tested positive for allergy to latex proteins, it could be identified 12-13 allergen protein spot with pI at 4.0 to 7.0 and most dominant is the MW 23, 35, 38, 42, 45, 46kDa.
Optimisasi produksi biogas dari limbah lateks cair pekat dengan penambahan logam Optimization of biogas production from concentrated-latex effluent with addition of metals KRESNAWATY, Irma; SUSANTI, I; SISWANTO, .; TRI-PANJI, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 76, No 1: Juni 2008
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Summary The treatment of concentrated-latex effluent process applied in the field presently, has not obtain optimum additional benefits. Besides that, the technology using ponding system  needs  wide area and causes air pollution that  such a way caused conflicts with society. The application  concept of clean industry: reuse, reduction, recovery and recycling, makes the possibilities to convert the effluent to be usefull products. One of the alternative effluent process is by utilizing it as the source of renewable energy, that is in the form of biogas as an  alternative energy. The preliminary research showed that the use of spontaneous latex skim coagulation, the  addition of 1% manure as source of seed, and leaf biomass as the source of carbon could increase the biogas production. This research was carried out to optimize biogas production by adding metal ion and to observe the parameters which influenced every stage of biogas production. At the beginning of the process, pH showed increasing due to the hydrolysis process that generally occured in acid condition, but it remained stable (6.6-7.7) in the next steps, whereas, the VFA value as well as BOD value tended to increase. COD value had fluctuative inclination caused by the conversion of organic compounds to produce biogas and the hydrolysis process of leaf biomass to organic compounds that decom-posed to further biogas. The best result of biogas production was showed by addition of Fe3+ with optimum concentration 0.50 mg/L effluent.
Prospek Ekstrak Daun Tembakau Sebagai Nematisida Nabati Wiratno, .; Siswanto, .; Trisawa, I.M.
Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri Vol 5, No 2 (2013): Oktober 2013
Publisher : Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (Balittas)

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Nematisida nabati adalah salah satu jenis nematisida alami yang saat ini sedang banyak dipelajari peranan-nya dalam mengendalikan nematoda. Nematisida ini relatif aman bagi lingkungan dan organisme hidup karena bahan aktifnya berasal dari senyawa metabolit sekunder tanaman yang mudah terurai. Pemanfaatan senyawa metabolit sekunder tanaman sebagai bahan aktif nematisida nabati didasarkan pada fungsinya bagi tanaman, di antaranya sebagai sarana untuk perlindungan diri dari serangan hama dan penyakit. Salah satu tanaman yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan adalah tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum). Daun tembakau mengandung senyawa nikotin dan secara in vivo mampu membunuh nematoda Meloidogyne incognita dengan nilai LC50 dan LC90 berturut-turut sebesar 1,9 dan 3,6 mg ekstrak/ml air. Nematoda yang mati terpapar ekstrak daun tembakau berbentuk keriting (curly), menyerupai bentuk nematoda yang mati terpapar insektisida organo-fosfat dan karbamat yang menghambat pembentukan senyawa acetylcholine dalam sistem syaraf organisme hidup. Fenomena ini dapat dijadikan salah satu indikator untuk mendeteksi cara kerja berbagai senyawa se-kunder tanaman dalam membunuh hama yang hingga kini masih belum banyak diketahui. Tujuan dari penu-lisan tinjauan ini adalah untuk mengkaji prospek ekstrak daun tembakau sebagai nematisida nabati, juga sebagai alternatif diversifikasi pemanfaatan tembakau selain untuk bahan baku rokok. Botanical nematicide is one type of natural pesticide, which is currently being studied for its role in the control of nematodes. This nematicide is safer for the environment and living organisms as the active ingredient de-rived from secondary metabolite of plants is biodegradable. Utilization of this compound as active ingredients of botanical nematicide is based on naturally used as a mean of self-protection against pests and diseases. One plant that potentially to be used as nematicide is tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Tobacco leaves extract is able to kill the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values are 1.9 and 3.6 mg extract/ml of water, respectively. Body of the dead nematodes exposed by this extract shows curly shape similar to that of exposed by an organophosphate and carbamate groups, which acts as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Meanwhile the body of naturally dead nematode shows straight shape. This phenomenon can be used as an indicator to detect the mode of action of plant secondary metabolite compounds that have not been widely known. This paper would discuss about possibility of using extracted tobacco leaf as botanical nematicide, and also alternatife of tobacco diversification usage except cigarette.
Produksi dan karakterisasi lakase Omphalina sp. Production and characterization of Omphalina sp. laccase SISWANTO, .; SUHARYANTO, .; FITRIA, Rossy
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 75, No 2: Desember 2007
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

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Abstract

SummaryOmphalina sp. a white-rot fungi (WRF)originated from oil palm plantation has abilityto degrade empty fruit bunches of oil palm(EFBOP) so that it is expected to producelaccase with high activity. The ability ofOmphalina sp. to produce laccase enzyme onliquid fermentation will be studied. The enzymewill also be partially purified andcharacterized. The research result showed thatthe highest enzyme activity (1.162 U/mL) wasobtained using glucose malt yeast (GMY)medium at room temperature for four days.The addition of 2,5-xylidine as an inducerproduced laccase earlier i.e two days, but theactivity of laccase was less active afterprolonged incubation compared to that ofcontrol. The laccase produced on mediumcontaining 2% EFBOP reached optimumactivity as much as 0.38 U/mL after 10 th daysof incubation. Partial purification of laccaseon Sephacryl S-200 HR column resulted58.23% of yield recovery with twice purity thanbefore. The optimum pH of laccase was 4.5.Laccase activity was stable even after heatedon 50 o C for 30 minutes, but then decreasedwhen heated until 60 o C. The laccase has K Mand V max as much as 0.15 mM and 0.56 U/mLrespectively.RingkasanOmphalina sp., adalah fungi pelapuk putih(FPP) hasil isolasi dari kebun kelapa sawityang diketahui mampu mendegradasi tandankosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) dengan cepatsehingga diharapkan mampu menghasilkanlakase dengan aktivitas tinggi. KemampuanOmphalina sp. menghasilkan enzim lakasepada fermentasi cair akan dipelajari. Selain itu,lakase yang dihasilkan akan dimurnikan secaraparsial serta dilakukan karakterisasi pH, suhu,dan konsentrasi substrat optimum. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa Omphalina sp.menghasilkan lakase dengan aktivitas tertinggi(1,162 U/mL) pada medium glucose malt yeast(GMY) yang diinkubasikan pada suhu ruangselama empat hari. Penambahan 2,5-xilidinsebagai induser mempercepat produksi lakaselebih awal yaitu dalam waktu dua hari, namunaktivitasnya masih lebih rendah dibandingkandengan kontrol pada inkubasi lebih lanjut.Lakase dari Omphalina sp. juga dapatdiproduksi pada medium yang mengandung2% TKKS dan aktivitasnya mencapai0,38 U/mL yang diinkubasi dalam suhu ruangselama 10 hari. Pemurnian parsial pada kolomSephacryl S-200 HR menghasilkan rendemensebesar 58,23% dengan kemurnian dua kalinya.Aktivitas lakase optimum pada pH 4,5 dantetap stabil setelah pemanasan selama 30 menitpada suhu ruang hingga 50 o C dan menuruntajam pada suhu 60 o C. Lakase Omphalina sp.menghasilkan nilai K M dan V maks masing-masing sebesar 0,15 mM dan 0,56 U/mL.