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Antibacterial Curcuma xanthorrhiza Extract and Fractions

Journal of Mathematical and Fundamental Sciences Vol 46, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : ITB Journal Publisher, LPPM ITB

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Abstract

An acetone extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizomes and the n-hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from it were tested on eight pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that the acetone extract and the nhexane fraction exhibited significant activities against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and weak activities against Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. They were inactive against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella thypi, while the chloroform fraction was devoid of activities. NMR analysis disclosed the presence of α-curcumene, xanthorrhizol and an unknown monoterpene in the nhexane fraction. In the chloroform fraction, curcumin was found to be the main compound, together with xanthorrhizol as a minor compound. These results suggest that the antibacterial potency of acetone extract of C. xanthorrhiza is contained in the n-hexane fraction, in which the active constituents are terpenoid compounds. This is the first report of the use of NMR analysis for compound identification contained in an extract or fractions of C. xanthorrhiza.

ENKAPSULASI DAN STABILITAS PIGMEN KAROTENOID DARI Neurospora intermedia N-1

Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 18, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Neurospora sp merupakan spesies fungi yang dilaporkan menghasilkan pigmen karotenoid, yaitu metabolit sekunder yang termasuk kelompok pigmen yang berwarna kuning, jingga atau merah jingga. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan enkapsulasi pigmen karotenoid Neurospora intermedia N-1 menggunakan kopolimer gelatin-maltodekstrin. Suspensi dari campuran ekstrak karotenoid dengan kopolimer gelatin-maltodekstrin, dikeringkan dengan alat spray drier sehingga diperoleh serbuk karotenoid GME (gelatin-maltodekstrin-ekstrak) dan diuji stabilitasnya terhadap pengaruh penyimpanan RH 20-30%, selama 5 minggu. Hasil enkapsulasi ekstrak karotenoid diperoleh serbuk GME dengan nilai EY (encapsulation yields) ± 48%. Mikroenkapsulasi ekstrak karotenoid tersebut dapat meningkatkan kelarutannya dalam air dan stabil pada kondisi RH 20-30%, stabilitas menurun mulai pada minggu ke 3. Analisis KCKT terhadap serbuk GME menunjukkan penurunan kandungan β-karoten sekitar 30%, setelah penyimpanan 5 minggu. Analisis SEM terhadap serbuk GME menunjukkan partikel yang berbentuk bulat dan berlekuk di permukaan dengan ukuran ±1 µm.

Lactobacillus plantarum as Biopreservative Agent in Paneer for Dietary Food of Diabetic and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Vol 6, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

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Abstract

Paneer is a food product that is obtained by heating milk followed by acid coagulation. It is known asa diet food that is recommended for diabetic and coronary heart disease patients. A relatively shortershelf life of paneer is considered to be a major hurdle in its production. The present preliminary studywas conducted to determine antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus plantarum against Eschericia coliand Bacillus cereus, to develop it as biopreservative agent in paneer before using it for dietary food ofdiabetic and coronary heart disease patients in next clinical study. The antibacterial activities were testedthrough Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)using microdilution well method. Biopreservative activity in paneer was tested using total plate countmethod based on time and temperature variations. Result showed that Lactobacillus plantarum inhibitedBacillus cereus and Eschericia coli with MIC of 3125 and 1562.5 μg/mL whereas MBC was in a value of>6250 and >3125 μg/mL, respectively. As a biopreservative agent, addition of Lactobacillus plantarumto paneer showed no bacterial growth until 7 days in room temperature and 9th day in cold temperature. Itis concluded that Lactobacillus plantarum could be used as a natural biopreservative agent for extendingthe shelf life of paneer. The paneer with addition of Lactobacillus plantarum as biopreservative will thenbe consumed by diabetic patient and coronary heart patients in next clinical study.

Antibacterial Activity of Germacrone Sesquiterpene from Curcuma Xanthorrhiza Rhizomes

ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 12, No 2 (2016): Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to isolate and indentify the terpenoid compound from Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizomes and its antibacterial activity. Isolation was carried out by using vacuum liquid chromatography and centrifugal chromatography. The structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR 1D and 2D), then compare with data from literatures. Antibacterial test was carried out by using  microdillution methods and evaluated against eight bacteria. They are Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysentriae and Vibrio cholerae. The result showed that the isolate was a white crystal which was indetified as germacron-type sesquiterpene. Germacron have highest activity againts P. aeruginosa, MIC 15.6 µg/mL and MBC 31.2 µg/mL.

Antibacterial Activity of Germacrane Type Sesquiterpenes from Curcuma heyneana Rhizomes

Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 14, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The isolation of terpenoids from C. heyneana rhizomes and their antibacterial activity have been conducted. The terpenoids were isolated by using vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structures of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR (1D and 2D)). The antibacterial activity was carried out by using microdilution method and evaluated against eight bacteria. Three germacrane type sesquiterpenes have been isolated from C. heyneana rhizhomes and were identified as germacrone, dehydrocurdione, and 1(10),4(5)-diepoxygermacrone. Germacrone showed highest antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa with MIC values of 15.6 µg/mL and MBC values 31.2 µg/mL. Dehydrocurdione showed highest antibacterial activity against B. subtilis with MIC values of 31.2 µg/mL and MBC values of 31.2 µg/mL. However, 1(10),4(5)-diepoxygermacrone showed a weak antibacterial activity.

TRANSFORMASI PLASMID PTRLI DENGAN TEKNIK ELEKTROPORASI PADA ASPERGILLUS TERREUS DAN UJI STABILITAS TRANSFORMAN

Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Aspergillus terreus is a Saprophyte fungus that produces several secondary metabolites as lovastatin (anti-cholesterol drug) and itaconic acid (a polymer material). Lovastatin is one of the statin class of drugs that have efficacy as antihypercholesterolemic. Plasmid transformation is the introduction and incorporation of exogenous plasmid into cells orprotoplast. In this study, pTRLI plasmid (pTRI inserts containing lovE gene as a regulator gene in the biosynthesis of lovastatin) will be transformed by electroporation transformation. The purpose of this research is transformation of pTRLI plasmid into protoplasts of Aspergillus terreus by electroporation and obtain stable transformants. The research was initiated by isolation of pTRLI plasmid. Then pTRLI plasmid was determined purity and concentration by nanodrop. Furthermore, Protoplasts of Aspergillus terreus were isolated enzymatically by adding an enzyme which can degrade the cell wall of Aspergillus terreus which contains chitin and cellulose. PTRLI plasmid were transformed into protoplasts of Aspergillus terreus by electroporation. These transformants were grown in Czapek-Dox medium containing pyrithiamine agar and the number of transformants mg-1 of pTRLI plasmid was calculated. Transformants were selected to grow in Czapek-Dox medium containing piritiamin 1 mg l-1. The number of transformants produced 187 transformants mg-1 of PTRLI plasmid. Transformants are stable up to five generations by growing the transformants in Czapek-Dox medium agar containing piritiamin 1 mg l-1. The success of the transformation indicated by ptrA gene in transformants that can be amplified by PCR. The size of fragment DNA is 801 bp.

Studi In Silico Metabolit Sekunder Kapang Monascus sp. Sebagai Kandidat Obat Antikolesterol dan Antikanker

ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 15, No 1 (2019): INPRESS Vol 15, No 1 (2019) Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

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Abstract

Kapang Monascus sp. secara tradisional telah digunakan dalam fermentasi beras merah (angkak) yang bermanfaat sebagai pewarna makanan, pengawet makanan maupun obat-obatan. Saat ini, beras angkak telah menjadi suplemen makanan yang terkenal karena banyaknya senyawa bioaktif yang terkandung seperti monakolin, pigmen, asam dimerumat dan lain-lain. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan metabolit sekunder kapang Monascus sp. yang meliputi senyawa monakolin dengan efek antikolesterol, pigmen dengan efek antikanker pada kanker payudara serta memprediksi toksisitas senyawa melalui studi in silico. Senyawa uji terdiri dari 14 senyawa monakolin dan 33 pigmen Monascus sp. Protein HMG KoA (3-hidroksi-3-metilglutaril koenzim A) reduktase digunakan sebagai reseptor antikolesterol sementara estrogen alfa, estrogen beta, dan aromatase digunakan sebagai reseptor antikanker. Perangkat lunak AutoDock digunakan untuk menganalisis kompleks struktural reseptor dengan senyawa uji. Prediksi toksisitas dilakukan menggunakan perangkat lunak ADMET predictor dan QSAR Toolbox. Prediksi toksisitas dan hasil docking menunjukkan bahwa asam monakolin L menunjukkan aktivitas antikolesterol yang baik terhadap HMG KoA reduktase; pigmen monaskin menunjukkan aktivitas antikanker yang selektif terhadap reseptor estrogen beta; dan keduanya diprediksi aman. Prediksi toksisitas senyawa monakolin dan pigmen Monascus sp. menunjukkan terdapat 7 senyawa monakolin yaitu 3-hidroksi-3,5-dihidromonakolin L, asam dihidromonakolin L, monakolin L, asam monakolin J, monakolin J, asam monakolin L , monakolin M, dan 5 pigmen Monascus sp. yaitu ankaflavin, monaskin, monaskopiridin A, monaskopiridin B dan monascuspiloin yang dinyatakan tidak toksik. Tujuh pigmen Monascus sp. yang terdiri dari monankarin A, monankarin B, monankarin C, monankarin D, monankarin E, monankarin F, dan monasfluol A bersifat positif mutagen, karsinogen dan toksik terhadap reproduksi. Hasil penelitian ini berpotensi dapat diaplikasikan untuk desain dan pengembangan obat antikolesterol dan antikanker.In Silico Study of Secondary Metabolites of Monascus sp. as a candidate for anticholesterol and anticancer drugs. The fungus Monascus sp. has traditionally been used to prepare red fermented rice (angkak) as a natural food colorant, food preservative or medicinal agent. Recently, it has become a popular dietary supplement due to many of its bioactive constituents such as monacolin compounds, pigments, and dimerumic acid, etc. These functional constituents also had been deemed to be provided with various health benefits. This research aims to find secondary metabolites of monacolin compounds with antihypercholesterolemic effect, Monascus sp. pigment with anticancer effect on breast cancer, and predict their toxicity through in silico study. The studied compounds consist of 14 monacolin compounds and 33 Monascus sp. pigments. HMG CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A) reductase protein was used as antihypercholesterolemic receptor in which estrogen alfa, estrogen beta, and aromatase were used as anticancer receptors. AutoDock docking software was used to analyze structural complexes of the receptors with studied compounds. Toxicity prediction was done using ADMET predictor and QSAR Toolbox softwares. Toxicity prediction and docking results revealed that monacolin L acid exhibits good anticholesterol activity towards HMG CoA reductase; monascin pigment exhibits selective anticancer activity towards estrogen beta receptor; and both of them were predicted to be safe. Toxicity prediction of studied compounds showed that 7 monacolin compounds which are 3-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonakolin L, dihydromonacolin L acid, monacolin L, monacolin J acid, monacolin J, monacolin L acid, monacolin M and 5 Monascus sp. pigments which are ankaflavin, monascin, monascopyridine A, monascopyridine B dan monascuspiloin are not toxic. Seven Monascus sp. pigments which are monankarin A, monankarin B, monankarin C, monankarin D, monankarin E, monankarin F and monasfluol A are mutagenic, carcinogenic and also reprotoxic. The research results could be useful for the design and development of the anticholesterol and anticancer drugs.

Transformasi Plasmid pTRLI ke dalam Protoplas Aspergillus terreus dengan Penambahan Polietilenglikol

JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA Vol 10 No 1 (2012): JIFI
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Transformasi plasmid merupakan proses masuknya plasmid ke dalam protoplas atau sel inang yang mengakibatkan perubahan materi genetika. Tujuan dari penelitian untuk mentransformasi plasmid pTRLI ke dalam protoplas Aspergillus terreus dan menentukan stabilitas transforman. Penelitian diawali dengan isolasi plasmid pTRLI, penentuan kemurnian dan konsentrasi plasmid pTRLI dengan menggunakan serapan pada panjang gelombang 260 dan 280 nm dari alat nanodrop. Kemudian, protoplas A. terreus diisolasi secara enzimatik dengan enzim kitinase, selulase, dan maserosim. pTRLI ditransformasi ke dalam protoplas A. terreus dengan penambahan kalsium klorida dan polietilenglikol. Transforman ditumbuhkan dalam media Czapek Dox agar yang mengandung piritiamin 1 mg/L. Jumlah transforman yang dapat tumbuh antara 12 sampai 19 transforman/µg plasmid pTRLI. Transforman dideteksi dengan mengamplilikasi gen ptrA yang berukuran 801 pb. Dari penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa PEG dapat digunakan untuk mentransformasi plasmid pTRLI ke dalam protoplas A. terreus dan transforman stabil sampai generasi ke S.

PEMBENTUKAN ZAT WARNA Monascus purpureus DENGAN LIMBAH AMPAS KELAPA SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT DAN UJI AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP Escherichia coli dan Candida albicans

JURNAL FARMASI GALENIKA Vol 5 No 2 (2018): Jurnal Farmasi Galenika Volume 5 No. 2, 2018
Publisher : Sekolah Tinggi Farmasi Bandung

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian pembentukan zat warna Monascus purpureus hasil fermentasi padat dengan dua variasi sampel limbah ampas kelapa sebagai substrat. Dilakukan pengukuran pembentukan zat warna dengan cara mengekstraksi sampel menggunakan etanol 95% pada fermentasi hari ke-7 dan ke-14 dilanjutkan dengan pengujian kromatografi lapis tipis menggunakan pengembang etanol:etilasetat (7:3). Serapan zat warna diukur dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 400, 406, 498, 500, 511 dan 512 nm. Hasil menunjukkan serapan zat warna mengalami peningkatan dengan rentang serapan antara 0,128–0,269 dan 0,212-1,019 dan Sampel A menunjukkan serapan lebih tinggi dibandingkan Sampel B. Pengujian aktivitas antimikroba ekstrak zat warna ke dua sampel dilakukan terhadap Escherichia coli dan Candida albicans menunjukkan adanya aktivitas antimikroba. Kesetaraan aktivitas berdasarkan kurva baku Tetrasiklin HCl terhadap Escherichia coli dan kurva baku Nistatin terhadap Candida albicans menunjukkan ekstrak zat warna Monascus purpureus dengan konsentrasi 100% pada Sampel A lebih besar dibandingkan Sampel B. Dengan dua variasi waktu yang berbeda hari ke-7 dan hari ke-14 Sampel A mempunyai aktivitas kesetaraan konsentrasi 1,41% dan 4,13% Tetrasiklin HCl serta 0,81% dan 1,38% Nistatin. Sampel B pada hari ke-7 dan hari ke-14 mempunyai aktivitas kesetaraan konsentrasi 1,02% dan 2,44% Tetrasiklin HCl serta 0,79% dan 1,20% Nistatin.

PEMBENTUKAN ZAT WARNA Monascus purpureus DENGAN LIMBAH AMPAS KELAPA SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT DAN UJI AKTIVITASNYA TERHADAP Escherichia coli dan Candida albicans

JURNAL FARMASI GALENIKA Vol 5 No 2 (2018): Jurnal Farmasi Galenika Volume 5 No. 2, 2018
Publisher : Sekolah Tinggi Farmasi Bandung

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian pembentukan zat warna Monascus purpureus hasil fermentasi padat dengan dua variasi sampel limbah ampas kelapa sebagai substrat. Dilakukan pengukuran pembentukan zat warna dengan cara mengekstraksi sampel menggunakan etanol 95% pada fermentasi hari ke-7 dan ke-14 dilanjutkan dengan pengujian kromatografi lapis tipis menggunakan pengembang etanol:etilasetat (7:3). Serapan zat warna diukur dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 400, 406, 498, 500, 511 dan 512 nm. Hasil menunjukkan serapan zat warna mengalami peningkatan dengan rentang serapan antara 0,128–0,269 dan 0,212-1,019 dan Sampel A menunjukkan serapan lebih tinggi dibandingkan Sampel B. Pengujian aktivitas antimikroba ekstrak zat warna ke dua sampel dilakukan terhadap Escherichia coli dan Candida albicans menunjukkan adanya aktivitas antimikroba. Kesetaraan aktivitas berdasarkan kurva baku Tetrasiklin HCl terhadap Escherichia coli dan kurva baku Nistatin terhadap Candida albicans menunjukkan ekstrak zat warna Monascus purpureus dengan konsentrasi 100% pada Sampel A lebih besar dibandingkan Sampel B. Dengan dua variasi waktu yang berbeda hari ke-7 dan hari ke-14 Sampel A mempunyai aktivitas kesetaraan konsentrasi 1,41% dan 4,13% Tetrasiklin HCl serta 0,81% dan 1,38% Nistatin. Sampel B pada hari ke-7 dan hari ke-14 mempunyai aktivitas kesetaraan konsentrasi 1,02% dan 2,44% Tetrasiklin HCl serta 0,79% dan 1,20% Nistatin.