I Ketut Sinardja
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Department, Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

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Manajemen Anestesi pada Pasien dengan Chiari Malformation dan Syringomyelia Kurniawan, Tomas Ari; Sinardja, I Ketut
Jurnal Anestesiologi Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2014): Jurnal Anestesiologi Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Anestesiologi dan terapi Intensif

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ABSTRACTBackground: Chiari malformation is an anatomical abnormality of cerebellum where the cerebellar tonsils descend toward the foramen magnum and cause a series of clinical symptoms. In general, this disorder has 4 types of classification based on the degree of severity of anatomical abnormalities of the cerebellum. In some cases, the disorder is also accompanied by syringomyelia. Actions that can be done to reduce the clinical symptoms such as by decompressing the skull bone occipital part, so as to reduce the symptoms of an emphasis on the down part of the cerebellum.Case: Our patients had Chiari malformation type 2 in the presence of syringomyelia. Clinical symptoms appear in the form of head and neck pain back, accompanied by weakness in the left hand. Through surgery, performed the foramen magnum decompression and duroplasty. Anesthesia is done under general anesthesia intravenously, given induction with propofol and fentanyl, propofol intravenous maintenance dose of 100 mcg/kg/min. Postoperative pain patients managed with epidural analgesia which is mounted on the cervical spine area as high as 3, with a regimen of 0.1% bupivacaine and morphine 0.5 mg in a volume of 5 ml.Summary: Chiari malformation is the anatomical abnormalities of the cerebellum that has dangerous potential. Compression occurs at the foramen magnum can cause bulbar palsy and apnea. Decompression actions undertaken to prevent the occurrence of paralysis. Patients with Chiari malformation and syringomyelia is often accompanied by hydrocephalus. Planned anesthetic management should not cause an increase in intra-cranial pressure.Keywords : Chiari malformation,syringomyelia.ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Chiari malformation merupakan kelainan anatomi dari otak kecil dimana tonsil cerebellum turun ke arah Foramen magnum dan menimbulkan serangkaian gejala klinis. Secara umum kelainan ini memiliki 4 tipe klasifikasi berdasarkan derajat beratnya kelainan anatomi dari cerebellum. Pada beberapa kasus dijumpai kelainan juga disertai dengan syringomyelia. Tindakan yang bisa dikerjakan untuk mengurangi gejala klinis antara lain dengan melakukan dekompresi pada tulang cranium bagian occipital, sehingga dapat mengurangi gejala penekanan pada bagian cerebellum yang turun.Kasus: Pasien kami mengalami Chiari malformation tipe 2 dengan adanya syringomyelia. Gejala klinis yang muncul berupa nyeri kepala dan leher bagian belakang, disertai dengan kelemahan pada tangan kiri. Melalui tindakan operatif, dikerjakan dekompresi foramen magnum dan duroplasty. Anestesi dikerjakan dengan anestesi umum intravena, diberikan induksi dengan propofol dan fentanyl, pemeliharaan dengan propofol intravena dosis 100 mcg/kg/menit. Nyeri paska operasi pasien dikelola dengan epidural analgesia yang dipasang pada daerah setinggi vertebra cervical 3, dengan regimen bupivakain 0,1% dan morfin 0,5 mg dalam volume 5 ml.Ringkasan: Chiari malformation adalah kelainan anatomi cerebellum yang memiliki potensi berbahaya. Kompresi yang terjadi pada foramen magnum dapat menyebabkan terjadinya bulbar palsy dan menyebabkan apnea. Tindakan dekompresi dikerjakan untuk mencegah terjadinya kelumpuhan tersebut. Pasien dengan Chiari malformation seringkali disertai dengan syringomyelia dan hidrosefalus. Manajemen anestesi yang direncanakan sebaiknya tidak menimbulkan peningkatan tekanan intra kranial. Kata kunci : Chiari malformation, syringomyelia.
STABILITAS HEMODINAMIK PADA PEMBERIAN FENTANYL SEBAGAI KOINDUKSI PROPOFOL DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN MIDAZOLAM PADA PEMASANGAN LARYNGEAL MASK AIRWAY Rismantara, I Dewa Gede Tresna; Sinardja, I Ketut; Widnyana, I Made Gede
Medicina Vol 45, No 3 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : Medicina

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Kestabilan hemodinamik pada pemasangan laryngeal mask airway (LMA) dengan propofol sebagaiagen induksi dapat dioptimalkan dengan penambahan agen koinduksi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk mengetahui apakah fentanyl sebagai koinduksi dapat memberikan kestabilan hemodinamikdan  kondisi  relaksasi  yang  lebih  baik  dibandingkan  dengan midazolam  pada  pemasangan LMA.Setelah mendapat persetujuan dari bagian etik RSUP Sanglah Denpasar, 42 pasien dengan statusfisik ASA I dan II dilakukan pembiusan umum dengan pemasangan LMA, dipilih secara consecutiverandom sampling. Pasien dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok A diberikan midazolam 0.03 mg/kgbb dan kelompok B diberikan  fentanyl 2 mcg/kgbb.  5 menit  setelah koinduksi pasien diinduksidengan menggunakan target control infusion (TCI) propofol efek target 4 mcg/ml hingga tercapai nilaibispectral index (BIS) 40-60. Kondisi hemodinamik dianggap tidak stabil bila terjadi penurunan nilaitekanan arteri  rerata  (TAR)   postinduksi  lebih dari 20% TAR basal. Total dosis propofol dihitungsejak mulai induksi sampai tercapai nilai BIS 40-60 yang tercatat pada mesin TCI. Kondisi relaksasidinilai  dengan  kriteria Young?s. Data  yang  didapat  akan  diolah  dengan  software  SPSS  17.0.karakteristik  sampel  diuji  normalitas  dengan Shapiro-Wilk  dan  homogenitas  dengan  tes  levene.Perbandingan hemodinamik dan total dosis propofol diuji dengan uji t-2-sampel tidak berpasangandan kondisi  relaksasi  saat pemasangan LMA diuji dengan  chi-square  dengan  tingkat kemaknaanP<0,05 Terdapat perbedaan yang tidak bermakna pada penurunan nilai TAR saat pemasangan LMAdibandingkan nilai basal pada kedua kelompok uji yaitu A 13,08%  (SB 2,88%) dan B 14.11%  (SB2.96%) dengan nilai P = 0.216, total dosis propofol yang digunakan secara signifikan lebih sedikit padakelompok A 118.71 mg (SB 13,24 mg) dibandingkan kelompok B 131,61 mg (SB 12.86 mg) dengan P =0,003,  sedangkan  kondisi  relaksasi  yang  dihasilkan  tidak  berbeda  bermakna  dengan P  =  0,739.Simpulan penelitian  ini bahwa  fentanyl  sebagai koinduksi propofol  tidak  lebih baik dibandingkanmidazolam  dalam hal  stabilitas hemodinamik  dan kondisi  relaksasi  pada  pemasangan LMA,  danmenurunkan  dosis  induksi  propofol  lebih  sedikit  dibandingkan  dengan midazolam.  [MEDICINA2014;45:145-150].
Correlation Between Protein Intake and Nitrogen Balance of Surgical Patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung; Widnyana, I Made Gede; Panji, Putu Agus Surya; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; Cindryani, Marilaeta
BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL Vol 5, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : BALI MEDICAL JOURNAL

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Background: A cell injury from surgical stress in a trauma or a non-trauma case will induce a hyper metabolic response in which the protein degradation increases, the somatic protein synthesis decreases and the amino acid catabolism increases. Thus, the pyper metabolic response contributes to nitrogen loss in urine. This response, without an adequate nutrition, will lead an iatrogenic malnutrition and deterioration. A balance nitrogen formula through urinary urea nitrogen is one of many nutrition evaluation methods. This method aids in evaluating the daily nutrition status and it can be the baseline data for daily intake. Objective: To find a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of the surgical patients in anesthesiology and intensive care installation, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali. Methods: Fifty-one surgical patients with trauma and non-trauma cases were observed for their protein intake for 2-3 days continuously. Moreover, they were evaluated for their nitrogen balance based on the urinary urea nitrogen per 24 hours for 2-3 days. For statistical analysis, we utilized Shapiro-Francia, Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman Frank correlation, two-sample t test, and multivariate regression analysis in Strata SE 12.1. Results: The correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance on the first day was ra=0.50 (p<0.05), on the second day ra=0.70 (p<0,05), and on the third day ra=0.740 (p<0,05) Conclusions: There is a correlation between the protein intake and the nitrogen balance of surgical patients in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Installation Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar.
Efficacy of Subcutaneous Morphine Patient Controlled Analgesia Compared to Intravenous Morphine Patient Controlled Analgesia on Cesarean Section Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Budiarta, I Gede; Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung; Widnyana, I Made Gde; Aribawa, I Gusti Ngurah Mahaalit; Nainggolan, Elisma
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i3.27

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Background: Cesarean section causes moderate to severe pain in the first 48 hours postoperatively, thus requiring an adequate perioperative pain management, not only so that the mother can be quickly discharged but also to perform daily activities after surgery such as breastfeeding and nurse the baby.Objective: To determine the efficacy of subcutaneous morphine patient controlled analgesia (SC-PCA) in lowering VAS (visual analogue score), total morphine consumption and postoperative side effect on cesarean section compared with intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (IV- PCA).Methods: This study is an experimental clinical trial using consecutive sampling technique. Sixty-four subjects were allocated into two groups of PCA morphine subcutaneously (SC-PCA) and the group PCA morphine intravenously (IV-PCA), each consisting of 32 subjects using permuted block randomization. Morphine concentration was 5 mg/ml (group SC-PCA) or the concentration of 1mg/ml (group IV-PCA). Both groups were then analyzed for VAS ratings, total morphine consumption, and adverse effects, post operatively at 4th, 8th, and 24th hour. Statistic analysis using repeated ANOVA test and t-test with p <0.05 onsidered significant.Result: Morphine consumption in IV-PCA group showed lower needs than SC-PCA (9.41 mg vs 4,9mg) p <0.001 24 at 24 hours postoperatively. The VAS at resting at 4th hours statistically significantly lower in IV-PCA group (1.06 ± 0.71 vs 0.81 ± 1.40, p=0.029) and at 8th hours (1.03 ± 0.59 vs 0.94 ± 0,9, p=0.048). The moving VAS at 4th hours statistically significant lower in IV-PCA group (2.31 ± 0.47 vs 1.45 ± 2.06, p=0.019) but the static or VAS at moving are not different clinically. Side effects of nausea and vomiting are more common in IV-PCA group. We conclude that SC-PCA provide analgesia more effective and decreases side effects in patients undergo sectio cesarea with spinal anesthesia.
The effectiveness of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) morphine-ketamine compared to Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) morphine to reduce total dose of morphine and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) in postoperative laparotomy surgery Mahaalit Aribawa, I Gusti Ngurah; Agung Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde; Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Budiarta, I Gede; Gede Widnyana, I Made; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; Parami, Pontisomaya; Nyoman Kurniasari, Pande; Putra Pradhana, Adinda
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i2.11

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Background: Laparotomy may cause moderate to severe after surgery pain, thus adequate pain management is needed. The addition of ketamine in patient controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine after surgery can be the option. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PCA morphine-ketamine compared to PCA morphine in patient postoperative laparotomy surgery to reduce total dose of morphine requirement and pain intensity evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS). Methods: This study was a double-blind RCT in 58 patients of ASA I and II, age 18-64 years, underwent an elective laparotomy at Sanglah General Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A, got addition of ketamine (1mg/ml) in PCA morphine (1mg/ml) and patients in group B received morphine (1mg/ml) by PCA. Prior to surgical incision both group were given a bolus ketamine 0,15mg/ kg and ketorolac 0,5mg/kg. The total dose of morphine and VAS were measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Result: Total dose of morphine in the first 24 hours postoperatively at morphine-ketamine group (5,1±0,8mg) is lower than morphine only group (6,5±0,9mg) p<0,001. VAS (resting) 6 and 12 hour postoperative in morphine-ketamine group (13,4±4,8 mm) and (10,7±2,6 mm) are lower than morphine (17,9±4,1mm) p≤0,05 and (12,8±5,3mm) p≤0,05. VAS (moving) 6, 12, and 24 hour postoperative morphineketamine group (24,8±5,1mm), (18±5,6mm) and (9±5,6mm) are lower than morphine (28,7±5,2mm) p≤0,05, (23,1±6,0mm) p≤0,05, and (12,8±5,3mm) p≤0,05. Conclusions: Addition of ketamine in PCA morphine for postoperative laparotomy surgery reduces total morphine requirements in 24 hours compared to PCA morphine alone.
Non-Convulsive Status Epilepticus (NCSE) in ICU Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; GdeAgung Senapathi, Tjokorda; Gede Widnyana, I Made; Utara Hartawan, I Gusti Agung Gede; Parami, Pontisomaya; Ryalino, Christopher; Putra Pradhana, Adinda
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i1.5

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Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is defined as a persistent change in mental status as opposed to the previous conditions, lasted at least 30 minutes long,  associated with continuous spike wave epileptiform EEG changes. Clinical manifestation of NCSE can present as confusion, personality changes, psychosis, and coma. Indeed NCSE prognosis is dependent on the underlying etiology of persistent EEG changes of. Preferred medication is focus on improving its fundamental pathological changes, such as metabolic disorders, infection, drugs toxicity, and immediate pharmacological treatment. Intravenous benzodiazepine is recommended asthe first drug of choice for NCSE and early recognition of treatment response can help to establish the diagnosis.  This patient has a good outcome which was influenced with short ictal period from the first episode upon arrival on reffered hospital, good initial response and management on emergency department, a conduct and thorough ICU monitoring, as well as the effective treatment response.
Low Dose Ketamin Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Budiarta, I Gede; Agung Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde; Widnyana, Made; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; Utara Hartawan, I Gusti Agung Gede; Parami, Pontisomaya; Novita Pradnyani, Ni Putu; Putra Pradhana, Adinda
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i1.4

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Ketamine binds non-competitive against a phencyclidine receptors bound N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a receptor that is involved in the pathophysiology of acute pain. Ketamine has been used as an intravenous anesthesia, analgesia for acute and chronic pain at a dose of subanaesthetic. Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic produces a state with a characteristic strong analgesia, amnesia, and catalepsy. Dissociative components resulting from the effect on the limbic system and talamoneokortikal. Low-dose ketamine as known as analgesia dose ketamine or subanestesia dose is 0.2 to 0.75 mg / kg IV. At low doses, ketamine does not increase the effect psikomimetik like dissociation or deep sedation. The combination with midazolam provides satisfactory sedation, amnesia and analgesia without significant cardiovascular depression.
Anesthesia on Pediatric Laproscopy Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Kurniyanta, Putu; GdeAgung Senapathi, Tjokorda; Gede Widnyana, I Made; Utara Hartawan, I Gusti Agung Gede; Parami, Pontisomaya; Darma Junaedi, I Made; Putra Pradhana, Adinda
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i1.1

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Laparoscopic surgery has several advantages compared to a regular surgical procedures. This technique can reduce the stress of surgery, reduce the need for postoperative analgesia, decreased respiratory and wound complications, lowering long hospitalization, including in the intensive therapy, and the patient can go back to eat quickly. The magnitude of changes in vital signs that occur will be influenced by the patients age, cardiovascular function, and anesthetic agents are used. Physiological changes in pediatric laparoscopic surgery were similar to adults. Children have a higher vagal tone and sometimes a stimulus to the peritoneum by insufflation gas or penetration laparoscopic and trocar can lead to bradycardia and asystole. Intra-abdominal pressure is an important determinant for maintaining cardiovascular stability during laparoscopy. Adequate relaxation needed during the duration of the surgery.
Central Venous Pressure Correlates with Inferior Vena Cava Collapsibility Index in Patient Treated in Intensive Care Unit Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; GdeAgung Senapathi, Tjokorda; Gede Widnyana, I Made; Mahaalit Aribawa, I Gusti Ngurah; Gede Utara Hartawan, I Gusti Agung; Parami, Pontisomaya; Perangin Angin, Emkel
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i1.2

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Background: Intravascular volume status is an important parameter in monitoring the patients treated at intensive care unit (ICU), so accuracy and strict monitoring of fluid volume is one factor that influence patient’s health status. Amongst others, two ways to monitor body fluid volume status is central venous pressure (CVP) and collapsibility index of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between CVP with the IVC collapsibility index in patients treated in ICU Sanglah Hospital in Denpasar. Method: Seventy patients treated at Sanglah Hospital ICU with already inserted CVC for appropriate indication, were measured for CVP, then followed by examination the diameter of IVC with ultrasound to measure the maximum and minimum collapsibility index. Spearman’s correlation coefficients was used to assess the correlation between CVP and collapsibility index of the IVC. Results: In 70 patients, we found a very strong negative correlation between CVP and IVC’s collapsibility index (Spearmans rho = -0.854; p <0.001). Conclusion: This study found that there is a very strong negative correlation between CVP and collapsibility index of IVC. This finding indicates that the collapsibility index of the IVC may substitute CVP in determining the status of the intravascular volume.
Effectiveness of Infusion Warmer Use to Prevent the Occurrence of Hypothermia and Shivering After General Anesthesia Action in General Hospital Center Sanglah Denpasar Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, I Ketut; Budiarta, I Gede; Agung Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde; Widnyana, Made; Aryabiantara, I Wayan; Utara Hartawan, I Gusti Agung Gede; Parami, Pontisomaya; Kusuma Wijaya, Andi; Putra Pradhana, Adinda
Bali Journal of Anesthesiology Vol 1, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : DiscoverSys Inc.

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15562/bjoa.v1i1.3

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Introduction: Shivering and hypothermia after general anesthesia is a common complication in the recovery room. Heating methods and drugs  widely used, but not yet effective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using the infusion warmer in maintaining normal core temperature and prevent shivering. Materials and Methods: The study was a non blindnes randomized control trial study. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the use of infusion warmer in preventing the incidence of hypothermia and shivering after general anesthesia. Research conducted at the Sanglah Hospital in October 2016, with sample calculations 58 people who meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both were divided into 2 groups, 29 groups of infusion warmer and 29 people without the infusion warmer Recording the results of assessing multiple parameters vital signs, hemodynamic, aldrette score, body temperature, and shivering from the beginning, after induction, and minutes to 5, 15, 30 , 60 in the recovery room. The data obtained were analyzed with SPSS software with a significance level of p <0.005 expressed significantly, with a relative risk <1 as a preventive. Results: From a comparative picture of events shivering and hypothermia in minutes to 5, 15, 30, 60 in the recovery room seen that the treatment group based on the group lower warmer than in the non warmer. This shows that the use of warmer can prevent the incidence of shivering and hypothermia in patients after general anesthesia. In test statistically significant with p <0.05. Conclusions: The use of infusion warmer can help reduce the incidence of hypothermia and shivering after general anesthesia action.