Minarma Siagian
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta

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Intermittent hypoxia hypobaric exposure minimized oxidative stress and antioxidants in brain cells of Sprague Dawleymice Wardaya, Wardaya; Mulyawan, Wawan; Siagian, Minarma
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 Des (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/HSJI/article/view/3068

Abstract

AbstrakLatar belakang: Hipoksia hypobaric meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas, terutama spesies oksigen reaktif (ROS). Peningkatan ROS akan menyebabkan stres oksidatif bila tidak disertai dengan peningkatan enzim antioksidan. Kondisi ini dapat dikurangi dengan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten (HHI). Tujuan penelitian ini mengidentifikasi frekuensi IHH yang dapat meminimalkan efek hipoksia hipobarik terhadap stres oksidatif dan aktivitas antioksidan spesifik pada tikus Sprague Dawley.Metode: Penelitian eksperimental pada bulan Februari-April 2010, Subjek terdiri dari satu kelompok kontrol dan empat kelompok paparan pada mencit jantan Sprague Dawley. Setiap kelompok terdiri dari 5 tikus. Kelompok kontrol tidak terpapar IHH. Kelompok terpapar (dengan selang waktu satu minggu) terpapar sekali, dua kali, tiga kali, atau empat kali IHH. Semua kelompok paparan dipaparkan hipobarik setara dengan ketinggian: 35.000 ft (1 menit), 25.000 ft (5 menit), dan 18.000 ft (25 menit). Jaringan otak diperiksa untuk 8-OHdG dan SOD.Hasil:Setelah tiga paparan IHH tingkat 8-OHdG sudah kembali ke nilai kontrol (P = 0,843). Tingkat SOD meningkat secara progresif pada dua, tiga, dan empat kali paparan IHH. Bahkan setelah paparan kedua, tingkat SOD sudah sama dengan nilai kontrol, 0,231 ± 0,042 (P = 0,191).Kesimpulan: Tiga kali IHH sudah dapat meminimalkan pengaruh hipoksia hipobarik terhadap stres oksidatif dan aktivitas spesifik antioksidan pada tikus Sprague Dawley.Kata kunci: hipoksia hipobarik intermiten, stres oksidatif, antioksidanAbstractBackground: Hypoxia hypobaric increase the production of free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increase in ROS would cause oxidative stress when not accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzymes. This condition may minimize by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH). This study aimed to identify the number of IHH which may minimize the effect of hypoxia hypobaric on oxidative stress and the specific activity of antioxidants in Sprague Dawley male mice.Methods: The experimental study was in February-April 2010 consisted of one control group and four exposed groups of male mice Sprague Dawley. Each groups consisted of 5 mice. The control group did not have IHH. The exposed groups (with an interval of one week) had once, twice, three, or four times IHH using a chamber flight. All exposed groups were treated hypobaric equivalent to: 35,000 ft altitude (1 minutes), 25,000 ft (5 minutes), and 18,000 ft (25 minutes). All of their brains had 8-OHdG and SOD measured.Results: The 8-OHdG level among three time IHH exposures had already returned to the control value (P = 0.843). The SOD level increased progressively among two, three, and four times IHH. However after the second exposure, it was found that the SOD level was similar to the control value, 0.231 ± 0.042 (P = 0.191).Conclusion: In conclusion, three times of IHH may improve the effect of hypoxia hypobaric on oxidative stress and specific activity of antioxidants in Sprague Dawley male mice. The SOD level was increased at an earlier exposure, which was after one IHH exposure.Keywords: intermittent hypoxia hypobaric, oxidative stress, antioxidants
Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots Siagian, Minarma
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 Des (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/HSJI/article/view/3067

Abstract

AbstrakLatar belakang: Penerbangan dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia. Penerbang terpajan antara lain pada bising dan vibrasi pesawat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor penerbangan pada tekanan darah sistolik.Metode: Penelitian nested case-control dilakukan pada penerbang Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA) Saryanto tahun 2003–2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, jumlah jam terbang, jenis pesawat, kadar glukosa puasa dan kadar kholesterol darah, lingkaran pinggang, tinggi dan berat badan, tinggi badan, serta tekanan darah.Hasil: Dari 336 penerbang, terdapat 16 penerbanga dengan tekanan sistolik ³ 140 mmHg. Penerbang dengan rata-rata jam penerbangan 300-622 jam per tahun dibandingkan dengan 29-299 jam per tahun mempunyai risiko peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi sebesarf 5 kali [rasio odds suaian (ORa) = 5,05, 95% interval kepercayaan (CI) = 0,88 -23,30, P = 0,070]. Menurut jam terbang total, mereka yang memiliki 1.401-1,1125 jam dibandingkan 147-1.400 jam berisiko 3,6 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 3,58, 95% CI = 1,24-10,38). Selain itu, mereka dengan denyut nadi istirahat tinggi dibandingkan dengan denyut nadi normal istirahat memiliki 2,4 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 2,37, CI = 0,74-7,50 95, P = 0,147].Kesimpulan: Vibrasi pesawat terbang tinggi, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun tinggi, dan frekuensi nadi istirahat yang tinggi meningkatkan risiko tekanan sistolik tinggi.Kata kunci:tekanan darah sistolik, vibrasi pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Flight may affect the human cardiovascular system. Pilots are exposed among others to aircraft noise and vibration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aircraft flight on systolic blood pressure.Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA) from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index), and blood pressure.Results: Of 336 pilots, there were 16 with systolic pressure  140 mmHg. The pilot who had high vibration than low vibration had 2.8-fold to be high systolic blood pressure [adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.83; 95%confidence interval (CI) =1.16-22.04). In term of average flight hours, those who had average flight hours of 300-622 hours per year compared to 29-299 hours per year had 5-fold increased risk to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 5.05; 95% CI =1.16-22.04]. Furthermore, those who had high than normal resting pulse rate had 2.4 times to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 2.37; 95 CI =0.81-6.97; P = 0.115).Conclusion:High aircraft vibration, high average flight hours per year, and high resting pulse rate increase risk high systolic blood pressure in air force pilots.Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aircraft vibration, resting pulse rate, pilots
Factors affecting high resting pulse rate in military pilots Siagian, Minarma
Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 Des (2013)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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Abstract

AbstrakLatar belakang: Pilot terpajan pada keadaan yang memerlukan kewaspadaan yang meningkatkan kegiatan sistem saraf simpatis. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia, yang antara lain tercermin pada peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor yang meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung pada pilot. Metode:Penelitian nested case-control yang dilakukan pada pilot militer yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA) Saryanto dari tahun 2003 sampai 2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, pangkat, jumlah jam terbang, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun, dan jenis pesawat. Hasil: Dari 539 pilot, terdapat 155 pilot dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi. Dibandingkan dengan pilot berumur 23-29 tahun, pilot berumur 30-39 tahun mempunyai risiko 66% lebih banyak untuk frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa) = 1,66; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI) = 1,17-2,35, P = 0,004], sedangkan yang berumur 40-49 tahun berisiko 2,4 kali (ORa = 2,40; P = 0,000]. Dibandingkan pilot pesawat transport, pilot pesawat tempur berisiko 59% lebih banyak dengan frekuensi nadi istirahat tinggi (ORa = 1,59; P = 0,002). Kesimpulan:Umur pilot yang semakin tua dan jenis pesawat tempur meningkatkan risiko frekuensi nadi istirahat pada pilot. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4)Kata kunci:umur, jenis pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Pilots are almost constantly exposed to emergency situations which increase sympathetic activity. This will affect the cardiovascular system, which among others will be reflected by increased resting pulse rate. The aim of this study was to investigate factors that increase resting pulse rate in pilots. Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force military pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA) from 2003 to 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, rank, total flight hours, average yearly flight hours, and type of aircraft. Results: Out of 539 pilots, there were 155 with high resting pulse rate. Compared to pilots aged 23-29 years, pilots aged 30-39 years had 66% more risk for high resting pulse rate [adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-2.35, P = 0.004], and those aged 40-49 years had a 2.4 risk (ORa = 2.40; P = 0.000]. Compared to pilots of transport planes, jet fighter pilots had a 59% more risk for high resting pulse rate (ORa = 1.59; P = 0.002). Conclusion: Older  age  and  fighter  jets  increased  the  risk  of  high  resting  pulse  rate  in  pilots. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:51-4)Key words: age, type of aircraft, resting pulse rate, pilots
The impact of β-hCG on placental angiogenesis in pre-eclampsia Subakir, Sri B.; Jauhari, Tri; Iriana, Pramita; Siagian, Minarma; Setiadji, Sutarmo
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 14, No 2 (2005): April-June
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (157.131 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v14i2.175

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Numerous factors, such as VEGF and intra-placental oxygenation, can influence placental angiogenic activity. Early in the normal gestation period, β-hCG enhance VEGF activity to induce angiogenesis. The aims of this study were to identify the correlation between β-hCG concentration in placental culture and placental angiogenic activity in pre-eclampsia. Ten placenta samples from women with pre-eclampsia and l0 from controls (normal pregnancy) were collected. All subjects agreed to participate in this study and signed an informed consent form. β-hCG concentration in supernatant of placental culture was measured by Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA) and placental angiogenic activity was measured by endothelial cell migration toward placental explant (score 0-4). The results showed that the median score of placental angiogenic activity in pre-eclampsia was significantly higher than in normal pregnancy (p<0.05). Concentration of β-ahCG in pre-eclampsia was significantly higher than in normal pregnancy (p<0.001). hCG concentration in placental culture was positively correlated to placental angiogenic activity both in pre-eclampsia (r=+0.50) and in normal pregnancy (r=+0.57). Althouglt the correlations were weak, β-hCG is considered one of the factors that influence placental angiogenic activity. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 67-70)Keyvords: angiogenesis, β-hCG, plocenta, pre-eclampsia
Hypertension in Indonesian air force pilots Siagian, Minarma
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 21, No 1 (2012): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (384.636 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v21i1.477

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Background: To investigate the association between aircraft noise and blood pressure.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Health (LAKESPRA) from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index), and blood pressure.Results: There were 549 pilots, 49 were found to be hypertensive, with SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Helicopters pilots were at an almost 2 fold risk of hypertension compared to pilots of the fixed wing aircrafts. Pilots with more than 1400 hours of flight had more than 2 fold risk of being hypertensive compared to those with 1400 flight hours or less.Conclusion: The type of aircraft, which is related to the noise generated, may be a risk factor for developing hypertension in pilots. Increased total flight hours also increased the risk of hypertension. (Med J Indones 2012;21:38-43)Keywords: Aircraft noise, hypertension, pilots
Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation therapy on myeloperoxidase in lowering cardiovascular events of patients with chronic heart failure Rampengan, Starry H.; Setianto, Budhi; Posangi, Jimmy; Immanuel, Suzanna; Prihartono, Judo; Siagian, Minarma; Kalim, Harmani; Inneke, Sirowanto; Abdullah, Murdani; Waspadji, Sarwono
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 22, No 3 (2013): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (911.558 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.584

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Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a slowly progressive disease with high morbidity and mortality; therefore, the management using pharmacological treatments frequently fails to improve outcome. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP), a non-invasive treatment, may serve as alternative treatment for heart failure. This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of EECP on myeloperoxidase (MPO) as inflammatory marker as well as cardiac events outcome.Methods: This was an open randomized controlled clinical trial on 66 CHF patients visiting several cardiovascular clinics in Manado between January-December 2012. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, i.e. the group who receive EECP therapy and those who did not receive EECP therapy with 33 patients in each group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) as inflammatory marker was examined at baseline and after 6 months of observation. Cardiovascular events were observed as well after 6 months of observation. Unpaired t-test was use to analyze the difference of MPO between the two groups, and chi-square followed by calculation of relative risk were used for estimation of cardiovascular event outcomes.Results: MPO measurement at baseline and after 6 months in EECP group were 643.16 ± 239.40 pM and 422.31 ± 156.26 pM, respectively (p < 0.001). Whereas in non EECP group, the MPO values were 584.69 ± 281.40 pM and 517.64 ± 189.68 pM, repectively (p = 0.792). MPO reduction was observed in all patients of EECP group and in 13 patients (48%) of non-EECP group (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular events were observed in 7 (21.21%) and 15 (45.45%) of patients in EECP and non-EECP groups, respectively (p = 0.037).Conclusion: EECP therapy significantly decreased the level of MPO as inflammatory marker and this decrease was correlated with the reduction of cardiovascular events in CHF patients. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:152-60. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.584)Keywords: CHF, cardiovascular events, EECP, myeloperoxidase
Combined traditional medicine and pharmacological antihypertensive drugs in a rural community of West Java, Indonesia Basuki, Bastaman; Siagian, Minarma; Ilyas, Ermita I.; Amri, Zarni
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 13, No 4 (2004): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (172.464 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v13i4.160

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Some hypertensive subjects in Indonesia consume traditional herbal medicines in addition to the usual pharmacological drugs. This paper studied the relationship between several traditional herbal medicines, such as morinda, star fruit, garlic, or jamu, believed to control hypertension and the risk of current pharmacological antihypertensive drug users in subjects with stage 1 and 2 hypertension in a rural community West Java, Indonesia. The data were obtained from 3 field studies by the second year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia conducted in 2001, 2002, and 2003 in a subdistrict of the Bogor regency. The subjects were selected randomly from neighborhood clusters. Interviews and blood pressure measurements were conducted at the houses of the subjects by specially trained second year medical students supervised by faculty members. There were 496 subjects with stage 1 or 2 hypertension, with 11.5% under current antihypertensive drugs. Compared with the hypertension stage 1 subjects, hypertension stage 2 subjects were 5.4 times more likely to be currently taking pharmacological antihypertensive medication (adjusted odds ratio = 5.44; 95% confidence interval = 2.64-11.27). The combined of current antihypertensive medication with traditional medicines were cucumber which being the most dominant followed by star fruit and morinda. Reasons for this were probably the strong influence of culture, the limited medical facilities, and high cost of the antihypertensive drugs. It was concluded that in a rural Indonesia, it was common for hypertensive subjects to take pharmacological drugs as well as traditional medicine for antihypertensive therapy. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 246-51)Keywords: hypertension, pharmacological drugs, traditional medicine, Indonesia
High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots Siagian, Minarma; Basuki, Bastaman; Kusmana, Dede
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 18, No 4 (2009): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (139.482 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v18i4.375

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Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA) in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9%) had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI ) = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61). In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03).Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82)Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots
Endothelial cell culture from human umbilical cord vein Subakir, Sri B.; Santoso, Dewi I. S.; Siagian, Minarma; Maging, I.G.A.F.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 (1994): April-June
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (401.338 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v3i2.944

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[no abstract available]
Effects of anaerobic exercise and detraining on the caspase-3 expression of rat ventricular cardiomyocyte Siagian, Minarma; Lousiana, Maria; Santoso, Dewi I.S.; Endardjo, Sutjahjo
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 24, No 2 (2015): June
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (659.577 KB) | DOI: 10.13181/mji.v24i2.1220

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Background: Anaerobic physical exercise is a high intensity physical exercise performed in a short time. This exercise can stimulate apoptosis in left ventricular cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study is to analyze the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes after anaerobic exercise and detraining.Methods: Thirty two wistar rats Ratus Novergicus 250-350 grams (8-10 weeks old) were divided into the following groups (n = 4) and given naerobic physical exercise four and 12 weeks (group Exc-4, Exc-12) and anaerobic exercise followed by four weeks of detraining (Exc-4-D, Exc-12-D). The control groups were only observed in the same period (group CTL-4, CTL-12, CTL-4-D, CTL-12-D). At the end of observation, the rats were sacrificed and examination of the expression of caspase-3 as an indicator of apoptosis was done using immunohistochemical staining. Data were analyzed with ANOVA test.Results: An increase in expression of caspase-3 in the group Exc-4 (72.03%) compared to the CTL-4 (27.22%), (p < 0,001); and Exc-12 (79.30%) compared to the CTL-12 (30.53%) (p = 0.027). Detraining process showed a significant decline Capase-3 expression (31.12% in exc-4-D and 30.44% in the exc-12-D).Conclusion: Anaerobic physical exercise can increase apoptosis in rat left ventricle cardiomyocyte characterized by increased expression of caspase-3. Detraining can improve heart condition characterized by decreased expression of caspase-3.