M. Nurhalim Shahib
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung

Published : 9 Documents
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Aspek Patobiologis pada Penyakit Trofoblas Gestasional

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 10, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Penyakit trofoblas gestasional (PTG) mencakup mola hidatidosa (komplit dan parsial) dan tumor trofoblas gestasional (mola invasif, koriokarsinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, dan epithelioid trophoblastic tumour). Para ahli mempelajari kelainan perkembangan sel-sel trofoblas pada berbagai lesi trofoblastik PTG termasuk exaggerated placental site dan placental site nodule melalui gambaran morfologis, sitogenetik, imunofenotip, dan profil ekspresi gen. Upaya tersebut dilakukan untuk memahami patogenesis tumor trofoblas gestasional yang belum dipahami secara jelas, serta pengembangan diagnosis patologis dan molekuler dari berbagai tipe tumor trofoblas, pencarian petanda-petanda genetik untuk prognosis, dan penentuan target-target terapi potensial bagi bentuk metastatis dari PTG yang resisten terhadap pengobatan konvensional. Ketertarikan yang besar untuk mengetahui patogenesis PTG belumlah cukup bagi kemajuan penanganan PTG tanpa disertai ketekunan untuk mendapatkan petanda kanker yang tidak hanya diduga berperan dalam penyakit ini, namun dibutuhkan tahapan panjang dalam pencarian dan validasi petanda-petanda kanker untuk diagnostik, prognostik, dan target terapi.Kata kunci: penyakit trofoblas gestasional, mola hidatidosa, koriokarsinoma, placental sitetrophoblastic tumor, sitotrofoblas, sinsitiotrofoblas.

Peran Lem Fibrin Otologus pada Penempelan Tandur Konjungtiva Bulbi Mata Kelinci terhadap Ekspresi Gen Fibronektin dan Integrin

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 43, No 4 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran

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AbstrakPenempelan jaringan dan penyembuhan luka pada cangkok konjungtiva lebih cepat pada teknik lem fibrin otologus (LFO) dibandingkan dengan teknik jahitan. Kedua proses tersebut memerlukan interaksi fibronektin (FN) dan integrin α5 yang mengaktivasi alur persinyalan intraselular. Tujuan penelitian untuk menentukan kekuatan ekspresi gen FN serta integrin α5 pada kelompok teknik LFO dan jahitan. Uji eksperimental hewan pada kelinci New Zealand White yang terbagi kelompok teknik LFO dan jahitan masing-masing 8 kelinci bertempat di Laboratorium Sentral (Biologi Molekuler) FK Unpad Bandung, periode Mei–Oktober 2008. Sampel jaringan untuk pemeriksaan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diambil dari eksterpasi satu hari sesudah jaringan cangkok konjungtiva bulbi. Analisis data untuk uji hipotesis dengan Mann Whitney for small sample. Ekspresi gen messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) FN secara bermakna lebih kuat pada teknik LFO dibandingkan dengan teknik jahitan (1,9 vs 1,0; p=0,014). Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna ekspresi gen (mRNA) integrin α5 antara teknik LFO dan teknik jahitan (1,2 vs 1,0; p=0,235). Sebagai simpulan ekspresi gen FN lebih kuat pada teknik LFO dibandingkan dengan jahitan, sedangkan ekspresi gen integrin α5 pada teknik LFO lebih kuat dibandingkan dengan teknik jahitan namun secara statistik tidak bermakna satu hari pascabedah. [MKB. 2011;43(4):183–8].Kata kunci: Fibronektin, integrin α5, lem fibrin otologus, RT-PCRThe Role of Autologous Fibrin Glue on Attachment Rabbit Conjungtival Graft Based on Fibronectin and Integrin Gene ExpressionThe tissue attachment and wound healing in conjunctional transplantation was more rapid with autologous fibrin glue (AFG) than suture techniques. Both tissue attachment and wound healing process need interaction between fibronectin (FN) dan integrin α5 activating the intra cellular signal transduction pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression, i.e. FN and integrin in conjunctival transplantation, comparing between AFG and suturing techniques. Animal experimental study was done in New Zealand White rabbits, which divided into AFG and suturing technique at Laboratorium Sentral (Biologi Molekuler) FK Unpad Bandung during May–October 2008, each 8 rabbits, respectively. The tissue sample for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) examination was taken from the tissue excision one day after conjunctival bulbi transplantation. Data analysis was tested using Mann Whitney for small sample. The FN gene expression power of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the AFG technique was stronger than that in suturing technique (1.9 vs 1.0, p=0.014). There was no significant difference in integrin α5 gene expression of mRNA between AFG and suturing techniques (1.2 vs 1.0, p=0.235). In conclusions, FN gene expression in AFG technique is stronger than suturing technique. There is no difference in integrin α5 gene expression between two techniques, however there is a tendency of increased integrin α5 gene expression one day after surgery. [MKB. 2011;43(4):183–8].Key words: Autologous fibrin glue, fibronectin, integrin α5, RT-PCR

Brain Damage due to Excessive Glycine Diet Related to NR2B Protein

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 11, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Damaged brain will lower the quality of life. Several efforts to prevent brain damage have been performed, including the studies to understand the brain damage mechanisms and to find the drugs to prevent further damages. One of the brain damage mechanisms after the trauma caused by ischemia, infection, etc. is the exitotoxic reaction triggered by excessive Ca2+ influx into the neuron. The influx is facilitated by ion channel at neuron, and the performance of this channel is influenced by its subunits, such as NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A,B. The NR1 subunit helps the opening of the channel after binding Glycine, while the NR2B subunit helps the opening after binding Glutamate. Glycine and Glutamate are ligands working as coagonist to each other. The presence of excessive Glycine is considered to increase the Ca2+ influx, which can lead to neuronal death through apoptotic pathway. Therefore, brain-damage patients’ intake of foodstuff rich in Glycine should be controlled to prevent them from further damage.

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMON CARP MEAT (Cyprinus carpio) DIET ON BRAIN INDEX AND THE EXPRESSION OF GENE NR2B OF SWISS WEBSTER MICE CEREBRUM

Journal of Medicine and Health Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Maranatha Christian University

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This research was to evaluate the influence of common carp meat diet on brain index and  gene NR2B expression of  Swiss Webster mice cerebrum.  The gene expression and performance of ion Ca2+ channel in neuron are influenced by Glycine and Glutamic Acid, which present in relatively high quantities in common carp meat.  Eighteen male mice were divided into 3 diet groups, the standard pellet, 120 mg and 480 mg common carp meat/day.  The brain index differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA test (p≤0,05) and LSD.  The total RNA of 5 mg mouse cerebrum was isolated, followed by RT-PCR; the DNA quantities were predicted using Geldoc instrument, then were analyzed using ANOVA test (p≤0,05).  The 120 mg diet group brain index did not show difference (p=0,284) against the standard diet group, while the 480 mg diet group showed the increase compared to the standard (p=0,034) and 120 mg diet groups (p=0,004).  No DNA quantity differences of all groups (p=0,195).  It was concluded, the 480 mg common carp meat/ day diet increased the brain index of Swiss Webster mice, while the 120 mg and 480 mg common carp/day diets did not influence the gene NR2B expression of Swiss Webster mice cerebrum. Keywords : brain index, gene NR2B expression, common carp meat diet

The Effect of Programmed Physical Exercise to Attention and Working Memory Score in Medical Students

Althea Medical Journal Vol 2, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Abstract

Background: Attention and working memory are two cognitive domain crucial for activities of daily living. Physical exercise increases the level of BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF which contributes in attention and working memory processes.This study was conducted to analyze improvement of attention and working memoryafter programmed physical exercise of Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP).Methods: An analytic observational study was conducted on 47 students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran during September-November 2012. Attention was assessed using digit span backward test, stroop test, visual search task, and trail making test. Working memory was assessed using digit span forward test and digit symbol test. Assessment was done on the 11th and 19th week of Pendas XXI AMP. Data distribution was tested first using a test of normality, and then analyzed using T-Dependent Test and Wilcoxon TestResults: Significant improvement was noted for attention in males based on working time for stroop test (26.50±5.66 to 22.03±3.78 seconds), working memory in males based on digit symbol test score (43.96±6.14 to 53.36±5.26 points), attention in females based on reaction time of visual search task for target absent (0.92±0.07 to 0.87±0.07 seconds), and working memory in females based on digit span forward score (5.42±1.30 to 6.63±1.07 points) and digit symbol test score (42.47±5.95 to 53.84±5.33 points.Conclusions: Exercise in Pendas XXI AMP improves attention and working memory for college students in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. [AMJ.2015;2(1):291–97]

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMON CARP MEAT (Cyprinus carpio) DIET ON BRAIN INDEX AND THE EXPRESSION OF GENE NR2B OF SWISS WEBSTER MICE CEREBRUM

Journal of Medicine & Health Vol 1, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

This research was to evaluate the influence of common carp meat diet on brain index and  gene NR2B expression of  Swiss Webster mice cerebrum.  The gene expression and performance of ion Ca2+ channel in neuron are influenced by Glycine and Glutamic Acid, which present in relatively high quantities in common carp meat.  Eighteen male mice were divided into 3 diet groups, the standard pellet, 120 mg and 480 mg common carp meat/day.  The brain index differences among groups were analyzed using ANOVA test (p≤0,05) and LSD.  The total RNA of 5 mg mouse cerebrum was isolated, followed by RT-PCR; the DNA quantities were predicted using Geldoc instrument, then were analyzed using ANOVA test (p≤0,05).  The 120 mg diet group brain index did not show difference (p=0,284) against the standard diet group, while the 480 mg diet group showed the increase compared to the standard (p=0,034) and 120 mg diet groups (p=0,004).  No DNA quantity differences of all groups (p=0,195).  It was concluded, the 480 mg common carp meat/ day diet increased the brain index of Swiss Webster mice, while the 120 mg and 480 mg common carp/day diets did not influence the gene NR2B expression of Swiss Webster mice cerebrum. Keywords : brain index, gene NR2B expression, common carp meat diet

Analisis Keberhasilan Terapi Bermain terhadap Perkembangan Potensi Kecerdasan Anak Retardasi Mental Sedang Usia 7–12 Tahun

Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 46, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Retardasi mental (RM) merupakan gangguan heterogen yang terdiri atas fungsi intelektual di bawah rata-rata disertai gangguan keterampilan adaptif. Terapi bermain merupakan pendekatan yang efektif untuk melatih anak RM taraf sedang dalam mempelajari suatu konsep pembelajaran. Terapi bermain dilakukan dalam ruang khusus yang didesain sebagai tempat bermain yang dilengkapi dengan perangkat mainan khusus untuk menstimulus perkembangan potensi anak RM taraf sedang. Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini untuk meningkatkan keberhasilan pengembangan potensi kecerdasan anak RM sedang dengan menggunakan instrumen The Wechsler-Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) melalui penerapan terapi bermain.  Rancangan penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen semu (quasi experiment) dan analisis kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah anak RM sedang di SDLB Aisiyah usia 7–12 tahun sejumlah 13 anak. Pendekatan analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis statistik dengan pendekatan Wilcoxon dan Kruskal Wallis yang selanjutnya dilakukan analisis deskriptif untuk memberikan gambaran kondisi RM yang menyertai anak meliputi: faktor internal yaitu fase yang dialami anak pada masa kehamilan, persalinan, menyusui dan tahap tumbuh kembang, serta faktor eksternal yaitu kondisi sosial ekonomi keluarga dan pola asuh pada anak. Hasil penelitian 7 dari 13 anak RM sedang berhasil mengalami peningkatan dalam pengembangan potensi kecerdasannya. Bila dilihat dari hubungan frekuensi diberikannya terapi dengan tingkat keberhasilan anak, dari 7 anak RM sedang yang berhasil, 5 di antaranya termasuk kategori sering diberikan terapi bermain. Simpulan, terapi bermain mampu meningkatkan keberhasilan pengembangan potensi kecerdasan anak RM sedang. Keberhasilan tersebut berhubungan dengan frekuensi diberikannya terapi bermain dan didukung oleh kondisi penyerta (faktor internal dan eksternal) pada diri anak. [MKB. 2014;46(2):73–82]Kata kunci: Terapi bermain, kecerdasan, retardasi mental sedang Analysis of the Effectiveness of Play Therapy in Developing the Intelligence of 7–12 Years Old Children with Moderate Mental RetardationMental Retardation (MR) is a heterogeneous disorder that consists of lower than average intellectual function along with the disruption of adaptive skills. Play therapy is an effective approach to train children with moderate MR in studying the concept of learning. Play therapy is conducted in a special room designed as a playground, equipped with special toys to stimulate potential development of children with moderate MR. This research aimed to improve the success of the potential development of intelligence in children with moderate MR using WISC instrument through play therapy. The study design used quasi-experimental method (quasi-experiment) and qualitative analysis. The subjects of this study were thirteen 7–12 years old children with moderate MR in extraordinary primary school Aisiyah. The analysis approach used was statistical analysis with Wilcoxon and Kruskal Wallis approaches. A descriptive analysis was subsequently carried out to provide a snapshot of MR conditions that accompany the child including: internal factors, i.e. the phase experienced by the child during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding and the stage of growth and development, and external factors i.e. the family's socioeconomic condition and children upbringing. The results showed that 7 out of 13 children with moderate MR had experienced an increase in the potential development of intelligence. In terms of the relation between the therapy frequency and the children success rate, 5 of 7 moderate MR children who were successful were in the category of frequent treatment of play therapy. In conclusion, play therapy can increase the potential for successful intelligence development of children with moderate MR. This success is associated with treatment frequency and is supported by the presence of concomitant conditions (internal and external factors) in children. [MKB. 2014;46(2):73–82]Key words: Play therapy, intelligence, moderate mental retardation DOI:  10.15395/mkb.v46n2.277

Perbedaan Efek Infusa Bubuk Kedelai (Glycine max), Jamur Tiram (Pleurotus ostreatus), dan Campuran Keduanya terhadap Kadar Kolesterol LDL, Ekspresi Gen Reseptor LDL Hati, dan Berat Omentum Majus Mencit Model Hiperlipidemia

Global Medical & Health Communication (GMHC) Vol 4, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung

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Angka kejadian dislipidemia di Indonesia semakin meningkat. Dislipidemia dan obesitas abdominal merupakan faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskular. Diperlukan solusi yang efektif dengan bahan alami seperti kedelai dan jamur tiram. Tujuan penelitian ini melihat efektivitas infusa bubuk kedelai, jamur tiram, dan campuran keduanya terhadap kadar kolesterol LDL, ekspresi gen LDLR hati, dan berat omentum majus mencit percobaan. Penelitian eksperimental di Laboratorium Farmakologi RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung tahun 2010 memakai rancangan postes kelompok kontrol. Mencit jantan sebanyak 20 ekor dibagi 5 kelompok perlakuan, yaitu A) pakan standar, B) induksi kolesterol, C) infusa kedelai dengan induksi kolesterol, D) infusa jamur tiram dengan induksi kolesterol, dan E) infusa campuran dengan induksi kolesterol. Pada akhir penelitian mencit dikorbankan lalu dibedah untuk diambil darah jantung, juga sedikit bagian hati dan omentum majus. Kolesterol LDL darah kelompok E (12±5,48 mg/dL) sama dengan kelompok D (12±6,06 mg/dL), tetapi lebih rendah daripada kelompok C (15±5,35 mg/dL) dan kelompok B (13,5±5,45 mg/dL), namun tidak signifikan. Didapatkan ekspresi gen LDLR yang sedang pada kelompok A dan C, ekspresi gen LDLR yang lemah pada kelompok B, dan tidak terekspresi pada kelompok D dan E. Berat basah omentum majus kelompok E (0,40±0,07 g) lebih rendah bermakna dibanding kelompok A (0,55±0,07 g), B (0,8±0,49 g), C (1,28±0,28 g), D (0,74±0,11 g) (p<0,05). Berat kering omentum majus kelompok E (0,16±0,03 g) lebih rendah bermakna daripada kelompok B (0,27±0,25 g), C (0,39±0,06 g), dan D (0,31±0,07 g) (p=0,025). Simpulan, infusa kedelai 100 mg/hari meningkatkan kadar kolesterol LDL darah dan berat omentum majus, tetapi jamur tiram 75 mg/hari sebaliknya, menurunkan kadar kolesterol LDL darah dan berat omentum majus mencit. DIFFERENCES IN GIVING EFFECT OF SOYBEAN POWDER INFUSION (GLYCINE MAX), OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS), AND MIXED OF BOTH ON LDL-C LEVELS, LDL-R GENE EXPRESSION, AND GREATER OMENTUM WEIGHT OF HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL MICEThe incidence of hypercholesterolemia in Indonesia are increase. Hyperlipidemia and abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Needed an effective solution with natural substance like soy and oyster mushrooms. The purpose of this study was to see the effectiveness of the soybean powder infusion, oyster mushrooms, and a mixture of both on LDL cholesterol levels, liver LDLR gene expression, and the weight of the experimental mice greater omentum. This experimental study conducted in the Laboratory of Pharmacology Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in 2010, using a posttest only. Twenty male mice were divided in five treatment groups, namely A) standard diet, B) induction of cholesterol, C) soybean infuse with cholesterol induction, D) oyster mushrooms infuse with induction of cholesterol, and E) mixed infuse with cholesterol induction. At the end of the study mice were dissected for blood drawn from the heart, taken little part of his liver, and the greater omentum were taken. The results of blood LDL cholesterol measurement group E (12±5.48 mg/dL) similar to group D (12±6.06 mg/dL) but lower than group C (15±5.35 mg/dL) and group B (13.5±5.45 mg/dL) but they were not significant. Medium LDLR gene expression was found in group A and group C, a weak LDLR gene expression in group B, and no expression LDLR gene in group D and group E. Measurement results of greater omentum wet weight group E (0.40±0.07 g) was lower than in group A (0.55±0.07 g), B (0.8±0.49 g), C (1,28±0.28 g), D (0.74±0.11 g), with significance level significant (p<0.05). Measurement results of greater omentum dry weight group E (0.16±0.03 g) was lower than in group B (0.27±0.25 g), C (0.39±0.06 g), D (0,31±0.07 g), and they were significant (p=0.025). In conclusion, soy infuse at 100 mg/day increase blood LDL cholesterol levels and increase the weight of greater omentum, whereas the opposite oyster mushrooms at 75mg/day lower blood LDL cholesterol levels and reduce the weight of greater omentum.

Profil Ekspresi mRNA Gen Murine Double Minute2, Kruppel-Like Factor4, dan c-Myc pada Fibrosarkoma

Global Medical & Health Communication (GMHC) Vol 5, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung

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Fibrosarkoma hanya terjadi 1–3% dari seluruh keganasan jaringan lunak. Hingga saat ini etiologi fibrosarkoma belum diketahui dengan pasti. Beberapa faktor dapat menjadi penyebab patogenesis fibrosarkoma antara lain radiasi, terpapar zat kimia tertentu, serta infeksi human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) dan Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Penelitian terkini menunjukkan bahwa banyak sarkoma terkait dengan mutasi genetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat profil ekspresi mRNA gen Krüppel-like Factor4, Murine Double Minute2, dan c-Myc pada fibrosarkoma menggunakan teknik real time PCR kuantitatif (quantitative real time PCR, qRT-PCR). Analisis data menggunakan metode kuantititatif relatif 2-ΔΔCt. Penelitian ini menggunakan 10 sampel kasus fibrosarkoma yang ditemukan di Kota Jambi dari tahun 2011–2015. Hasil ΔCt (+SD) MDM2, KLF-4, dan c-Myc disusun dari nilai yang terkecil hingga tertinggi adalah 1,85±2,14; 2,06±3,86; 2,9±2,66 secara berurutan. Dibanding dengan level ekspresi dengan GAPDH sebagai housekeeping gene, gen MDM2 dan KLF-4 relatif menurun dua kali lipat, sedangkan gen c-Myc relatif menurun lebih dari tiga kali lipat. Simpulan, penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada kasus fibrosarkoma, gen c-Myc disupresi lebih kuat dibanding dengan gen MDM2 dan KLF-4.STUDIES ON MRNA GENE EXPRESSION OF MDM2, KLF4,AND C-MYC IN FIBROSARCOMAFibrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma, reported only 1–3% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Like any other soft-tissue sarcomas the definitive caused has not yet understood. Recognized causes include exposure to ionizing radiation, various physical and chemical factors, infection with human herpes virus (HHV8) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Current research indicates many sarcomas are associated with genetic mutations. In this study, we investigated profile of mRNA gene expression KLF4, MDM2, and c-Myc of RNA in fibrosarcoma cases. The genes expression was examined using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and we analyzed the relative gene expression using the 2-ΔΔCt method. Ten samples of fibrosarcoma cases found in Jambi city from 2011 to 2015 were used. The three targeting genes were placed in the order from lowest to highest base on their ΔCt values compared to internal control genes using GAPDH genes. The results are as follows: MDM2 1.85±2.14, KLF-4 2.06±3.86, and c-Myc 2.9±2.66 respectively. A relative quantification by normalized target gene relative to GAPDH, describes the changes in expression of three genes. The status of MDM2 and KLF-4 were relatively decreased expression by 2 fold, and the states of c-Myc were relatively decreased by more than 3 fold. This suggest that in fibrosarcoma the c-Myc gene are suppressed stonger than those MDM2 and KLF-4 genes.