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Physiological Characterization and Molecular Identification of Denitrifying Bacteria Possesing Nitrous Oxide High Reduction Activity Isolated from Rice Soils SETYANINGSIH, RATNA; RUSMANA, IMAN; SETYANTO, PRIHASTO; SUWANTO, ANTONIUS
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 4, No 2 (2010): August 2010
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Rice  fields are one of the main sources of high nitrous oxide N2O emission.  Soil denitrifiers possessing high N2O reduction activity are important for controlling N2O emission.  Nitrous oxide reduction is the last step of denitrification process.  The aims of this study were to characterize and to identify denitrifying bacteria isolated from rice soils possessing high activity of N2O reduction.  Soil samples were taken from 6 locations of rice fields in Bogor (West Java) and Tangerang (Banten), Indonesia.  Physiological characterization was performed using API 20 NE, while molecular identification was conducted based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence.   It was found that ten isolates of denitrifying bacteria were able to grow using N2O as an electron acceptor as indicated by decreasing N2O concentration in the headspace of the cultures.  The bacterial  growth indicated by optical density,  increased up to 0.12-0.47  after 5 days incubation.  Isolate BL2 had the highest activity of  N2O reduction followed by BL1 and BLN1 at up to 5.41, 4.09, and 3.91 μmol mL-1 bacterial cultures, respectively.  The BL1, BL2, and BLN1 isolates had some different physiological characteristics.  Based on their 16S rRNA sequence, BL1 and BLN1 were closely related to Ochrobactrum anthropi ATCC 49188 with similarity of 99%.
METHANE EMISSION FROM PADDY FIELDS AS INFLUENCED BY DIFFERENT WATER REGIMES IN CENTRAL JAVA Setyanto, Prihasto; Bakar, Rosenani Abu
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 6, No 1 (2005): April 2005
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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The concentration of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere is increasing at 1% per annum and rice fields are one of the sources that contribute to about 10-15% of the atmospheric CH4. One of the options to reduce greenhouse gas emission from rice fields is probably through water management. A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of water management practices on CH4 emission from rice field plots on a silty sand Aeric Tropaquept soil at Research Station for AgriculturalEnvironment Preservation, Jakenan, Central Java, Indonesia, during the dry season of March to June 2002. Four water regimes tested were: (1) 5 cm continuous flooding (CF), (2) 0-1 cm continuous flooding (ST), (3) intermittent irrigation (IR) where plots received continuously 5 cm of flooding with two times of draining at 15-20 and 25-30 days after transplanting (DAT), and (4) pulse irrigation (PI) where plots were watered until 5 cm level and left to dry by itself until the water table reached30 cm beneath soil surface then watered again. The total CH4 emissions of the four water treatments were 254, 185, 136 and 96 kg CH4 ha-1 for CF, ST, IR and PI, respectively. Methane emission increased during the early growing season, which coincided with the low redox potential of -100 to -150 mV in all treatments. Dry matter weight of straw and filled grainamong the water treatments did not show significant differences. Likewise, total grain yield at 14% moisture content was not significantly different among treatments. However, this result should be carefully interpreted because the rice plants in all water treatments were infested by stem borer, which reduced the total grain yield of IR64 between 11% and 16%. This study suggests that intermittent and pulse irrigation practices will beimportant not only for water use efficiency, but also for CH4 emission reduction.
Teknologi Mengurangi Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca dari Lahan Sawah Setyanto, Prihasto
Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 3, No 2 (2008): Oktober 2008
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Senyawa karbon diperlukan makhluk hidup sebagai sumber energi. Manusia menggunakan karbon sebagai bahan pangan dalam bentuk senyawa karbohidrat, lemak, protein dan senyawa lain. Unsur karbon (C) dalam bentuk senyawa gas rumah kaca (GRK) seperti gas metana (CH4) dan karbondioksida (CO2) dilepas ke atmosfer melalui proses biologis dan aktivitas manusia sehingga terbentuknya lapisan di stratosfer yang berakibat dipantulnya kembali radiasi gelombang infra merah yang seharusnya dilepas ke atmosfer bumi. Tulisan ini berisikan informasi teknologi yang dapat mengurangi emisi C dan gambaran bagaimana kompensasi pengurangan karbon diterapkan di lahan sawah. Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian (Balingtan) telah melakukan penelitian guna mendukung upaya ini, antara lain mengganti cara pengairan sawah secara terus-menerus dengan pengairan berselang (intermittent), yang dapat menurunkan emisi CH4 sebesar 78%. Penggunaan varietas padi rendah emisi CH4 seperti Maros, Muncul, Way Apoburu, dan Fatmawati mampu menekan emisi CH4 hingga 66-10%, sedangkan pemakaian herbisida dengan bahan aktif paraquat dan glifosat menurunkan emisi CH4 sampai 60% dibanding tanpa herbisida. Teknologi yang dapat menurunkan emisi GRK dari lahan sawah seyogianya diterapkan. Insentif bagi petani yang terlibat dalam mengurangi emisi GRK perlu diperhatikan oleh pengambil kebijakan pertanian. Perdagangan karbon dari lahan sawah atau upaya menurunkan emisi karbon dari lahan sawah dapat menjadi alternatif pemberian insentif bagi pelaku usahatani padi sawah. Konsep tersebut, walaupun masih bersifat pilot study, diatur dalam Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) yang ditawarkan dalam Protocol Kyoto. Dengan integrasi yang sinergis dan terpadu antara pengambil kebijakan pertanian dengan pelaku usahatani, perdagangan karbon dari lahan sawah bukan hal yang mustahil, seperti halnya REDD (reduction emission from deforestation and degradation) yang sebelumnya hanya sekadar konsep, saat ini mulai dibicarakan dan dibahas untuk diratifikasi oleh negara-negara industri.
Population Dynamics of Microorganism and Greenhouse Gas Emission By Applying Chicken Manure in Peat Soil Pramono, Ali; Adriani, Terry Ayu; Wihardjaka, A.; Setyanto, Prihasto
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 4, No 2 (2016): July-December, 2016
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

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Peat land accumulates organic materials and emits greenhouse gas (GHG). Agricultural activities in peat land cause the subsidence of peat land surface and the loss of carbon in the form of GHG. Appropriate management of peat land for agriculture would reduce GHG emission. This research aims to understand the microorganism population dynamics and emission of GHG on the treatment of chicken manure application in peat land. The research was conducted in the GHG Laboratory of Indonesia Agricultural Environment Research Institute (IAERI) in 2012 using peat material taken from Jabiren, Central Kalimantan. The experiment was done by incubating peat soil for 2 months with the treatment of chicken manure application and without manure. The incubation experiment was conducted by using paralon PVC pipe. Parameters observed included pH, Eh, bacteria population and fungi, as well as GHG flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O). GHG samples taking method was used a sealed containment. The research result showed at the peat given chicken manure treatment, bacteria population decreased at the end of incubation; fungi population, however, increased. The application of chicken manure on peat land planted rubber trees and pineapples would reduce GHG emission by 12.8% as compared without manure application.
Contribution of Ameliorant Application on Carbon Balance in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Cropping in Peatland Yulianingsing, Eni; Susilawati, HL; Setyanto, Prihasto
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management Vol 3, No 2 (2015): July-December, 2015
Publisher : Center for Journal Management and Publication

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Expansion of agricultural land is needed to accomplish the future national food demand. Expansion of agricultural land has been focused on marginal land such as peatland. The studies was carried out at IAERI experimental farm and used 12 microplots with each have a dimension of 1,5 m x 1,5 m x 1 m and was filled with peat from South Kalimantan. Amelioration treatments such as dolomite (Ca-rock), volcanic ash, peat fertilizer, Fe fertilizer, nitrification inhibitor and control were established as treatments to the microplots, after amelioration, the plots was planted by Inpara 2 rice cultivar. Data of the result was analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncant Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed that the highest net carbon from non ameliorant (control) and the lowest from volcanic ash. Net carbon highet at non ameliorant (control) 3785 kg-C/ha followed dolomite, Fe fertilizer, NI (nitrification inhibitor), peatland fertilizer and volcanic ash i.e 3238; 2082; 1574; 1439 and -712 kg-C/ha
N2O Emissions from Rainfed Sugarcane Plantation Hervani, Anggri; Kartikawati, Rina; Ariani, Miranti; Setyanto, Prihasto
Buletin Tanaman Tembakau, Serat & Minyak Industri Vol 9, No 1 (2017): April 2017
Publisher : Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat

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Expansion of sugarcane areal to support enhancement production and fulfilment target of self-sufficiency for national sugar should be conducted to see environment impact, particularly related to greenhouse gases emission. The objective of this study was to figure out N2O emission from conventional sugarcane plantation by farmer in rainfed area. The observation of N2O gas was carried out in sugarcane plantation in Sidomukti Village, Jaken District, Pati, Central Java. Sampling of N2O gas was conducted by close chamber method. The study showed that maximum fluxes of sugarcane plantation before and after fertilizer application are 4.011 and 223 µg N2O m-2 day-1. Meanwhile, after fertilizer application the maximum and minimum fluxes of N2O are 6.408 and 25 µg N2O m -2 day-1. N2O emission from sugarcane plantation recorded in rainfed area as 4.21 ± 2.53 kg N2O ha-1 year-1 with potential of global warming number as 1.31 ton CO2-e per hectar per year.Emisi N2O dari Pertanaman Tebu di Lahan Tadah HujanPerluasan areal tanam tebu untuk mendukung peningkatan produksi dan pemenuhan target swasembada gula nasional sudah dianggap perlu untuk melihat dampak lingkungan khususnya mengenai evaluasi emisi gas rumah kaca dari pertanaman tebu. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui emisi gas N2O dari sistem pertanaman tebu secara konvensional petani di lahan tadah hujan. Pengamatan gas N2O dilakukan pada lahan perkebunan tebu di desa Sidomukti Kecamatan Jaken Kabupaten Pati Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Pengambilan sampel N2O menggunakan metode sungkup tertutup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fluks maksimum pada pertanaman tebu sebelum pemupukan sebesar 4,011 µg N2O m -2 hari-1 dan fluks minimum sebesar 223 µg N2O m -2 hari-1, sedangkan fluks maksimum setelah pemupukan sebesar 6,408 µg N2O m -2 hari-1 dan fluks minimum sebesar 25 µg N2O m -2 hari-1. Emisi N2O pertanaman tebu sebesar 4.21 ± 2.53 kg N2O ha-1tahun-1 dengan nilai potensi pemanasan global sebesar 1.31 ton CO2-e per hektar per tahun.
Characteristic Differences of Tidal Swamp Rice Varieties towards Methane (CH4) Emission on Peat Soil SUSILOWATI, H.L; SETYANTO, PRIHASTO; KARTIKAWATI, R
Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim (Indonesian Soil and Climate Journal) No 30 (2009): Desember 2009
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian

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Expanding the rice field area into marginal land such as peat soil could possibly obtain significant increase on greenhouse gas (GHG’s) emission. Peat soil contained large amount of organic matter. The utilization of peat soil for rice field needs pH > 3. The changes of pH will enhance the microbiology activities that produce methane (CH4). Anaerobic condition could potentially released high CH4 emission. Rice plants have beenreported to affect CH4 emission almost 90% from rice fields. Theobjective of this study is to determine the effect of characteristic differences of tidal swamp rice varieties towards CH4 emission on peat soil. A field experiment was conducted at Research Station of Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute, Jakenan, Pati, Central Java, in 2006. Randomized complete design with three replications method was used to analyze four varieties of tidal swamp rice (Punggur, Tenggulang, Banyuasin, and Batanghari). 12 microplots with each has a dimension of 1.5 m x 1.5 m x 1 m were filled with peat soil from South Kalimantan. Statistical analysis of the experimental data on plant parameters were accomplished using analysis of variance (Anova). Regression and correlation analysis were also used to determine the relationship between plant parameters effected on CH4 flux. The results showed that there were significant relationship between the plant biomass, root biomass, plant tiller, plant height, and CH4 flux at 1% level of test. The relationshipbetween plant height of developed tillers were related to the proportional enhanced continuity of aerenchyma channels with the increasing plant height of rice cultivar. The CH4 emission of Punggur, Banyuasin, Tenggulang dan Batanghari were 183.01, 179.2, 124.1, and 104.0 kg ha-1, respectively. Batanghari was recomended best for transplanting under peat soil compared with others because of lower CH4 emission and no differences in grain yield. The easy way to mitigate CH4 emission from peat soil is transplanted of Batanghari.
PEMBERIAN AMELIORAN PUPUK KANDANG AYAM PADA PENGGUNAAN LAHAN GAMBUT YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP EMISI CO2 Adriany, Terry Ayu; Pramono, Ali Pramono; Setyanto, Prihasto
Jurnal Ecolab Vol 10, No 2 (2016): Jurnal Ecolab
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kualitas dan Laboratorium Lingkungan (P3KLL)

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Rendahnya produktivitas tanah gambut disebabkan oleh tingginya kandungan asam organik dan kemasaman tanah. Pemberian amelioran pupuk kandang ayam dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanah gambut dan mempengaruhi dinamika emisi CO2. Kegiatan penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian pupuk kandang ayam pada tanah gambut yang berasal dari penggunaan lahan yang berbeda terhadap emisi CO2. Penelitian dilakukan ex situ di Laboratorium Gas Rumah Kaca di Balai Penelitian Lingkungan Pertanian. Metode yang digunakan eksperimental dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial, diulang 3 kali. Faktor pertama tanah gambut yang berasal dari penggunaan lahan yang berbeda yaitu tanaman karet semak (L1), karet dengan tanaman sela nanas (L2) dan semak belukar (L3). Faktor kedua dosis amelioran pupuk kandang ayam yaitu 0 t ha-1 (A1) sebagai kontrol dan 4 t ha-1 (A2). Variabel yang diamati adalah fluks CO2, sifat kimia tanah gambut dan kemasaman tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pemberian amelioran pupuk kandang ayam pada penggunan lahan gambut yang berbeda tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap emisi CO2. Penggunaan tanah gambut yang berasal dari penggunaan lahan karet dengan tanaman sela nanas tanpa pemberian amelioran pupuk kandang ayam memberikan pengaruh nyata dalam menurunkan emisi CO2 dengan rata-rata terendah yaitu 1803 kg ha-1th-1.
Pemanfaatan Lahan Tadah Hujan untuk Budidaya Padi Unggul dalam Menghadapi Perubahan Iklim Kartikawati, Rina; Yunianti, Ika Ferry; Wihardjaka, Anicetus; Setyanto, Prihasto
Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal : Journal of Suboptimal Lands Vol 6, No 2 (2017): JLSO
Publisher : Pusat Unggulan Riset Pengembangan Lahan Suboptimal (PUR-PLSO) Universitas Sriwijaya

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Kartikawati et al, 2017. Utilization of Rainfed Rice Areas for High Yielding Rice Cultivation on Climate Change. JLSO 6(2):142-149.Many efforts have been conducted by Indonesian government for national food supply and food security through rice cultivation on sub optimal lands in accelerating food sustainability particularly rice, maize and soybean. The rainfed area is an important sub optimal land which should be developed due to 26,5% of Indonesia rice production produced from cultivation system in those area. However, the cultivation in rainfed areas have challenges such as changing of rainfall pattern due to climate change. Therefore, to obtain the information of productivity from high yield rice varieties and methane emission in rainfed area, a study has been conducted by applying innovation of environmental friendly technology such as fertilizer use based on integrated cropping calendar. The study was carried out at Research Station of Indonesian Agriculture Environment Research Institute in Jakenan, which is one of rainfed area in Pati District, Central Java Province. The study was conducted on first growing season (GS 1) or rainy season by applying direct seeded system using rice seeder. Four rice varieties were used for this study, namely Ciherang, Dendang, Inpari 31 and Inpari 24. The study showed that productivity of four rice varieties were 5.92; 7.10; 5.06 and 7.41 t/ha, respectively. Methane emission was significant different among the varieties as 232; 319; 300 and 405 kg/ha/season, respectively.