Articles

Bakteri Probiotik Dalam Budidaya Udang: Seleksi, Mekanisme Aksi, Karakterisasi, dan Aplikasinya Sebagai Agen Biokontrol

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 13, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (348.509 KB)

Abstract

Bacterial disease attack occurs at the hatchery stage, which is considered to be the most serious threat, and often results in mass mortality of shrimp larvae by vibrosis which is that caused by a luminous bacterium identified as Vibrio harveyi. This research was carried out to obtain local isolates of probiotic bacteria that were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi and effectively apply it as a biocontrol of vibriosis in shrimp cultures. The research was carried out as follows: (1) In vitro and in vivo selection of probiotic bacteria candidates, (2) Study of the action mechanism and characterization of the selected pro biotic bacteria, (3) Study on application of the selected probiotic bacteria as a biocontrol agent in shrimp cultures. Results of in vitro and in vivo selection provided the best three isolates, which were 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua. The survival rate of shrimp larvae which were not only inoculated by V. harveyi but also with 1Ub, SKT-b and Ua probiotic bacteria were 88.33, 83.33, and 81.67% respectively; where as the positive control treatment (merely inoculated with V. harveyi) gave a 41.67% survival rate and the negative control (without bacterial addition) was 68.33%. Studies using a rifampicin resistant marker (RfR) demonstrated that the number of V. harveyi MR5339 RfR cells in treatments without probiotic addition were higher than the treatment with the probiotic bacteria, in dead larvae, living larvae, as well as in the culture media. Partial sequencing of the I6S-rRNA gene showed that the I Ub isolate was similar to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, whereas the SKT -b and Ua isolates were similar to Vibrio alginolyticus. Selected probiotic bacteria could be applied directly to shrimp larva culture media, or orally through enrichment of both natural and artificial food. Keywords: Penaeus monodon larvae, probiotic bacteria, vibriosis 

Mineral besisebagai pengikat vitalisas ikan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis) saat kondisi stres hipoka

Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.264 KB)

Abstract

Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) is sensitive to stress that coused low growth rate, mortality, and harvest. Iron is micronutrient that can enhance the immunity. This experiment was conducted to determine the iron supplement in the feed for humpback grouper fish to vitality increase at hypoxia stress condition. The fish weight 4.14+-0.01 g/ind. and was cultured in 60x40x50 cm aquarium and stocked at a density of 10 ind./aquarium. After reader for 61 days, the fish was 

Utilization of Catfish Body Fat in the Diet of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (158.518 KB)

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of catfish body fat in the diet on the growth of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Twenty fishes with an initial body weight of 5.0±0.03 g were cultured in 100-ℓ rectangular aquaria for 58 days.  The fishes were fed on the diet contained lipid from catfish at a dosage of  either 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6%.  The results showed that lipid dosage in the diet insignificantly affected feed efficiency, (73.25-81.96%), protein retention (45.57-51.56%), daily growth rate (4.05-4.29%), and survival rate of fish (98.33-100%).  However, n-3 fatty acids of fish muscle elevated as the dosage of body fat of catfish in the diet increased. Therefore, it can be concluded that lipid from catfish can be used as a fat source in the diet of tilapia. Keywords: lipid, tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus   Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat penggunaan lemak patin dalam pakan buatan terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus. Dua puluh ekor ikan nila dengan bobot rata-rata 5±0,03 g ditebar ke dalam akuarium 60x50x40 cm. Ikan dipelihara selama 58 hari. Selama masa budidaya, ikan diberi lima jenis pakan berkadar protein 28% yang mengandung lemak patin pada kadar 0, 1,5, 3, 4,5 atau 6%.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan lemak patin pada pakan tidak memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap nilai efisiensi pakan (73,25-81,96%), retensi protein (45,57-51,56%), laju pertumbuhan harian (4,05-4,29%) dan kelangsungan hidup ikan (98,33-100%). Namun, semakin meningkatnya kandungan lemak patin di dalam pakan berakibat pada semakin tingginya kandungan asam lemak n-3 di dalam daging ikan. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa lemak patin dapat digunakan sebagai sumber lemak tambahan dalam pakan buatan ikan nila. Kata kunci:  lemak, ikan nila, Oreochromis niloticus

Dietary Zinc Requirement of Young Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac.)

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 6, No 2 (2007): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (136.885 KB)

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to determine the dietary zinc requirement of young giant gouramy. Five experimental diets were used in this experiment containing iso-nitrogenous and iso-energy with different levels of zinc (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg per kg). The initial means of body weight of body the fishes was 0.82 g per individual. The fishes were fed upon the diets at satiation, three times daily, for 12 weeks. The results indicated no zinc deficiency symptoms in this experiment. The daily growth rate, feed efficiency, survival rates and protein and lipid retention were not significantly different from all the diets. However, fish fed upon 25 mg Zn/kg diets produced the highest protein and total digestibility. The zinc contents of 25 mg Zn/kg diets gave the highest value in zinc accumulation in the bone, blood serum and eyes. The highest accumulation of the zinc in the liver occurred in 50 mg Zn/kg diets. There was increase in zinc content of the tissues after increasing levels of dietary zinc. Thus, Zn requirement for juvenile of giant gouramy was 25-50 mg/kg diets. Keywords: Osphronemus gouramy, Zinc, diet   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kebutuhan seng dalam pakan untuk benih ikan gurame.  Lima jenis pakan percobaan yang diuji mengandung iso-nitrogen dan iso-energi dengan kadar seng (Zn) yang berbeda (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg per kg).  Bobot rata-rata benih yang digunakan adalah 0,82 g per ekor.  Ikan dipelihara selama 12 minggu dan diberi pakan 3 kali sehari.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada gejala defisiensi Zn.  Laju pertumbuhan harian, efisiensi pakan, kelangsungan hidup dan rentesi protein dan lemak tidak berbeda nyata untuk semua perlakuan.  Namun demikian, ikan yang diberi Zn sebanyak 25 mg/kg pakan menghasilkan kecernaan total dan protein tertinggi.  Perlakuan tersebut juga menghasilkan akumulasi Zn tertinggi dalam tulang, serum darah dan mata.  Akumulasi Zn tertinggi dalam hati diperoleh pada perlakuan 50 mg Zn/kg pakan.  Kandungan Zn dalam jaringan meningkat sejalan dengan meningkatnya kadar Zn dalam pakan. Dengan demikian, kebutuhan Zn bagi benih ikan gurame adalah sebanyak 25-50 mg /kg pakan. Kata kunci: Osphronemus gouramy, seng, pakan

Effect of Rearing Density of ”Dumbo” Catfish (Clarias sp.) Fry on Production in the Controlled Nitrogen Culture System by Adding Wheat Powder

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.989 KB)

Abstract

Demand of "dumbo" catfish is going to increase every year so that fry production should be increased in order  to support intensification culture system to meet market demand. Intensification in fish culture system may cause decreasing of dissolved oxygen content  and producing high level waste in the pond culture.  The effort to control inorganic nitrogen in intensive culture system can be performed by adding wheat powder into fish culture media.  This can support metabolic process of nitrogen by microbe and then produce protein in terms of bacteria biomass production, so that inorganic nitrogen in the water decreases.  Fish can utilize protein from  microbe efficiently. This study was conducted to examine effect of rearing density on "dumbo" catfish fry production in the culture system by controlling nitrogen content in water through addition of  wheat powder.  "Dumbo" catfish fry of 12-day old in average body weight of 0.046±0.006 gram and length of 1.7±0.9 cm were reared for 28 days in density of 400, 800 and 1200 fish/m2.  The results of study showed that weight and body length of fry reached 1.35 gram and 5.1 cm, respectively. Average of daily growth and production were 10.47 - 11.48% and 2.49 - 3.54 g per day, respectively. Increased of rearing density was insignificantly (p>0.05) affected growth rate and daily production.  Average growth in absolute length, survival rate and feed efficiency was about 2.7-3.2 cm, 36.20 - 53.88% and 147 - 172%, respectively.  Increased in rearing density was followed by decreased growth in length (p0,05) terhadap laju pertumbuhan dan produksi harian. Nilai rata-rata pertumbuhan panjang mutlak, kelangsungan hidup dan efisiensi pakan masing-masing berkisar 2,7-3,2 cm, 36,20 - 53,88% dan 147 - 172%. Peningkatan kepadatan diikuti dengan penurunan pertumbuhan panjang (p

Effect of Enriched Feed by Immunostimulant on Immune Response and Growth of Humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.808 KB)

Abstract

Humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis is susceptible to low quality of environmental condition so that it is vulnerable to bacterial infection.  One of the methods to solve this problem is improvement of nutrition by using immune response present in fish body.  Supplementation of immunostimulant in the diet may increase immune response of humpback grouper regarding to unsuitable environment condition and bacterial infection.  Humpback grouper in average weight of 24.6 ± 0.05 g were reared in a density of 10 fish per aquarium for 34 days.  Diet was supplemented with 4 g yeast per kg diet (diet A), 0.1 g vitamin C per kg diet (diet B), 2.5 g β-glucan (diet C), chromium-yeast 0,015 g/kg diet (diet D) and no supplementation (diet E) as control. Blood performance was analyzed after challenging test with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The result of study indicated that immunostimulant supplementation increased leucocytes population during salinity stress test. Supplementation of chromium-yeast in the diet increased resistant of humpback grouper to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. Keywords: immunostimulant, humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis   ABSTRAK Ikan kerapu bebek, Cromileptes altivelis sangat rentan dengan kondisi lingkungan yang buruk sehingga mudah terinfeksi bakteri. Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah perbaikan nutrisi dengan memanfaatkan respon imun yang terdapat pada tubuh ikan. Penambahan bahan-bahan imunostimulan pada formulasi pakan buatan diharapkan dapat meningkatkan respon imunitas ikan kerapu bebek terhadap lingkungan yang tidak mendukung dan infeksi bakteri. Ikan kerapu bebek dengan bobot rata-rata 24,6 ± 0,05 g dipelihara dengan kepadatan 10 ekor/akuarium selama 34 hari. Pakan yang diberikan berupa pelet dengan tambahan beberapa bahan imunostimulan yaitu 4 g/kg ragi komersial (pakan A), 0,1 g/kg vitamin C (pakan B), 2,5 g/kg β-glukan (pakan C), kromium-yeast 0,015 g/kg (pakan D) dan tanpa penambahan bahan (pakan E) sebagai pembanding. Gambaran darah dianalisis setelah dilakukan uji tantang dengan Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan bahan-bahan imunostimulan tersebut ternyata mampu meningkatkan populasi leukosit selama uji stres salinitas. Pemberian kromium-yeast dalam pakan meningkatkan daya tahan ikan kerapu bebek terhadap serangan Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Kata kunci: immunostimulan, kerapu bebek, Cromileptes altivelis

Effect of Feeding Diet Containing Different Dose of Vitamin E with 1:2 of n-3/n-6 Fatty Acid Content on Reproductive Performance of Female Zebrafish Danio rerio

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2006): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (172.77 KB)

Abstract

The role of essential fatty acids  as a precursor of prostaglandin and as a component of cell membrane in the form of phospholipids, can affect cell fluidity. Vitamin E functions as  fatty acid antioxidant in the body and affects egg quality.  Vitamin E and essential fatty acids (n-3 and n-6) are required at the same time in a proper  ratio to induce fish gonad maturation.  Zebra fish Danio rerio broodstock in 29 days pre-saline were fed on diet containing 4 different vitamin E concentration; i.e. 325, 375, 425 and 475 mg/kg diet with constant n-3 and n-6 fatty acid doses of 1% and 2%, respectively, for 6 weeks.  Reproduction performance in terms of fecundity was improved (p

Growth and Feed Efficiency of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) Reared in Different Salinities

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (128.88 KB)

Abstract

The objective of this research was to know the effect of salinity on the growth and utilized of feed energy by red tilapia, Oreochromis sp.  Four fishes with 4,15-4,42 g initial body weights were cultured in a 50x40x35 cm aquarium for 40 days.  Fish were fed on these diets three times a day at satiation. Dietary growth rate, feed efficiency, protein and lipid retention increased with increasing salinity (p

Utilization of Cassava as Substitues of Wheat Flour for Common Carp Diets

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 2, No 2 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (253.694 KB)

Abstract

A triplicate experiment was conducted to evaluate cassava (Manihot esculenta) meal as alternative carbohydrate source for wheat flour in the diet of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The diet contained 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of wheat flour were replaced by cassava meal in five treatment groups. Three fishes with 13.33 ±1.69 g initial body weights were cultured in a 50x40x35 cm aquarium for 40 days. Fish were fed on these diets three times a day at satiation. The study showed that growth rate, protein retention, lipid retention and feed efficiency of fish fed diets containing cassava meal up to 50% substitution levels were significantly (p

Dietary Phosphorus Requirement of Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy Lac.)

Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Vol 2, No 2 (2003): Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia
Publisher : Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (150.039 KB)

Abstract

This experiment was conducted to ditermined phosphorus content in the feed of giant gouramy (Osprhonemus gouramy). Four semipurified diet containing isoprotein (41,0%) and isoenergy (10.0 kcal/g protein) but different in phosphorus content were prepared. Diet containing phosphorus at the level of 0,32, 0,63, 0,89 and 1,06% respectively. Fish weighing 21-25 g/ind was stocked at a density of 4 ind./aquarium. Fish was fed at a satiation level three times daily. Fish were reared for 40 days and sampling was done in every 10 day. Result of this study shows that growth performance of fish were increase with the increasing of phosphorus level in the diet till of level (0,89%). Make up of rate phosphor more than 1,06% in the diet will negating the growth. It can be concluded that giant gouramy require phosporus at the level of 0,63-0,89% for maximal growth. Key words : Phosphor, giant gouramy, Osphronemus goruamy, mineral   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menentukan kebutuhan ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy) akan mineral fosfor. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pakan semimumi dengan kadar protein 41,0% dan rasio energi- protein 10 kkal/g protein. Pakan yang digunakan memiliki kandungan fosfor berturut-turut sebesar 0,32, 0,63, 0,89 dan 1,06%. Ikan gurame yang digunakan berbobot awal antara 21-25 g/ekor dan panjang tubuh awal 8,97-13,45 cm/ekor, dipelihara pada akuarium berukuran 50x40x35 cm dengan kepadatan 4 ekor/akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan 3 kali sehari secara satiation selama 40 hari. Setiap 10 hari sekali dilakukan penimbangan bobot tubuh ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa performan pertumbuhan ikan gurame meningkat dengan meningkatknya kadar fosfor dalam makanan sampai pada tingkat 0,89%. Peningkatan kadar fosfor diatas tingkat tersebut berdampak negatif terhadap pertumbuhan. Pertumbuhan maksimal didapat pada ikan yang diberi pakan dengan kadar fosfor 0,63-1,06%. Kata kunci : Fosfor, ikan gurame, Oshpronemus gouramy, mineral.

Co-Authors , Alimuddin , Mulyasari , Susan . Melati . WIDANARNI . Yuniarti A.D. Akbar Agus Oman Sudrajat Alimuddin A, Alimuddin Alimuddin Alimuddin Aliyah Sakinah, Aliyah antoro, Suci Apriani, Ita Arifin, Putri Pratamaningrum Burhanudin Faisal, Burhanudin C. Nuraeni D. Jusadi D. Shafruddin Dadang Kurniawan Dadang Syafruddin Dairun, Suclyadi Darina Putri Dedi Jusadi Deswira, Upmal Diamahesa, Wastu Ayu Dian Hardiantho Dian Hardianto Diana, Riska Dimahesa, Wastu Dinamella Wahjuningrum Dinar Tri Soelistyowati Dody Sihono Eddy Supriyono Eka Hidayatus Solikhah Ekasari, Juli Enang Harris Fahmi Hasan, Fahmi Fauzan, Agung Luthfi Febrina Rolin, Febrina Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa Feri Kurniawati Firsty Rahmatia Giri, I Nyoman Adi Asmara Hany Handajani HARTON ARFAH Hildayanti, Wiwik I Mokoginta I. Mokoginta Ing Mokoginta Istifarini, Mita Jufri, Fatahillah Maulana Junior, Muhammad Zairin Kaliky, Nunun Ainun Putri Sari Banun Karno Setyotomo Koncara, Gamel L. Indriastuti M. Agus Suprayudi M.A. Suprayudi MA Suprayudi Mahasu, Nur Hikma Mas Tri Djoko Sunarno, Mas Tri Djoko Masumoto, Toshiro Maulana, Fajar Muhamad Yamin MUHAMMAD AGUS SUPRAYUDI Muhammad Safir, Muhammad MUHAMMAD ZAIRIN JUNIOR N. Nurjanah N.B.P Utomo N.R. Azwar Naufal, Muhammad Restya nfn Nurhayati, nfn Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo Nur Bambang Priyo Utomo ODANG CARMAN P. Purnama Pangentasari, Dwinda Putri, Ika Wahyuni R. Affandi Rajab, Fahmi Rakhmawati, Rakhmawati, Retno Astrini Ridwan Affandi Safratilofa, nFN Saputra, Suryadi Shella Marlinda Siti Khodijah Sri Nuryati Suardi Laheng, Suardi Sujono Sujono, Sujono Sukenda Sukenda Sukenda, Windu Suprayudi, Muhamad Agus Tatag Budiardi Tepu, I. TI Winarno Utomo, Bambang Priyo W Manalu W. Manalu Widanarni Widanarni Widanarni, nFN Widanarni, Widanarni, Yuli Andriani