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Ekstrak Phyllanthus niruri Linn, Pertumbuhan Tumor dan Proliferasi Sel Kanker Kolorektal: Studi Eksperimental pada Tikus Sprague-Dawley yang Diinduksi 1,2 DMH Sawitri, Endang; Riwanto, Ign.; Tjahjono, Tjahjono; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2012:MMI VOLUME 46 ISSUE 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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Effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn extract on tumor growth and cell proliferation of colorectal cancer: experimental study in 1.2 DMH-induced Sprague-Dawley ratsBackground: The development of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) is so very advanced, however, the survival of patients has not been satisfactory, therefore, the current therapy also involve immunotherapy. Phyllanthus niruri Linn (P. niruri L) may act as an immunomodulator and anticancer, but its potency has not been revealed. Study was conducted to confirm the effects of P. niruri L extract in the treatment of CRC.Method: The study was randomized posttest-only control group design. Samples were Sprague-Dawley male rats, bodyweight 170- 220 gr, were divided into two groups: non induced or negative control (K-) consisted of 9 normal rats, and induced by 1.2 DMH 30 mg/kgBW subcutaneously group consisted 30 rats. On the weeks 9, 11 and 13, four induced rats each week were sacrified to detect the development of CRC. On the weeks of 13th all of 4 rats were developed CRC, so the induction were stopped. The rest of 18 induced rats were randomly into two groups: without P. niruri L or positive control (K+)=9 rats and given P. niruri L extract 13.5 mg/kg orally or X group=9 rats. After 19th week all of rats were then terminated and tumor lesion of colon were examined macroscopically and hystophatologic tissues were stained with AgNORs for evaluate the cells proliferation. Oneway Anova and Post Hoc LSD test for the growth of colon tumor and non pairs t-test for cell proliferation were used. Considered significant if p was <0.05. Result: There was no tumor growth on K- group, while for K+ was 83.33±14.34% and on X was 40.44±13.23% (p=0.000). The mean of AgNORs on K+ was 4.60±0.55 while on X was 2.25±0.39 (p=0.000).Conclusion: The extract of P. niruri L suppress the tumor growth and cell proliferation of CRC.Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri Linn, colorectal cancer, tumor growth, proliferationABSTRAKLatar belakang: Perkembangan kemoterapi untuk kanker kolorektal (KKR) sangat maju, tetapi kelangsungan hidup penderitanya belum memuaskan, sehingga penanganan multimodalitas juga melibatkan imunoterapi yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup. Phyllanthus niruri Linn dapat bekerja sebagai imunomodulator sekaligus antikanker, tetapi potensinya belum banyak diungkap. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh pemberian ekstrak P. niruri L terhadap pertumbuhan tumor danproliferasi sel KKR.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan randomized posttest-only control group design. Sampel berupa tikus Sprague-Dawley jantan, dibagi 2: kelompok tanpa induksi 1,2 DMH dan tanpa P. niruri L (K-: kelompok kontrol negatif) sebanyak 9 ekor dan kelompok induksi 1,2 DMH 30 mg/kgBB subkutan setiap minggu sebanyak 30 ekor. Pada minggu ke-9, 11 dan 13 masing-masing empat ekor tikus dibunuh untuk melihat perkembangan tumor. Pada minggu ke-13 keempat tikus telah berkembang menjadi KKR, induksidihentikan dan sisa 18 tikus dirandom alokasi menjadi 2 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol positif (K+) tanpa pemberian P. niruri L (9 tikus) dan kelompok diberi P. niruri L. 13.5 mg/kg per hari melalui sonde (9 tikus). Minggu ke-19 semua tikus diterminasi, diperiksa lesi tumor makroskopik pada kolon. Jaringan histopatologik diwarnai AgNORs untuk memeriksa proliferasi sel. Analisis data meliputi analisis deskriptif dan uji Oneway Anova, dilanjutkan dengan post hoc test LSD untuk pertumbuhan tumor kolon dan uji ttidak berpasangan untuk proliferasi sel. Derajat signifikansi yang dipilih adalah p<0,05. Hasil: Tidak ditemukan pertumbuhan tumor pada kelompok K-. Persentase rerata pertumbuhan tumor kelompok X sebesar40,44±13,23%berbeda sangat signifikan (p=0,000) dibanding K+ sebesar 33±14,34%. Rerata bercak AgNORs kelompok K+sebesar 4,60±0,55 dan menurun pada kelompok X (2,25±0,39), terdapat perbedaan yang sangat signifikan pada kedua kelompok (p=0,000). Simpulan: Ekstrak P. niruri L menekan pertumbuhan tumor dan proliferasi sel kanker kolorektal.
Silica Magnetite Adsorbent: Effect of Drying Temperature of Silica Sol Gel on Magnetite Core Structure Azmiyawati, Choiril; Sawitri, Endang; Siahaan, Parsaoran
Jurnal Kimia Sains dan Aplikasi Vol 21, No 3 (2018): Volume 21 Issue 3 Year 2018
Publisher : Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University

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Recently, magnetite was investigated as water purification adsorbent because it’s unique magnetic properties that improved the adsorption efficiency through desorption process. But magnetite oxidized into maghemite/hematite with the increase of temperature. This transformation should be avoided to maintain the magnetic properties of magnetite. In this research magnetite separated from iron sand by magnetic extraction then coated with silica via sol gel method. The effect of drying temperature in sol gel had change the magnetite core structure into maghemite and found no formation of hematite at 350⁰C. Silica coating proved had protected magnetite from transformation into hematite due to drying temperature until 350⁰C .
PENGARUH PEMBERIAN INFORMASI PRA BEDAH TERHADAP TINGKAT KECEMASAN PADA PASIEN PRA BEDAH MAYOR DI BANGSAL ORTHOPEDI RSUI KUSTATI SURAKARTA Sawitri, Endang; Sudaryanto, Agus
Berita Ilmu Keperawatan Vol. 1, No. 1, Maret 2008
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta

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The background of this research is the invention of particular phenomena, which the patient is on anxiety feeling at pre surgery stage, particularly the femur fracture patient on the orthopedic ward RSUI Kustati Surakarta. While, the aim of this study is to find the influence of delivering information pre surgery through the rate of decreasing patient anxiety before surgery. This research is planed as the experimental research at the type of one group pre test – posttest, completed with 58 subject. The sample collecting technique is at the same time with the method of quota sampling, while, the method of collecting data is completed with the questioner which is contain of the measurement of anxiety as Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The data analysis technique is using t-test. The result of the research is shows that there is differences of the rate of anxiety on the patient, before and after the therapeutic communication: the delivering information pre surgery at the orthopedic ward RSUI Kustati Surakarta. At least, it is shown with the computed of hiphotesys test completed with the significance rate as 5 % and the free degree of 57, it is shows that the result of t computed = 7,366 > ttable = 2,002. However, related through the result of the research, it is suggested that the delivering information of pre surgery at the orthopedic ward RSUI Kustati Surakarta is extremely needed to be increased, at least, it is to descend the rate of patient anxiety in having surgery
Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer Cell on Sprague-Dawley Rats Induced with 1,2 Dimethylhidrazine and Phyllanthus niruri Linn Extrac Sawitri, Endang
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 10, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Apoptosis cell is one of the main biomolecular predictors to determine kind of treatment given to patient with colorectal cancer and to predict the end result. Phyllanthus niruri Linn (P. niruri L) acts as antineoplastic but its potency on the process of cancer cell apoptosis has not been revealed yet. The objective of the research was to evaluate the apoptosis index of rats with colorectal cancer treated with and without P. niruri L. extract. This research used The Randomized Posttest-Only Control Group Design. As many as 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with 1,2 DMH 30 mg/kgBW once in every week. Four rats were sacrificed at week 9th, 11th and 13th to be observed the development of colorectal cancer. Induction was then stopped and other 18 rats were randomly located into two groups. The first group was positive control (K+) group consisted of 9 rats without P. niruri extract. The second group (X) was consisted of 9 rats with the application of P.niruri L. extract 13.5 mg/kg per day orally. All rats were terminated on week 19th, tumor lesion was proceed for Histopathology preparations and stained with Kit TUNEL-IHC (Apo-BrdU-IHCTM BioVision Cat #K403) to identify the apoptosis cell. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-test with significant level of p<0.05. The result showed that the average of apoptosis index of X treatment was 2.37 + 0.48 higher than K+ treatment namely 1.45 + 0.41 with a highly significance difference (p=0.000). Phyllanthus niruri L extract increased the apoptosis of colorectal cancer of Sprague-Dawley rats induced with 1,2 Dimethylhidrazine
Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Phyllanthus niruri Linn Terhadap Infiltrasi Limfosit dan Ekspresi Perforin pada Kanker Kolon Tikus Sprague-Dawley Sawitri, Endang; Riwanto, Ign.; Tjahjono, Tjahjono; Dharmana, Edi
MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2013:MMI VOLUME 47 ISSUE 1 YEAR 2013
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

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ABSTRACTThe effect of Phyllanthus niruri Linn extract on lymphocytes infiltration and perforin expression in colon cancer of Sprague-Dawley RatBackground: Colon cancer treatment currently involves immunotherapy that aims to improve the quality of life and survival of patients. Phyllanthus niruri Linn (P. niruri L) may act as an immunomodulator, but its potency in antitumor immune responses has not been revealed. The study was conducted to evaluate the differences between the immunological status of rats suffering colon cancer which were not given to those given the extract of P. niruri L.Methods: The study was randomized posttest-only control group design. Samples were 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats, bodyweight 170-220 gr which induced by 1.2 DMH 30 mg/kgBW subcutaneously. On the weeks 9, 11 and 13, four induced rats each week were sacrified to detect the development of colon cancer. On the weeks of 13th all of 4 rats were developed colon cancer, so the induction were stopped. The rest of 18 induced rats were randomly into two groups: without P.  niruri L or positive control (K+)=9 rats and  given P. niruri L extract 13.5 mg/kg orally or  X  group=9  rats.  After 19th week all of rats were then terminated and tumor lesion of colon were processed hystophatologically. The tissues of colon cancer were stained by H&E for evaluate the lymphocytes infiltration and immunohistochemistry monoclonal antibody anti-perforin for perforin expression. Non pairs t-test was used with considered significant if p<0.05.Results: The mean of lymphocytes infiltration of the group X was 401.89±70.19, it was higher compared to K+ 191.89±50.68 (p=0.000). The mean percentage of perforin expression of group X was 39.00±1.80%, it was higher compared to K+ 23.00± 3.00% (p=0.000). Conclusion: The extract of P. niruri L increases immunologic status through mechanism of lymphocytes infiltration and perforin expression elevation of colon cancer in animal mode.Keywords : Phyllanthus niruri Linn, colon cancer, lymphocytes infiltration, perforinABSTRAKLatar belakang: Penanganan kanker kolon saat ini melibatkan imunoterapi yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup dan survival penderitanya. Phyllanthus niruri Linn bekerja sebagai imunomodulator, tetapi potensinya dalam respons imun antitumor belum banyak diungkap. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi perbedaan status imunologis antara tikus coba yang menderita kanker kolon yang tidak diberi dengan yang diberi ekstrak P. niruri L.Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan randomized posttest-only control group design. Sampel berupa 30 ekor tikus Sprague-Dawley jantan, yang diinduksi 1,2 DMH 30 mg/kgBB subkutan sekali setiap minggu. Pada minggu ke-9, 11 dan 13 masing-masing empat ekor tikus dimatikan untuk melihat perkembangan tumor. Minggu ke-13 pada kolon empat tikus telah tumbuh kanker kolon, sehingga induksi dihentikan dan sisa 18 tikus dirandom alokasi menjadi 2 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol positif (K+) tanpa pemberian P. niruri L (9 tikus) dan kelompok diberi P. niruri L. 13,5 mg/kg per hari melalui sonde (9 tikus). Minggu ke-19 semua tikus diterminasi, lesi tumor pada kolon diproses menjadi sediaan histopatologik, kemudian dipulas dengan H&E untuk memeriksa infiltrasi limfosit dan pulasan imunohistokimia menggunakan antibodi monoklonal anti-perforin untuk melihat ekspresi perforin. Analisis data menggunakan uji t tidak berpasangan dengan derajat signifikansi p<0,05.Hasil: Rerata jumlah infiltrasi limfosit kelompok X adalah 401,89±70,19 lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok K+ yaitu191,89±50,68 (p=0,000). Persentase rerata ekspresi perforin kelompok X sebesar 39,00±1,80%, lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan K+ yakni 23,00±3,00% (p=0,000).Simpulan: Ekstrak P. niruri L meningkatkan status imunologi melalui mekanisme peningkatan infiltrasi limfosit dan ekspresi perforin untuk melawan kanker kolon pada tikus coba
SYNTHESIS OF ADSORBENT MAGNETITE SILICA FUNCTIONALIZED CETYLTRIMETHYLAMMONIUM BROMIDE (CTAB) FROM IRON SAND KLAYAR BEACH PACITAN Sawitri, Endang; Azmiyawati, Choiril; Siahaan, P; Darmawan, Adi
Jurnal Sains Dasar Vol 7, No 1 (2018): April 2018
Publisher : Yogyakarta State University

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Synthesis of Magnetite Silica cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (magsil-CTAB) had been successfully performed using iron sand Klayar beach as a source of natural magnetite, sodium silicate, HCl, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Addition of CTAB on silica magnetite was expected to improve the ability of the adsorbent to adsorb polar compounds such as phenols. Synthesis began with the separation of the magnetite from iron sands by separation magnetically done using permanent magnets. Silica coating on magnetite done via sol-gel method with a ratio 1:20 of magnetite and sodium silicate followed by addition of HCl to form a gel. Gel was dried at a temperature of 80 0C and 350 °C for calcination. Results obtained soaked with CTAB solution with a concentration of 0.5 mM; 1 mM; 2 mM and stirred for 24 hours. Binding of silica and magnetite above the CTAB tested by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR). The presence of silica in magnetite indicated by the appearance of spectra at wave number 900 and 3500-3200 cm-1 indicating the presence of a hydroxyl group of silanol and water molecules. Besides the presence of two strong peaks observed around 1100 and 800 cm-1, respectively show the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching and bending. From the results of spectra could be seen further there were difference intensity of the main peaks for different samples used, especially on the area around 2300 cm-1 to be a group of nitrile (C-N) and about 3700-3500 cm-1 due to the amide (N-H) of the CTAB as expected. Keywords: magnetite, silica, sol-gel, coating, CTAB
EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Eleutherine bulbosa (MILL.) URB ON ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL Prophyromonas gingivalis IN VITRO Azizah, Siti Nur; Yani, Sinar; Ismail, Sjarif; Masyudhi, Masyudhi; Sawitri, Endang
Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry Vol 4 No 3 (2018): Journal of Tropical Pharmacy and Chemistry
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia, 75117

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Periodontitis is an inflamation of supporting tissues on teeth that became the main cause of Prophyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) bacteria. Treatment of periodontitis is by giving antibacterial agent therapy. Plants that have antibacterial effects one are Eleutherine bulbosa (UEB) bulbs from the Iridaceae family. This plant has been used for ethnobotany boils drugs and has been known to have antibacterial activity toward against intestinal pathogen bacteria that is anaerobic Gram Negative, but still unknown its activity against on oral pathogenic bacteria such as P. gingivalis. The purpose of this study was to know the effect of UEB extract on the growth of P. gingivalis bacteria as in vitro. UEB is taken from agriculture center in Samarinda city. UEB Simplisia was tested for antibacterial activity using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on BHI-A media supplemented with vitamin K and hemin. The bacteria which used were P. gingivalis ATCC® 33277. Blank disc 6 mm with nine concentrations attached to BHI-A medium, incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere, then sprayed MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenylttetrazoliumbromide) reagent and read a few moments later. For comparison, then used Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) 2 mg/ml. The statistical analysis with t-test and there was significant different if&nbsp; p&lt;0.05. The result showed that the higher concentration of UEB ethanol extract will increase the growth inhibition zone of P. gingivalis bacteria and reach maximum at 10 mg/ml concentration. The result of t-test showed no difference significant of P. gingivalis bacterial inhibition zone in the treatment group of 7.5 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentration on CHX group. This study proves UEB ethanol extract can inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis bacteria. &nbsp;