Satoto Satoto
Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi Jl. Raya 9 Sukamandi Subang 41256, Jawa Barat

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SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAM USING RICE-PEA BEVERAGE IN SOME PRIMARY SCHOOLS: DOES IT HAVE BENEFIT?

JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA Volume 1. Nomor 1. Desember 2005
Publisher : JURNAL GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT School feeding program is believed to be one effort among others to improve attendance rate, nutritional status and cognitive function of school children, which in turn improve academic performance of them. A study was conducted to evaluate a school feeding program using rice-pea beverage in Bandung, Indonesia. Its objective is to measure effect of the program on attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and academic performance of the children joining the program. A control group design was administered. A number of students of class 3,4 and 5 from schools joining the feeding program were selected as program group, and more or less same number of school children in other schools with similar socio-economic situation were selected as control group. The feeding program was organized for 6 months. Attendance rate was measured by number of absentees, total and due to sickness in one semester. Nutritional status was standardized using WHO-NCHS z-score for weight-for-age (WAZ) and height-for-age (HAZ). Cognitive function was measured by Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM), and score of Mathematics and Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia) were measured using specific scholastic testings. School and home learning environment, certain food consumption frequencies were collected as covariates. GLM analyses were administered. The study found that after being controlled by some covariates, at the end of the study children in the program group showed better attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and school performance. It is assumed that the improvement was due to better attendance rate as the program attracted the children to attend more days in the schools and due to improvement of food consumption provided by the program and at home. More in-depth, more specific and longer study, administering randomized case-control trial is recommended. Comparison of the use of foodstuffs for the purpose is also interesting to be studied. Permalink : http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/jgi/article/view/3239

THE SEGREGATION PATTERN OF INSECT RESISTANCE GENES IN THE PROGENIES AND CROSSES OF TRANSGENIC ROJOLELE RICE

Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 9, No 2 (2008): October 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Successful application of genetic transformation technique, especially in developing rice variety resistant to brown plant hopper and stem borer, will depend on transgene being expressed and the gene inherited in a stable and predictable manner. This study aimed to analyse transgene segregation pattern of the progenies and the crosses of transgenic rice cv. Rojolele harboring cry1Ab and gna genes. The third generation (T2) of fivetransgenic Rojolele events containing gna and/or cry1Ab were evaluated for two generations to identify the homozygous lines and to study their inheritance. The homozygous lines were selected based on the result of PCR technique. The segregation patterns of gna and cry1Ab were studied in eight F2 populations derived from Rojolele x transgenic Rojolele homozygous for cry1Ab and or gna and their reciprocal crosses. Data  resulted from PCR of F2 population were analysed using a Chi Square test.The study obtained six homozygous lines for gna, namely A22- 1-32, A22-1-37, C72-1-9, F11-1-48, K21-1-39, K21-1-48, and two homozygous lines for cry1Ab, namely K21-1-39 and K21- 1-48. Both cry1Ab and gna transgenes had been inherited through selfing and crossing with their wild type as indicated from the F1 containing gna and cry1Ab as many as 48.4% and 47.4%, respectively. In six of the eight crosses, gna was inherited in a 3:1 ratio consistent with Mendelian inheritance of a single dominant locus, while in the remaining two crosses, gna was segregated in a 1:1 ratio. The presence of cry1Ab in F2 populations also showed a 3:1 segregation ratio in all crosses. In the F2 population derived from F1 plant containing cry1Ab and gna, both transgenes segregated in a 9:3:3:1 dihybrid segregation ratio. This study will add to the diversity of geneticsources for insect resistance and allow further use of these transgenic lines for pyramiding resistance to brown plant hopper and stem borer or  separately in rice breeding programs whenever the efficacy tests and biosafety requirements have been completed.

Dietary plant food and socioeconomic determinants of vitamin A status : study in rural lactating woman during crisis in Central Java

Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 15, No 4 (2006): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

For the Longer term food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, become increasingly important. A nutrition survailance system in Central-Java, Indonesia assessed vitamin A intake and serum retinol concentration of lactating women with a child ≤36 mo old during crisis. Median vitamin A intake was 319 RE/d and night blindness 0,34%. Serum retinol concentration (mean : 1,23 µmol/L) was related to vitamin A intake in a dose-concentration manner. The multiple logistic regression model for predicting the chance for a serum retinol concentration > observed median of the population (≥1,27 µ mol/L) included determinant factors, vitamin A intake from plant foods (OR [95% CI] per quartile, 1st : 1.00, 2nd: 1,63 [0,99-2,80], 3rd: 1,99 [1,58-2,99], and 4th: 2,62 [1,68-4,04], from, animal foods (1st and 2nd: 1,00. 3rd: 1,37 [0,89-2,09] and 4th: 2,86 [1,59-3,98] ). Homegardening (no 1,00, yes 1,88 [1,08-2,68] ) and woman’s education level (≤ primary school : 1,00 ≥ secondary school : 1,46 [1,00-2,16] ). Thus, although contributing 16 times more to total vitamin A intake plant foods were as important for vitamin A status as animal foods. Homegardening and woman’s education level seem to reflect longer-term consumption of plant and animal foods respectively. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:259-66)Keywords: Vitamin A intake, plant foods, animal foods, vitamin A status, homegardening, socio-economic status, crisis, Indonesia

Pengembangan Padi Hibrida di Indonesia

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 3, No 1 (2008): April 2008
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Pengembangan varietas padi hibrida secara komersial setidaknya didasarkan atas dua hal, yaitu keunggulan varietas hibrida tersebut dan kemudahan produksi benihnya. Keunggulan varietas padi hibrida didasarkan atas fenomena heterosis yang diharapkan muncul, terutama potensi hasil, sedangkan kemudahan produksi benih dapat dilakukan dengan penggunaan galur mandul jantan dengan karakter pembungaan yang mendukung persilangan alami. Penelitian padi hibrida di Indonesia dimulai pada tahun 1983 dengan tujuan menjajaki prospek dan kendala penggunaan padi hibrida. Sejak 1998 penelitian lebih diintensifkan dengan melakukan pembentukan tetua padi hibrida yang berasal dari plasma nutfah sendiri dengan target mendapatkan padi hibrida yang adaptif di lingkungan Indonesia dan berpotensi hasil 15-20% lebih tinggi dibanding varietas inbrida terbaik. Sejak 2001 penelitian padi hibrida melibatkan lebih banyak peneliti dari berbagai disiplin ilmu dengan tujuan meningkatkan stabilitas heterosis dan mendapatkan teknik budi daya yang sesuai untuk padi hibrida. Dari program pembentukan tetua dan hibrida telah diperoleh sejumlah padi hibrida harapan, kandidat galur mandul jantan (GMJ) baru beserta pasangannya, dan galur-galur restorer. Pada tahun 2002 telah dilepas varietas Maro dan Rokan, disusul Hipa3 dan Hipa4 pada tahun 2004, Hipa5 Ceva dan Hipa6 Jete pada tahun 2007. Di lingkungan yang sesuai, varietas-varietas tersebut mampu menghasilkan gabah 1,0-1,5 t/ha lebih tinggi dibanding varietas inbrida terbaik di daerah yang bersangkutan. Pada umumnya varietas padi hibrida yang sudah dilepas termasuk 25 varietas padi hibrida swasta masih mempunyai kelemahan, antara lain rentan terhadap wereng coklat, hawar daun bakteri, dan atau tungro. Tingkat heterosis dari varietas padi hibrida yang dilepas oleh BB Padi bervariasi antarlokasi. Dengan kata lain, hibrida tersebut bersifat spesifik lokasi. Pengujian selanjutnya menunjukkan sejumlah hibrida yang unggul merupakan turunan dari GMJ IR58025A, IR62829A, dan IR68897A. Pemuliaan untuk membentuk galur-galur tetua dan hibrida yang lebih baik dilakukan secara terus-menerus. Pembentukan dan perbaikan GMJ dan restorer yang tahan wereng coklat, hawar daun bakteri atau tungro sedang dalam proses dan saat ini sudah diperoleh sejumlah galur mandul jantan dan restorer yang tahan wereng coklat dan hawar daun bakteri.

Peranan Galur Mandul Jantan dalam Perakitan dan Pengembangan Padi Hibrida

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 6, No 1 (2011): Juni 2011
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Mandul jantan merupakan suatu kondisi bunga dimana tanaman tidak mampu memproduksi polen fungsional. Sistem mandul jantan berfungsi mempermudah produksi benih hibrida dari sejumlah tanaman menyerbuk sendiri seperti padi, kapas, dan sejumlah tanaman sayuran dalam skala komersial. Galur mandul jantan (GMJ) padi diklasifikasikan berdasarkan empat kriteria yaitu (1) berdasarkan pengendali sifat mandul jantan, GMJ dibedakan menjadi empat tipe yaitu mandul jantan genetik (genetic male sterility), mandul jantan sitoplasmik-genetik (cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility), mandul jantan sensitif faktor lingkungan (environment sensitive genic male sterility), dan mandul jantan nongenetik atau karena perlakuan kimiawi (non-genetic or chemically induced male sterility); (2) perilaku genetik dari gen ms, GMJ dibedakan menjadi dua tipe yaitu sporofitik dan gametofitik; (3) pola pelestarian dan pemulihan (maintaining-restoring) dari GMJ, terdapat tiga tipe yaitu WA, Honglian, dan Boro type (BT), dan (4) morfologi polen, GMJ digolongkan ke dalam tipe typical abortion, spherical abortion, dan stained abortion. Pengembangan padi hibrida dengan menggunakan sistem GMJ sitoplasmik-genetik mutlak memerlukan tetua jantan yang disebut galur pemulih kesuburan (restorer line). Karakter pemulihan kesuburan dikendalikan oleh gen dominan tunggal ‘Rf’ yang mempunyai pengaruh gametofitik. GMJ dan pemulih kesuburan dimanfaatkan untuk merakit varietas hibrida sistem tiga galur. Dua cara utama untuk mendapatkan tanaman mandul jantan yaitu: (a) dari persilangan kerabat jauh, misalnya persilangan antarspesies (O. sativa x O. glaberrima), persilangan antar-ras (indika x japonika), dan persilangan antar varietas yang sangat berbeda sumber asalnya; dan (2) dari tanaman mandul jantan alami, yang biasanya merupakan hasil dari mutasi gen, sehingga tidak ditemukan galur pelestari pasangannya. Bioteknologi juga menjadi salah satu metode alternatif untuk merakit GMJ, antara lain dengan memanfaatkan sinar gamma, teknik kultur jaringan seperti kultur antera, marker added selection (MAS), quantitative trait loci (QTL), dan transformasi genetika.

Perbedaan Hasil Padi Antarmusim di Lahan Sawah Irigasi

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 8, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Indonesia as a tropical country, has two distinct planting seasons, i.e. rainy (WS, October-April) and dry season (DS, May-September). The difference between the two seasons include the amount of rainfall, air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and cloudiness which cause yield gap between seasons. Rice yield testing at various locations and seasons using inbred and hybrid varieties showed the occurrence of yield gap patterns. In East Java during the 2001-2003 testing showed inconsistence yield gap between planting seasons across locations. Testing of 29 very early maturing accessions in Kuningan (550 m asl) during DS 2010 and WS 2010/2011 showed no significant yield gap between planting seasons. Similarly, testing of 10 GSR inbred lines along with four check varieties during DS 2012 and WS 2012/2013 showed no significant yield gap due to seasons, genotypes, and plant spacing. Factors which presumably affected the yield gap include air temperature, CO2 concentration, and solar radiation during grain filling period. Increasing temperature had reduced the grain yield, where as increasing CO2 concentration increased plant biomass formation, while optimum solar radiation during grain filling increased grain yield. To reduce yield gap between seasonal planting, the more readily observable causing the yield gap should be anticipated, such as: pests and diseases in each season for each location, assigning suitable variety for specific location and planting season, and application of most appropriate cultivation techniques for each location and season (fertilizers application, plant spacing, irrigation, and pest/diseases management).

Produktivitas Varietas Padi dari Kelas Benih Berbeda

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 8, No 2 (2013): Desember 2013
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Seed certification system in Indonesia applies the four seed classes, i.e. Breeder Seeds (BS), Foundation Seeds (FS), Stock Seeds (SS) and Extension Seeds (ES). Farmers should plant the Extension Seeds for producing rice grain. However, farmers in some provinces prefer to use the Stock Seeds to produce rice grain, due to false information that higherseed-class will produce higher grain yield. The purpose of seed certification is to ascertain genetic identity and genetic purity, so as the potential genetic of the variety could be expressed maximally in rice field. Moreover, grain yield is influenced by the genetic factor and the environment condition. Previous research had indicated that the seed quality of higher seed classes was not always better than that of the lower seed class. Furthermore, rice crop planted from higher seed class of the same variety did not showed any differences in appearances of its agronomic characters (plant height, number of tillers) and yield components (grain weight, panicle length, filled grains per panicle), nor the grain yield. The notation that higher seed class produces higher grain yield, as was commodity believed by farmers and other stake holders, was incorrect. Seed certification is designed to ascertain the genetic purity of variety, but not to increase the productivity of the respective variety.

Perilaku Pembungaan Galur-galur Tetua Padi Hibrida

Buletin Iptek Tanaman Pangan Vol 7, No 2 (2012): Desember 2012
Publisher : Puslitbang Tanaman Pangan

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Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L) is naturally a selfpollinated crop, although outcrossing rate of 0.5 to 6.8% had been observed in some genotipes. In hybrid rice breeding, outcrossing ability of parental lines is expected to increase seed set. The successful of hybrid rice seed production is affected by floral characteristics, synchronous of parental line flowering, and other morphological characters which affect pollen transfer from male parent (B or R line) to female parent (A line). Some rice agronomic characters such as number of productive tillers per hill, number of spikelets per panicle, plant height, narrow and short of flag leaf, also panicle exertion, could affect outcrossing rate. The floral characteristics of A line such as: stigma and stylus size, stigma exertion, stigma receptivity period, angle of floret, period of the spikelet opening, and panicle exerted above flag leaf, are also affecting the outcrossing rate. However, the flowering characteristic of male parent (B or R line) such as: anther size, filament length, number of pollen per anther, percentage of exerted anther and duration of spikelet opening, are also contributing to the rate of outcrossing. Study of heritability and genetic variability analysis revealed that all characters supporting outcrossing could be improved by breeding. The environmental factors that affect outcrossing in rice are temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, and wind speed.