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ISOLASI, IDENTIFIKASI DAN PEMURNIAN SENYAWA 1,8 SINEOL MINYAK KAYU PUTIH (Malaleuca leucadendron) Helfiansah, Rizqi; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; -, Riyanto
ASEAN Journal of Systems Engineering Vol 1, No 1 (2013): ASEAN Journal of Systems Engineering
Publisher : Master Program of Systems Engineering

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB)

Abstract

Cajuput  oil  is one of the  essential oils that  widely used  as materials for  medical  or pharmaceutical products, this makes the cajuput oil become the most wanted products in essential oils industries. Cajuput oil demand is currently increasing with the growing variety of utilization of cajuput oil. Cajuput oil productions in Indonesia run into fluctuations and tend to decrease. There are several factors that affect production and quality of cajuput oil, and one of them is distillation technique. Moreover fractionation or isolation of the 1,8-cineol compound also have not been done by the cajuput oil entrepreneurs, whereas this is important in order to use 1.8 cineol compound further.Distillation of cajuput leaves is done by three distillation methods, namely water distillation, water steam distillation and steam distillation. Calculating the yield after cajuput oil obtained and then testing the physical and chemical properties of cajuput oil in accordance with the Indonesia National Standard (SNI 06-3954-2006). And then doing fractionation of cajuput oil to obtain at least 85% 1,8 Cineol compound.            The results showed that water steam distillation method produces the highest yield, the yield is  2.5%, followed by water distillation method, the yield is 1.8% and then steam distillation method, the yield is 1.5%. Physical and chemical properties that exist on cajuput oil that produced by water and steam distillation method and steam distillation method are appropriate with the Indonesia National Standard. After doing fractination processes for two time, the fractination process produced 1.8 cineol compound 79.90% in first fraction, 87.90% at second fraction and then 89.78% at third fraction.
Pemekatan Sitronelal Dalam Minyak Sereh Wangi (Cymbopogon Nardus L.) Dengan Fraksinasi Distilasi Dan Identifikasi Menggunakan KG-SM Ferdayanti, Marlia; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Riyanto, Riyanto
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2, 2014
Publisher : Universitas Islam Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20885/ijcr.vol1.iss2.art4

Abstract

Telah dilakukan pemekatan sitronelal dalam minyak sereh wangi (Cymbopogon Nardus L.) dengan fraksinasi distilasi dan identifikasi menggunakan kromatografi gasspektrometri massa. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode fraksinasi distilasi menggunakan minyak sereh wangi sebagai sampel dengan volume 250 ml, dan difraksinasi melalui tiga tahapan fraksinasi selama 2 jam pada tekanan 3 mmHg. Produk yang dihasilkan dianalisis menggunakan KG-SM. Hasil analisis KG-SM menunjukkan adanya senyawa sitronelal terbesar dihasilkan pada fraksi ke-1 yaitu sebesar 25,38 % dengan temperatur fraksinasi sebesar 48-55.5°C diperoleh minyak sebanyak 76 mL, indeks bias 1,4450, putaran optik (-1°), bobot jenis 0,857 gr/mL.
Peningkatan Kadar Patchouli Alkohol Minyak Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) dengan Menggunakan Membran Selulosa Asetat Aisyah, Yuliani; Hastuti, Pudji; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Hidayat, Chusnul
Agritech Vol 30, No 3 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9672

Abstract

The aims of this research were to increase patchouli alcohol content of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane and evaluated performance  of the membrane. The nanofiltration  cellulose acetate membrane used in this study was the Vivaspin 15R. The filtration process of patchouli oil was carried out using centrifugation speed 212, 850 and 1912 g, and centrifugation time 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 6 minutes. Analysis of patchouli oil was carried out using gas chromatography, meanwhile  the separation performance membrane can be described as a permeability  (flux) and selectivity. The nanofiltration  process of patchouli oil using cellulose acetate membrane showed that the patchouli  alcohol content increase 2 times (58.11 %) of the initial content of patchouli alcohol (30.08 %) by using centrifugation speed of 1912 g and centrifugation time of 50 minutes. There are significant effect of centrifugation speed and centrifugation time on patchouli alcohol content, flux and selectivity. The highest value of flux is 166,81 L/m2.jam and selectivity is 44.91 %.ABSTRAKTelah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kadar patchouli alkohol dalam minyak nilam dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi  selulosa asetat dan mengevaluasi  kinerja membran yang digunakan. Membran yang digunakan adalah membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat tipe Vivaspin 15R. Proses filtrasi  minyak  nilam  dilakukan dengan menggunakan kecepatan sentrifugasi 212 , 850, dan 1912 g serta  waktu sentrifugasi 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, dan 60 menit.  �adar patchouli  alkohol  di analisis menggunakan kromatografi  gas, sedangkan kinerja  membran dinyatakan sebagai permeabilitas (fluks) dan selektivitas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filtrasi dengan menggunakan membran nanofiltrasi selulosa asetat dapat meningkatkan  kadar patchouli  alkohol  sebesar 2 kali (61,52 %) dari kadar patchouli alkohol awal (30,08%) pada kecepatan sentrifgasi 1912 g dan waktu sentrifugasi 50 menit. Kecepatan dan waktu sentrifugasi berpengaruh signifikan terhadap nilai fluks dan selektivitas membran �ilai fluks tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 166,81 L/m2.jam dan selektivitas membran sebesar 44,91 %.
Isolasi dan Aktivitas Penstabil Oksigen Singlet Fraksi Fenolik dari Ekstrak Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC.) Suryanto, Edi; Raharjo, Sri; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Tranggono, Tranggono
Agritech Vol 28, No 3 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9772

Abstract

The objectives of this study was to isolate the different phenolic fractions present in andaliman extract and to determinetheir singlet oxygen quenching activities. Andaliman fruit was sequentially extracted with hexane, acetone and ethanol (1:5) for 24 hours, respectively. The extracts of andaliman fruit were further separated by gradient elution methods with column chromatography, using ethyl acetate­methanol as mobile phase and silica gel G­60 as stationary phase. Singlet oxygen quenching activities was examined using linoleic acid as substrates each containing 100 ppm eryth- rosine as a photosensitizer. The active fractions were characterized by IR and UV spectrometry techniques. Fraction II was discovered having properties as quencher of singlet oxygen effectively as well as fraction III. The quenching effect of fractions II and III were much higher than that of α­tocopherol (p<0.05). The fraction II was identified by IR spec- trometry, and the sample showed that strongest absorption at 3356 cm-1  indicating hydroxyl group from the phenolic compounds and the UV spectra showed that data of active fractions indicated an absorption maximum were 204, 221 and 272 nm, respectively. The conclusion was that fractions component of andaliman extract showing singlet oxygen quenching activity was a component having phenolic group.ABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengisolasi perbedaan fraksi fenolik yang terdapat pada ekstrak andaliman dan menentukan aktivitas penstabilan oksigen singlet. Buah andaliman diekstraksi secara berturut­turut dengan heksana, aseton dan etanol (1:5) selama 24 jam. Ekstrak buah andaliman selanjutnya dipisahkan dengan metode elusi gradien dengan kromatografi kolom menggunakan etil asetat­metanol sebagai fasa gerak dan silika gel G­60 sebagai fasa diam. Aktivitas penstabilan oksigen singlet diuji menggunakan asam linoleat sebagai substrat yang mengandung 100 ppm eritrosin sebagai fotosensitiser. Fraksi aktif dikarakterisasi dengan teknik spektrometer IR dan UV. Fraksi II dite- mukan memiliki sifat­sifat sebagai penstabil oksigen singlet yang sama efektifnya dengan fraksi III. Efek penstabilan fraksi II dan III lebih tinggi daripada α­tokoferol (p<0,05). Fraksi II diidentifikasi dengan spektrometer IR dan sampel menunjukkan bahwa terdapat penyerapan yang sangat kuat pada 3356 cm-1  yang mengindikasikan adanya gugus hi- droksil dari senyawa fenolik sedangkan spektra UV menunjukkan data fraksi aktif mengindikasikan adanya serapan maksimum berturut­turut adalah 204, 221 dan 272 nm. Kesimpulannya adalah komponen fraksi ekstrak andaliman menunjukkan aktivitas penstabilan oksigen merupakan komponen yang memiliki gugus fenolik.
Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of the essential oil of Pogostemon cablin Aisyah, Yuliani; Hastuti, Pudji; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Hidayat, Chusnul
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 19 No 3, 2008
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (332.325 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp151-156

Abstract

The aim of this research were to evaluate the chemical compositions and antibacterial activities of patchouli. The identification of patchouli oil was carried out by using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer, fractionation of patchouli oil was done by vacuum fractionational distillation method. The gas chromatography mass spectra showed that the patchouli oil consisted of 15 components. It was found that the five major components were patchouli alcohol, Δ-guaiene, α-guaiene, seychellene and α-patchoulene. Patchouli oil and high boiling point fraction exhibited antibacterial activity, while the low boiling point fractions did not show the antibacterial properties. The antibacterial properties found to be more effective for the Gram-positive bacteria than that the Gram-negative bacteria.Key words : patchouli oil, patchouli alcohol, fractinational distillation, antibacterial
Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Stabilitas Ekstrak Andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) Terhadap Panas, Cahaya Fluoresen dan Ultraviolet Suryanto, Edi; Raharjo, Sri; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono; Tranggono, Tranggono
Agritech Vol 25, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.13355

Abstract

Andaliman fruit is seasoning commonly used in traditional food preparation of North Sumatera. The objectives of this study were to determine the antioxidant stability of andaliman extract on high temperature fluoresence and ultraviolet high exposures. Andaliman fruit was sequentially extracted with hexane, acetone and ethanol. Antioxidant activity of each extracts at 50-500 ppm level are evaluated in 1,1-dipheny1- 2-picodhydrazyl (DPPH) radical decoloration test. The third extract was evaluated on heating at Iwo high temperature exposures were conducted on the third extract: storage at 100°C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 minute and storage at 100, 120, 140 and 180.c for 60 minutes. The treatment of light exposure were under 4000 lux fluoresen light and ultraviolet C (200-280 nm) light for 5 hours. The effect of ethanol extract (ESHAE) and acetone extract (ESHA) extract showed the highest scavenging activity in 1,1-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, followed acetone and hexane extract. BHT and atocopherol as positive control had weaker radical scavenging activity in DPPH system. Ethanol extract (ESHAE) extract at 200 ppm was significantly possessed high stability on heating at 100°C, fluoresent and ultraviolet, whereas hexane extract (EH) was low antioxidative efect. The addition of ethanol extract (EHSAE) at different concentration exhibited excellent reduction power more than acetone extract (ESHA) and hexane extract (EH). Ethanol extract (ESHAE) at concentration 500 ppm showed equal with 200 ppm BHT and rutin, but more than a-tocopherol. It is concluded that the ESHA and ESHAE extract of andaliman fruit showing stability on heating a! /00°C for 60 minutes, fluoresent and ultraviolet light light during 5 hours
TRANSPORT OF Cr(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), AND Ag(I) IONS THROUGH BULK LIQUID MEMBRANE CONTAINING p-tert-BUTYLCALIX[4]ARENE –TETRAETHYLESTER AS ION CARRIER Maming, Maming; Jumina, Jumina; Siswanta, Dwi; Firdaus, Firdaus; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 8, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1682.924 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21651

Abstract

The study on transport of Cr(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ag(I) through bulk liquid membrane using p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetraethylester as ions carrier has been conducted. The aims of this work are to determine the optimum condition, efficiency, and selectivity of transport of the carriers for those ions. Both optimum condition and efficiency of transport were obtained by determination of the concentration of transported ions with variation of source phase pH, ion carrier concentration, the nature of stripping agent in the target phase, and transport time. The ion transport selectivity of ion carrier was obtained from the ions transport competition experiments using equimolar mixtures. The amount of Cr(III), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ag(I  that was transported across liquid membrane was about 0, 10, 10 and 50 % respectively after 24 hours, except for Pb(II) (32 hours). The ion carrier is selective for Ag(I) where separation factor to Cd(II) was 16.0, that to Pb(II) was 42.8, and that to Cr(III) was infinite.   Keywords: transport,  calix[4]arene, efficiency, selectivity, bulk liquid membrane, heavy metals
SYNTHESIS AND CONFORMATION OF p-(AMINO)BUTOXYCALIX[4]ARENE Firdaus, Firdaus; Jumina, Jumina; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 7, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (515.364 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21712

Abstract

Derivatization of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxycalix[4]-arene to 5,11,17,23-tetra-amino-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene compound via etherification, ipso nitration, and reduction reactions, respectively has been conducted. The etherification reaction was carried out by refluxed the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene, 1-bromobutane, NaI, and NaH in solvent mixture of THF-DMF (10:1 v/v) and nitrogen atmosphere for 4 hours to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]-arene 84% in yield; ipso nitration reaction was carried out by stirred the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-t-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene and HNO3 100% in solvent mixture of dichloromethane-acetic acid glacial (1:1 v/v) for 2 hours and than refluxed for 1 hour to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-nitro-25,26,27,28-tetra-butoxycalix[4]arene 50% in yield; and reduction reaction was carried out by refluxed the mixture of 5,11,17,23-tetra-nitro-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene and SnCl2/HCl reductor in ethanol solvent for 6 hours to resulted 5,11,17,23-tetra-amino-25,26,27,28-tetrabutoxycalix[4]arene 67% in yield. In the etherification reaction, the conformation of calix[4]arene compound was converted from cone to partial cone; but in the followed reactions, i.e. nitration and reduction reactions, the conformation of calix[4]arene compounds were remain in partial cone.   Keywords: aminobutoxycalixarene, conformation, etherification, ipso nitration, reduction
TRANSPORT OF Cr3+, Cd2+, Pb2+, AND Ag+ IONS THROUGH BULK LIQUID MEMBRANE CONTAINING p-tert-BUTYLCALIX[4]ARENE –TETRACARBOXYLIC ACID AS ION CARRIER Maming, Maming; Jumina, Jumina; Siswanta, Dwi; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 7, No 2 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (254.535 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21694

Abstract

The research on transport of Cr3+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Ag+ through bulk liquid membrane using p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetracarboxylic acid as ions carrier has been conducted. The aims of this research were to determine optimum condition, efficiency, and selectivity of transport of the ions carriers to those ions. Both optimum condition and efficiency of transport were obtained by determination of transported ions concentration with pH variation of source phase, ionic carrier concentration, nature of stripping agent in target phase, and transport time. The transport selectivity of ions carrier was obtained from experiments of equimolar mixture ions transport competition. Amount of Cr3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Ag+  transported across liquid membrane were about 6, 80, 84  and 87 % respectively after being transported for 48 h. The ion carrier  was selective for both Pb2+ ion  (separation factors are 9.6 for Ag+ ion, 1.9 for  Cd2+ ion and infinite for Cr3+ ion) and Ag+ ion (separation factors are 1.8 for Cd2+ and infinite for both Pb2+ and Cr3+ ions). This system represents a proton-coupled transport with flow of protons in the opposite direction.   Keywords: transport,  p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetracarboxylic acid, efficiency, selectivity,  bulk liquid membrane, heavy metals,
EFFECT OF DE-tert-BUTYLATION AND FUNCTIONALIZATION WITH AMINE GROUPS AT THE UPPER RIM OF p-tert-BUTYLCALIX[4]ARENE TO THE EXTRACTABILITY FOR Cr3+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ IONS Firdaus, Firdaus; Jumina, Jumina; Sastrohamidjojo, Hardjono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 7, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (339.833 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21671

Abstract

The effects to the extractability forwards Cr3+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ ions of de-tert-butylation and functionalization with amine groups at the upper rim of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene had been studied by applied the p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (1), tetrahydroxycalix[4]arene (2), and p-(amino)butoxycalixarene (3) compounds as extractants for the heavy metals ions. The extraction involved optimise of three parameters, i.e. pH, time, and concentration of extractants. The extraction degrees of the heavy metals ions at optimum conditions were compared each other to decide the effects. Compound 1 showed high extractability to Cr3+ and Pb2+ ions over Cd2+ ion, but compound 2 as the debutylated product of compound 1 showed low extractability to the all of the heavy metals ions. Compound 3 as product of etherification with butyl groups of the lower rim followed functionalization with amine groups of the upper rim of compound 1 showed high extractability to Pb2+, but low to Cr3+ and Cd2+. Pursuant to the facts it was concluded that debutylation of compound 1 to compound 2 causing decrease drastically of extractability to the heavy metals ions; functionalization of the upper with amine groups as ionophore (compound 3) causing increase of the extractability to Pb2+ ion and decrease of the extractability to Cr3+ with increasing of separation factor value β(Pb2+/Cr3+) from 1.74 by compound 1 to 48.00 by compound 3. By slope analysis, the extracted species and mechanisms of the extractions have been confirmed.   Keywords: p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, debutylation, p-(amino)butoxycalix[4]arene, extractability, heavy metals, extraction mechanisms.