IWAN SASKIAWAN
LABORATORIUM MIKROBIOLOGI PANGAN BIDANG MIKROBIOLOGI PUSAT PENELITIAN BIOLOGI LEMBAGA ILMU PENGETAHUAN INDONESIA

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Biosynthesis of Polyamide 4, a Biobased and Biodegradable Polymer

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 2, No 3 (2008): December 2008
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Polyamide 4, which is composed of repeating unit of g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a biobased and biodegradable polymer since it can be synthesized from renewable material instead of fossil-based material. GABA is produced by decarboxylation of glutamate (Glu) using glutamate decarboxylase (GAD: EC 4.1.1.15), which is produced by some microorganisms. In this study, enzymatic conversion of GABA from glutamate by Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli cell and chemical polymerization of GABA to polyamide 4 were revealed. The results show that GAD activity of E. coli was higher than that of L. lactis. The treatment of E. coli cell by heating and sonication increased the GAD activity and conversion rate of glutamate to GABA was up to 70.5%. The optimum temperature for this conversion is 37ºC. On the other hand, chemical synthesis of polyamide 4 was catalyzed by heating GABA at 215ºC for 2 minutes

OPTIMASI PRODUKSI SERTA ANALISIS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN ANTIMIKROBA SENYAWA EKSOPOLISAKARIDA DARI JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH (Pleurotus ostreatus) PADA MEDIA CAIR [Optimization of Exopolysaccharide Production from Pleurotus ostreatus Growth on Liquid Medium and Analysis of Its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity ]

BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 15, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

Pleurotus ostreatus is well known as an oyster mushroom that is very popular because of its high nutritional value and pharmaceutical component. The aim of this research was to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exopolysaccharides from P. ostreatus grown on liquid medium.The P. ostreatus was grown on Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM) containing various types of Carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) sources, i.e glucose, lactose, amylose and sucrose as a Carbon sources and yeast extract, polypeptone, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3 as a Nitrogen sources. The results showed that sucrose and yeast extract were the best source of Carbon and Nitrogen that produced 208 and 100 mg/L of exopolysaccharides.  The exopolysaccharide exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichiacoli. However, it did not have antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  In addition, the exopolysaccharide indicated to have an antioxidant activity.

Penambahan Inokulan Mikroba Selulolitik pada Pengomposan Jerami Padi untuk Media Tanam Jamur Tiram Putih (Pleurotus ostreatus)

JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 11, No 2 (2015): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

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Abstract

ABSTRACTRecently, the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has increased enormously because of some reasons. Mushroom growers utilize sawdust,  byproduct of timber industry as main substrate in fruiting body production. Consequently, the availability of sawdust becomes an obstacle during mushroom cultivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effetivity of paddy rice straw as an alternative substrate in oyster mushroom cultivation. The paddy rice straw was inoculated with a cellulolytic microbs during composting process. They are Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger. The result showed that the fastest growing mycelia by fully colonizing 1.1 kg size baglog was obtained when the paddy rice straw was treated with B. subtilis (63.00 days), followed by the treatment with P. aeruginosa (63.67 days), A. niger (65.00 days), T.  harzianum (67.33 days), and negative control (67.33 days) respectively. On the other hand, the treatment of P. aeruginosa gaved the highest production of fruiting body (123.33g) followed by the treatment with B. subtilis (113.33g), A. niger (90.00g), control (83.33g) and T. harzianum (78.33g) per bag log over 2 period of time harvesting.  Keywords : Pleurotus ostreatus, paddy rice straw, compost 

SELEKSI BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT PENGHASIL AMILASE DAN PULULANASE DAN APLIKASINYA PADA FERMENTASI TALAS

Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan Vol 26, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan
Publisher : Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB Indonesia bekerjasama dengan PATPI

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Abstract

The objective of this study were to select amylase and pululanase producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for taro fermentation and to find out the length of fermentation time that will produce short chain polysaccharide. Fourty one LAB isolates were selected based on the amylase and pululanase activity (U/mL). Three isolates of LAB i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum D-240, SU-LS67 and SU-LS59 demonstrated the highest enzyme activities among other strains. The amylase activity for those three isolates was 2.57, 2.70, and 2.50 U/mL, respectively and the pullulanase activity was 2.72, 2.88 and 2.91 U/mL, respectively. Genotypic identification was conducted for strains SU-LS59 and SU-LS67. Strains identification by sequencing the gene encoding 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor Joining method showed that both isolates were identical to Leuconostoc mesenteroides NBRC 100496T (AB681194 ) with a bootstrap value of 100%. Either single or mixed culture of L. plantarum D-240 and L. mesenteroides SU-LS 67 were then used as starter in taro fermentation and DP values of the taro starch were examined at various fermentation times (0, 6, 12, 18, 24 h). The results showed that applying 2% mixed culture (108 CFU/mL) of L. plantarum D-240 and L. mesenteroides SU-LS 67) at the ratio of 1:1 as starter in taro fermentation was found more effective than the single cultures due to its ability to hydrolize and generate starch with DP value around 27 after 18 h fermentation. Starch with DP values between 19-29 was considered suitable for the formation of resistant starch (RS) during autoclaving-cooling cycles. This finding might be advantageous as preliminary treatment for the production of RS-rich taro flour through autoclaving-cooling process.

Pengaruh Variasi Konsentrasi Inulin pada Proses Fermentasi oleh L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophillus - (The Inulin Variation Concentration Effect in Fermentation Using L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus)

Biopropal Industri Vol 8, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Pontianak

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Abstract

Prebiotics are food components that can not enzymatically digested, thus it fermented by probiotic bacteria. Inulin is a prebiotic source that widely used in processed food products such as fermented milk. This study aimed to know the variation concentrations effect of prebiotic inulin on the growth of lactic acid bacteria starter yogurt (Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus). The growth of those lactic acid bacteries was determined based on OD (Optical Density), Total Plate Count (TPC), total lactic acid content and pH. Inulin concentration of 0.5% (w/v) increased the growth of those three bacteries. Reductioned of pH value during inulin fermentation indicated the growth of bacteria that produced lactic acid. L.bulgaricus and S.thermophilus growth rate were more sensitive than L.acidophilus in addition of prebiotic inulin concentration. The growth of those bacteries in MRSB medium supplemented inulin decreased pH around 7.00 into below 5.00 due to organic acids formation.Keywords: Fermentation, Inulin, L.acidophilus, L.bulgaricus, S.thermophilusABSTRAKPrebiotik adalah komponen bahan pangan yang tidak dapat dicerna oleh saluran pencernaan secara enzimatis sehingga akan difermentasi oleh bakteri probiotik di usus besar. Inulin merupakan salah satu sumber prebiotik yang banyak dimanfaatkan dalam produk pangan olahan seperti susu fermentasi. Pemberian inulin pada kadar tertentu perlu diketahui untuk mengetahui jumlah optimal yang diperlukan untuk menjaga kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi prebiotik inulin terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat starter yogurt (Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Streptococcus thermophillus). Pengamatan pertumbuhan L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophillus dilakukan dengan beberapa cara antara lain perhitungan total sel dengan menggunakan prinsip turbidimetrik OD (Optical Density),  jumlah total koloni dengan Total Plate Count (TPC), analisis kadar total asam laktat tertitrasi dan pengukuran pH. Konsentrasi inulin 0,5% (b/v) mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan L. acidophilus, L.bulgaricus dan S. thermophilus secara signifikan dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya. Penurunan nilai pH selama fermentasi inulin mengindikasikan pertumbuhan bakteri penghasil asam laktat. L. acidophilus mengalami fase eksponensial pertumbuhannya mulai dari masa inkubasi jam ke-6 hingga jam ke-24. Sementara itu L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophilus mengalami fase eksponensial pertumbuhannya mulai dari masa inkubasi jam ke-6 hingga jam ke-18. Laju pertumbuhan L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophilus lebih sensitif terhadap penambahan konsentrasi prebiotik inulin jika dibandingkan dengan L. acidophilus. Selama pertumbuhan L. acidophilus, L.bulgaricus dan S. thermophilus dalam media MRSB yang disuplementasi inulin terjadi penurunan nilai pH dari kisaran 7,00 menjadi di bawah 5,00 karena pembentukan asam-asam organik. Kata kunci: Fermentasi, Inulin, L.acidophilus, L.bulgaricus, S.thermophilus

Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Gembili (Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk.) Hasil Fermentasi dengan Penambahan Inokulum Bakteri Selulolitik dan Bakteri Asam Laktat

JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 10, No 1 (2014): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Gembili is a tuber plant which is usually used as an alternative food source. It containts high carbohydrates andpotentially to be developed into flour. Fermentation of gembili is the method to improve the quality of gembiliflour. The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical properties of fermented gembili flour with theaddition of cellulolytic (BS) and lactic acid bacteria (BAL). There were four treatments, namely naturalfermentation without the addition of neither BS nor BAL, with the addition of BS, with the addition of BAL, andwith the addition of BS and BAL. Fermentation was carried out for three days. Temperature, pH, the number ofbacteria, as well as cellulase and amylase activity were observed every day. The studies of physical properties ofgembili flour were the color, flavor, texture, and yield. Furthermore, the chemical properties included water, ash,carbohydrate, fat, and protein content. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by LSD test at 5%significance level. It showed that the physical properties of flour color in the treatment of BS fermentation werebetter than other treatments. However, the aroma and texture did not show any significant difference. Thechemical properties showed no significant difference among all treatments.Keywords: fermented gembili flour, physicochemical

Sintesis Alkil N-asetilglukosamina (Alkil-GlcNAc) dengan Enzim N-asetilheksosaminidase yang diisolasi dari Aspergillus sp. 501

JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 7, No 1 (2011): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

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Abstract

ABSTRACTEnzymatic Synthesis of Alkyl N-acetylglucosamine (Alkyl-GlcNAc) by Application ofTransglycosylation Activity of ?-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Aspergillus sp. 501. ?-NAcetylhexosaminidasefrom Aspergillus sp. 501 has transglycosylation and hydrolytic activity.Transglycosylation occur through transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) which washydrolyzed from p-nitrophenyl-?-N-acetylglucosamine (pNP-GlcNAc) to various alcohols. Thetransglycosylation product was determined by Thin Layer Chromatography and HighPerformance Liquid Chromatography. Using this transglycosylation activity the novelcompound of Alkyl-GlcNAc was synthesized using N-acetylchitotriose as a donor and anethanol as an acceptor.Keywords: Alkyl N-acetylglucosamine, Transglycosylation, ?-N-Acetylhexosaminidase,Aspergillus sp. 501

Pemanfatan Ekstrak Jamur Tiram (Pleurotus spp.) pada Penyimpanan Daging Ayam pada Suhu Ruang (26oC)

JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 13, No 2 (2017): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

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Abstract

ABSTRACTRecently, food preservation especially for meat is becoming one of the subjects of food technology that is still developed. Organic acids is commonly used for food preservative. Meat is easily destroyed mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus spp.), well known as an edible mushrooms is one of the food resources that have antimicrobial activity. The application of oyster mushroom extracts in chicken meat is done using extract concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 18.75%, 25%, 31.25% and 37.5% where 12,5% is the MIC to inhibit E. coli and S. aureus. The results showed that the application of brown oyster mushroom extracts with concentration of 31.25% can mantain freshness of chicken meat for 12 hours of storage at room temperature (26oC) with the total number of microbes of 8.6 x 105 cfu/g, the total number of E. coli of 0.3 x 101 cfu/g, the total number of S. aureus of 7.7 x 101 cfu/g. It was appropriate with Indonesian National Standard ( SNI 3924:2009). It required the condition such as no decomposition, pH 5.53, color organoleptic value of 3.42 (fair to good) and texture organoleptic value of 3.53 (fair to good).Keywords : oyster mushroom extract, antimicrobial, chicken meat preserving

HIDROLISIS KITIN MELALUI FERMENTASI SEMI PADAT UNTUK PRODUKSI N-ASETILGLUKOSAMINA

BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 10, No 6 (2011)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), the monomeric unit of polymer chitin has attracted much attention for their therapeutic activity in osteoarthritis.It is mainly produced by acid hydrolysis of chitin which affect the environmental problem because of its acidic wastes.Therefore, it is need to develop the new method for GlcNAc production. The aim of this experiment is to produce GlcNAc by mean of submerged fermentation of chitin. The preliminary study showed that fermentation of chitin by Aspergillus sp.501 produced higher GlcNAc than that of Saccharomyces sp. It was 1.39 ng/ml and 1.07 ng/ml. Then the Aspergillus sp. 501 was used in optimation of GlcNAc production. The effect of pH and nitrogen course such as bacto peptone, yeast extract, amonium sulfat and urea to GlcNAc production was examined. Then the product of GlcNAc was precipited by vacum evapotated and freeze dryed. The results showed that the highest of production GlcNAc of 2.228 ng/mL was obtained on pH 4 of medium solid state fermentation using urea as Nitrogen source at 10 days incubation.

Screening, Purification, and Characterization of Cellulase from Fungi Isolated from Used Mushroom Substrate

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 9, No 4 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

Alarge number of microorganism especially filamentous fungi has ability to degrade cellulose. The purpose of this study was to conduct screening, purification, and characterization of cellulase from fungi which was isolated from used paddy straw mushroom substrate. Screening of cellulytic activity using CMC medium shown that 11 out of 20 isolates of fungi produced a clearing zone surrounding fungal colony. Among them isolate number JMF 12 showed the highest cellulase activity and was further used for purification and characterization. The cellulase was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialyzed by Novagen D-Maxi TubeTM Dialyzer, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The recovery and purification fold was 3.82 % and 1.98 respectively, after Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatograph. The o purified cellulase had an optimal pH and temperature at 6 and 45 C. The Km and Vmax of cellulase was 11.43 mM and 0.006mmol/min respectively. The purified cellulase was activated by Na+ and Zn++ but inhibited by Ca++, Co++, Fe++, and  Hg++ .