Articles

EVALUASI KEHANDALAN REAKTOR BIOGAS SKALA RUMAH TANGGA DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA DENGAN METODE ANALISIS FAULT TREE Lestari, Ning Puji; Syamsiah, Siti; Sarto, Sarto; Budhijanto, Wiratni
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 10, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (523.53 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.34421

Abstract

Biogas technology is one of the solutions for improving sanitation, environment, economy and energy conservation especially for smallholder farmers who are applying mixed crop and livestock farming. Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme (BIRU) has been implemented in DIY since 2009. However, the household digesters that operate effectively only accounts for less than 50% of the total existing digesters in 2017. These problems should be identified and analyzed for more effective implementation and efficient operation of small-sized biogas system in the future. This research applied fault tree analysis (FTA) method to identify failures and evaluated their effects on the operation of small-sized biogas based on processes, physical component, and human factor point of view. Fourty-one sets of BIRU biogas were selected and sampled using stratified purposive random sampling method. Nineteen minimal cut set and three subsystems were defined, which included process failures, infrastructure failures, and human errors. The fault probabilities of the three subsystems were found to be 0.79; 0.59; and 0.96, respectively. It implied that human error gave the highest probability of errors, followed by process failure, while the physical structure of the reactor had been sufficiently well controlled. This study suggested that careful selection on prospective users should be conducted prior to installation, to ensure the motivation of the users in maintaining the reactor in good conditions. Besides, trainings and assistance system are also required to improve the skills of the user to maintain the performance of their reactor.ABSTRAKTeknologi biogas merupakan salah satu solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah energi, sanitasi, lingkungan, dan ekonomi bagi masyarakat daerah pedesaan yang menerapkan sistem pertanian terpadu. Program pembangunan biogas telah banyak dilakukan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta salah satunya melalui program Biogas Rumah (BIRU) dengan tingkat keberhasilan program yang belum memuaskan dengan angka keberhasilan di bawah 50%. Evaluasi kehandalan sistem biogas BIRU dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode fault tree analysis (FTA). Metode ini mencakup seluruh aspek yang mempengaruhi beroperasinya sebuah sistem biogas baik dari segi proses, komponen fisik (infrastruktur), maupun faktor manusia. Sebanyak 41 unit biogas yang mengalami kegagalan diteliti setelah dipilih dengan metode stratified purposive random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode FTA cocok digunakan sebagai metode evaluasi kehandalan sehingga faktor penyebab kegagalan dan nilai probabilitas setiap faktor dapat diketahui. Dengan metode FTA, diperoleh hasil bahwa penyebab kegagalan sistem biogas berupa 19 minimal cut set yang dapat dikelompokkan dalam subsistem kegagalan proses, kegagalan komponen (infrastruktur), dan human errors dengan nilai probabilitas kegagalan masing-masing 0,79; 0,59; dan 0,96. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kemungkinan terbesar kegagalan proses disebabkan oleh faktor manusia, kemudian disusul oleh faktor proses, sementara faktor komponen fisik reaktor sudah cukup baik kualitasnya. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk aplikasi teknologi biogas skala rumah tangga, seleksi calon pengguna harus dilakukan dengan teliti untuk menjamin motivasi calon. Selain itu, diperlukan pelatihan dan pendampingan untuk mempersiapkan calon pengguna agar mampu memelihara keberlanjutan teknologi biogas tersebut.
KINERJA DAN KINETIKA PRODUKSI BIOHIDROGEN SECARA BATCH DARI SAMPAH BUAH MELON DALAM REAKTOR TANGKI BERPENGADUK Sarlinda, Febrina; Sarto, Sarto; Hidayat, Muslikhin
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 12, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (502.844 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.33611

Abstract

Melon fruit waste with high sugar and water content is potential as a substrate for hydrogen production by dark fermentation. This study investigated the performance of biohydrogen production from melon fruit waste in a stirred tank reactor with initial concentration of 13100 mg sCOD/L, in room temperature, initial pH of 7 and controlling final pH at 5.5 by adding NaOH. The fermentation was carried out for 24 hours. The value of pH, volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), volatile fatty acid (VFA), biogas volume, hydrogen content, and cell concentration was analized every hour to determine the performance of reactor. Hydrogen content reached 16.20% with hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 458.12 mL/Lreactor/day in the standard temperature and pressure (STP) condition. Substrate consumption at the end of fermentation reached 24.61% of sCOD and 78.28% of VS. Metabolite products were dominated by acetate and butyrate with butyrate to acetate ratio of 7:6.  The kinetic of product formation was evaluated by the kinetic model of Gompertz. Meanwhile the kinetics of cell growth was approximated by logistics model  A B S T R A KSampah buah melon yang cukup melimpah dan kaya akan gula dan air sangat berpotensi sebagai substrat untuk produksi biohidrogen secara fermentasi gelap. Pada penelitian ini dipelajari kinerja produksi biohidrogen dari sampah buah melon menggunakan reaktor tangki berpengaduk. Konsentrasi awal substrat 13.100 mg sCOD/L pada suhu ruang, pH awal 7 dan dan dilakukan kontrol terhadap pH akhir fermentasi agar tidak turun lebih rendah dari pH 5,5 dengan penambahan NaOH. Fermentasi berlangsung selama 24 jam dan setiap jam dilakukan analisis terhadap pH, volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), volatile fatty acid (VFA), volume biogas, kadar hidrogen dan konsentrasi biomassa untuk mengetahui kinerja reaktor. Kadar biohidrogan yang diperoleh sebesar 16,20% dengan laju produksi hidrogen sebesar 458,12 mL/Lreaktor/hari pada keadaan STP. Konsumsi substrat pada akhir fermentasi mencapai 24,61% sCOD dan 78,28% VS. Produk metabolit dominan adalah asetat dan butirat dengan ratio butirat per asetat sebesar 1,2.  Kinetika pembentukan hidrogen dipelajari melalui model kinetika persamaan Gompertz. Sedangkan kinetika pertumbuhan sel didekati dengan model kinetika persamaan logistik.                                                                                               
PENGARUH VARIASI ORGANIC LOADING RATE SAMPAH BUAH JERUK TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOHIDROGEN PADA REAKTOR KONTINU Bonanza, Baruna Sakti Wicaksono; Sarto, Sarto
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 10, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (415.162 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.33336

Abstract

Biohydrogen is a potential alternative energy generated through the process of dark fermentation of organic waste. This research aims to determine the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) variations of orange waste on biohydrogen production. This research dealt with the production of biohydrogen in the continuous system. The reactor was equipped with circulation and operated anaerobically. The inoculum was taken from the sludge of the biogas installation in Gemah Ripah Fruit Market. Orange waste was used in three variations of organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.2, 2.5, and 3.1 L/day. The results revealed that the daily productions of gas for those OLR are about 15, 35, and 26 L/day respectively. Futhermore, for OLR of 2.5 L/day the total solid decreased from about 8 to 5%. ABSTRAKBiohidrogen merupakan salah satu jenis energi alternatif yang dapat dihasilkan dari proses fermentasi gelap (dark fermentation) sampah organik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi organic loading rate (OLR) sampah buah jeruk terhadap produksi biohidrogen. Pada penelitian ini produksi biohidrogen dilakukan menggunakan sistem kontinu. Reaktor yang digunakan dilengkapi dengan sirkulasi dan dijaga pada kondisi anaerob. Inokulum berasal dari sludge dari instalasi biogas Pasar Buah Gemah Ripah. Substrat yang digunakan adalah buah jeruk, sedangkan variabel yang dipelajari adalah OLR yang divariasikan sebesar 2,2; 2,5; dan 3,1 L/hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi gas untuk OLR tersebut berturut-turut sekitar 15, 35, dan 26 L/hari. Pada OLR 2,5 L/hari, terjadi penurunan total solid dari sekitar 8% menjadi sekitar 5%.
PENGARUH STEAM PRETREATMENT TERHADAP DEGRADASI SELULOSA DAN LIMONEN PADA LIMBAH JERUK DALAM PRODUKSI BIOHIDROGEN Khaerunnisa, Gita; Sarto, Sarto; Sutijan, Sutijan; Syamsiah, Siti
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 12, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (424.584 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.31163

Abstract

This research presents the influence of steam pretreatment to orange waste and its effect on the production of biohydrogen. The steam pretreatments with various times of 2, 4, and 6 hours were applied to the samples. After the pretreatment, the samples were fermented for seven days, and the contents of cellulose, limonene, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and hydrogen were assessed on the days of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7. Kinetic parameters of hydrogen production were evaluated using the modified Gompertz`s equation. The result of this research showed that the steam pretreatment significantly reduced the cellulose and limonene compounds. The content of cellulose in the substrate after 2, 4 and 6 hours pretreatment were 37.08%; 36.63%; and 15.95%, respectively. Moreover, the content of limonene after pretreatment of 2, 4, and 6 hours were 57.44 ppm; 38.80 ppm; and 36.11 ppm, respectively. Analysis of kinetic parameters of production of hydrogen showed that the maximum productions of hydrogen (Hmax) in the samples after pretreatment of 2, 4, and 6 hours were 11.492 mL; 52.612 mL; 22.345 mL, respectively. The maximum production rates (Rm) at specified pretreatment time (2, 4, and 6 hours) were 9.888 mL H2/hour; 10.008 mL H2/hour; 12.982 mL H2/hour and the lag phases were 49.689 hours; 24.742 hours; and 24.885 hours. The study elucidated that applying pretreatment for 4 hours gives the optimum condition for hydrogen production. A B S T R A KPenelitian ini mempelajari pengaruh steam pretreatment terhadap limonen dan selulosa yang terkandung pada limbah jeruk, dengan mengevaluasi dampaknya terhadap produksi biohidrogen. Steam pretreatment dilakukan dalam 3 variasi waktu, yaitu 2, 4 dan 6 jam. Kemudian proses fermentasi dijalankan selama 7 hari dengan pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada hari ke 1, 2, 3, 5 dan 7. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa steam distillation yang dilakukan untuk pretreatment pada substrat jeruk berpengaruh terhadap kondisi substrat, yaitu mengurangi kadar selulosa dan limonen. Kadar selulosa pada substrat setelah pretreatment 2 jam adalah 37,08%; 4 jam 36,63%; dan 6 jam 15,95%. Sementara kadar limonen setelah pretreatment 2, 4 dan 6 jam berturut-turut 57,44 ppm; 38,80 ppm; dan 36,11 ppm. Konstanta kinetika produksi hidrogen pada sampel dengan pretreatment 2, 4 dan 6 jam yang diperoleh dengan persamaan Gompertz termodifikasi adalah potensi produksi hidrogen (Hmaks) 11,492 mL; 52,612 mL; 22,345 mL, laju produksi maksimum (Rm) 9,888 mL H2/jam; 10,008 mL H2/jam; 12,982 mL H2/jam serta waktu adaptasi 49,689; 24,742; dan 24,885 jam. Perlakuan pretreatment pada sampel selama 4 jam menghasilkan produk paling optimal.
PENGARUH DETOKSIFIKASI DAN KONSENTRASI SUBSTRAT TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIOHIDROGEN DARI HIROLISAT AMPAS TAHU Husin, Amir; Sarto, Sarto; Syamsiah, Siti; Prasetyo, Imam
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 8, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (325.935 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.11376

Abstract

The effect of detoxification and substrate concentration on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch experiments using tofu solid waste (TSW) hydrolysate as substrate. TSW as the by product of tofu processing industry was hydrolyzed using diluted hydrochloric acids as catalyst (0.5% wt HCl, 104?C and 30 minutes). After neutralized by Ca(OH)2 (aq) and then treated by activated carbon for one hour, the hydrolysate was used for biohydrogen production. The experimental results show that, during fermentative hydrogen production under mesophilic condition and initial pH 6.5 were influenced both substrates without/with detoxification. The maximal hydrogen yield of 4.9 mmol/g reducing sugar (RS) were obtained at detoxified substrate consentration of 2 g GT/L. Detoxification has also shown to shortened lag phase of fermentation (?). Adaptation time of microbes during fermentation was reduced from 20 into 13.25 hours for fermentation without/with detoxification respectively at initial substrate concentration of 2 g GT/L. Key words : hydrolysate, tofu solid waste, detoxification, hydrogen, fermentation Pengaruh detoksifikasi dan konsentrasi substrat terhadap produksi hidrogen fermentatif dengan kultur campuran diinvestigasi dalam percobaan batch menggunakan hidrolisat ampas tahu sebagai substrat. Ampas tahu sebagai produk samping industri pengolahan tahu dihidrolisis menggunakan katalis asam encer (0,5% berat HCl, 104?C dan 30 menit). Setelah dinetralkan dengan larutan Ca(OH)2 dan dikenakan perlakuan dengan karbon aktif (1,5% berat/volum), hidrolisat siap digunakan untuk produksi hidrogen. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan, bahwa pada kondisi mesofilik dan pH awal 6,5, produksi hidrogen meningkat dan yield (mmol H2/g gula tereduksi) menurun dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi substrat awal, baik pada system tanpa detoksifikasi maupun dengan detoksifikasi. Yield H2 maksimum 4,9 mmol H2/g gula tereduksi (GT) diperoleh bila hidrolisat tanpa detoksifikasi diinkubasi pada konsentrasi substrat awal 2 g GT/L. Hasil ini 25% lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan substrat yang tanpa detoksifikasi. Proses detoksifikasi hidrolisat menggunakan karbon aktif mempengaruhi kinerja proses fermentasi dengan berkurangnya lama waktu fase adaptasi mikroba (?). Pada konsentrasi substrat 2 g/L, lama waktu fase adaptasi mikroba berkurang dari 20 menjadi 13,25 jam berturut-turut untuk hidrolisat tanpa detoksifikasi dan dengan detoksifikasi. Kata kunci : hidrolisat, ampas tahu, detoksifikasi, hidrogen, fermentasi
PENGARUH ORGANIC LOADING RATE PADA PRODUKSI BIOHIDROGEN DARI SAMPAH BUAH MELON (CUCUMIS MELO L.) MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR ALIR PIPA Nurkholis, Nurkholis; Sarto, Sarto; Hidayat, Muslikhin
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 11, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (72.594 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.23057

Abstract

The energy crisis and adverse effects from the use of fossil fuels requires the development of energy sources that are non-polluting and renewable, such as bio-H2. Bio-H2 can be produced from organic biomass such as melon fruit waste, because it is available in large quantities and has adequate content of organic fraction. Production of bio-H2 from melon fruit waste done by dark fermentation on the pipe flow reactor consisting of microorganisms acclimatization phase and continuous substrate feeding phase with variation of organic loading rate (OLR) are 6.0443 kg VS/ m3.day (OLR1), 7.6217 kg VS/ m3.day (OLR2) and 26.3152 kg VS/ m3.day (OLR3). Gas and liquid samples taken from the reactor for analysis of H2 concentration, volatile solid (VS) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) The results of the study showed that the production of bio-H2 optimal amounted to 90.8904 mL/ g VS on variations OLR3 is 26.3152 kg VS/ m3.day with substrate degradation efficiency reached 45.39%. The concentration of organic acids produced ranges from 400-800 mg/ L and acetic acid as the dominant product with an average concentration of 442.9276 mg/  L. ABSTRAKKrisis energi dan dampak buruk dari penggunaan bahan bakar fosil menuntut pengembangan sumber energi yang bersifat non-polutif dan terbarukan, misalnya bio-H2. Bio-H2 dapat di produksi dari biomassa organik seperti sampah buah melon, karena terdapat dalam jumlah banyak dan memiliki kandungan fraksi organik yang memadai.  Pada penelitian ini produksi bio-H2 dari sampah buah melon dilakukan secara fermentasi gelap pada reaktor alir pipa yang terdiri dari tahap aklimatisasi mikroorganisme dan tahap pengumpanan substrat secara kontinu. Variasi organic loading rate (OLR) yang digunakan adalah 6.04 kg VS/(m3.hari) (OLR-1), 7.62 kg VS/(m3.hari) (OLR-2) dan 26.32 kg VS/(m3.hari) (OLR-3). Sampel gas dan cairan diambil dari dalam reaktor untuk di analisis kadar H2, kadar volatile solid (VS) dan volatile fatty acid (VFA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi bio-H2 yang optimal sebesar 90.89 mL/g VS pada variasi OLR-3 yaitu 26.32 kg VS/(m3.hari) dengan efisiensi degradasi substrat mencapai 45.39%. Konsentrasi asam-asam organik yang dihasilkan berkisar antara 400-800 mg/L dan asam asetat adalah sebagai produk yang dominan dengan konsentrasi rata-rata sebesar 442.93 mg/L.
PENGURANGAN ZAT WARNA REMAZOL RED RB MENGGUNAKAN METODE ELEKTROKOAGULASI SECARA BATCH Setianingrum, Novie Putri; Prasetya, Agus; Sarto, Sarto
Jurnal Rekayasa Proses Vol 11, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Departemen Teknik Kimia Fakultas Teknik Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (476.232 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jrekpros.26900

Abstract

Batik is one of the distinctive cultural chacteristic of the Indonesian national that has gained recognition from UNESCO. Batik industries have grown rapidly. However, the activity  industry produces liquid, especially from batik?s dyeing processes.. The conventional method which is used for processing wastewater still has limitation so that an innovation method wastewater treatment is need for example electrocoagulation. Electrocoagulation is  a process of coagulation using unidirectional electrics current through electro-chemical process. In this work, electrocoagulation was employed to treat wastewater (synthetic dyes remazol red (Rb) as wastewater model). The method was carried out by varying the distance between electrode distance and electrical voltage. Variation of distance between electrode range were  2 cm and 3 cm while variation of electrical voltage range were 10 volt and 15 volt. To determine the effect of electrode distance and electrical voltage on treatsment performances the chemical oxygen demand(COD), total suspended solid (TSS) and waste color. The samples were taken at 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 40 minutes and 60 minutes during the process. The results showed that the distance of the electrode and the voltage affected  to thr reduction of COD, TSS and waste color. The optimum elecrode distance and voltage in this research were 2 cm and 10 volt. The research showed the decrease in COD concentration from 428 mg/L to 54 mg/L, TSS concentration from 850 mg/L to 277 mg/L and the decrease in waste color from 2733 PtCo to 75,5 PtCo. ABSTRAKBatik merupakan salah satu ciri budaya khas bangsa Indonesia yang telah mendapatkan pengakuan dari UNESCO. Industri batik mengalami pertumbuhan cukup pesat. Aktivitas produksi dalam industri semakin meningkat menyebabkan limbah cair terutama dari proses pewarnaan semakin banyak. Metode konvensional untuk pengolahan limbah cair masih memiliki kekurangan sehingga memerluka metode pengolahan limbah alternatif, yaitu metode elektrokoagulasi. Proses elektrokoagulasi merupakan suatu proses koagulasi  dengan menggunakan arus listrik searah melalui proses elektrokimia. Proses elektrokoagulasi dilakukan dengan memvariasikan tegangan listrik dan jarak antar elektroda yaitu 10 volt dan 15 volt serta 2 cm dan 3 cm. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh tegangan listrik dan jarak antar elektroda maka dilakukan pengukuran COD, TSS dan Warna dimana sampel diambil setiap 10 menit, 20 menit, 40 menit dan 60 menit lalu dianalisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tegangan listrik dan jarak antar elektroda memberikan pengaruh terhadap penurunan COD, TSS dan Warna pada limbah cair sintetis Remazol Red RB. Jarak antar elektroda dan tegangan listrik yang optimum pada penelitian ini yaitu 2 cm dan 10 volt dengan penurunan konsentrasi COD yang pada awalnya 428 mg/L menjadi 54 mg/L, penurunan TSS yang pada awalnya 850 mg/L menjadi 277 mg/L dan penurunan Warna yang pada awalnya sebesar 2733 PtCo menjadi 75,5 PtCo.
BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY REUSING IMMOBILIZED MIXED CULTURE IN BATCH SYSTEM Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Sarto; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi
International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Vol 9, No 1 (2020): February 2020
Publisher : Center of Biomass & Renewable Energy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1326.691 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/ijred.9.1.37-42

Abstract

Biohydrogen production via dark fermentation is a prospective renewable energy technology. In the process, reused of immobilized mixed culture is very important as their activities greatly influencehydrogen production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reuse of alginate beads affecting the biohydrogen production for 45 days. This study in batch reactor were performed using glucose 10 M as substrate, alginate and activated carbon as immobilization matrix materials, chicken eggshell as buffer, and cow dung biodigester as mixed culture. Hydrogen and pH on fermentation product are investigated by gas chromatography (GC) technique and pH meter, respectively. The colony diameter on immobilized and co-immobilized mixed culture was observed using optical microscope and colony diameter was measured using Image-Pro Plus Software v4.5.0.29. The surface morphology of immobilization and co-immobilization beads were determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the colonies growth observed using optical microscopy or SEM was apparent only in the immobilization of mixed culture. The average growth and diameter of colonies per day were 90 colonies and 0.025 mm, respectively. The weight of beads and pH during the 45-day fermentation process for bead immobilization of mixed culture were 1.32?1.95 g and 6.25?6.62, correspondingly, meanwhile, the co-immobilizations of the mixed culture were 1.735?2.21g and 6.25?6.61, respectively. In addition, the average hydrogen volume of glucose fermented using an eggshell buffer and reusing the immobilization and co-immobilization beads was 18.91 mL for 15 cycles.©2020. CBIORE-IJRED. All rights reserved
PENGARUH TEKNIK APLIKASI PESTISIDA TERHADAP DERAJAT KEPARAHAN PENYAKIT PARU OBSTRUKTIF KRONIS (PPOK) PADA PETANI Mahawati, Eni; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani; Sarto, Sarto
Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2017): Oktober 2017
Publisher : Master of Environmental Health Study Program, Faculry of Public Health, Faculty of Public

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (245.728 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/jkli.16.2.37-45

Abstract

Judul: Pengaruh Teknik Aplikasi Pestisida Terhadap Derajat Keparahan Penyakit Paru Obstruktif Kronis (PPOK) Pada PetaniLatar Belakang: Kabupaten Grobogan  sebagai sentra utama pertanian di Jawa Tengah yang banyak menggunakan pestisida mengalami peningkatan kasus PPOK sejak tahun 2010, dimana  etiologi PPOK berasal dari gene-enviroment interaction dan salah satu penyakit akibat kerja utama terkait paparan zat toksik di tempat kerja. Persentase terbesar (71%) penderita PPOK berdasarkan data rekam medis 2009-2012 di RS PKU Muhammadiyah Gubug Kabupaten Grobogan adalah petani. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis  pengaruh teknik aplikasi pestisida terhadap derajat keparahan PPOK pada petani.Materi dan Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus kontrol yang dilakukan di  Kabupaten Grobogan dengan 100 petani sebagai responden yang dipilih secara purposive. Pengumpulan data melalui wawancara, observasi, pemeriksaan klinis dan spirometri. Analisis data menggunakan uji korelasi rank spearman dan  regresi logistik ordinal.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 23% responden termasuk PPOK Sedang, 17% PPOK sangat berat, 7% PPOK ringan dan 3% PPOK berat. Sebagian besar responden menyatakan lama penyemprotan pestisida lebih dari 5 jam per hari (69%), seminggu lebih dari 1 kali (72%), waktu penyemprotan pada pagi/sore hari (95%). Sebagian besar responden (85%) sering melakukan penyemprotan pestisida tanpa memperhatikan arah angin dan melakukan penyemprotan pestisida melawan arah angin (42%),  saat angin kencang (36%) dan menggunakan baju/kain yang sudah terpapar pestisida untuk menyeka keringat (42%). Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan ada hubungan signifikan antata derajat keparahan PPOK dengan lama paparan pestisida per hari (p value=0,003) dan kesesuaian arah penyemprotan pestisida (0,000). Ada pengaruh signifikan lama paparan pestisida per hari (p value=0,004) dan kesesuaian arah penyemprotan pestisida (p value=0,000) terhadap derajat keparahan PPOK.Simpulan: Temuan baru dalam penelitian ini adalah teknik aplikasi pestisida yang terbukti berpengaruh terhadap derajat PPOK adalah lama paparan per hari dan kesesuaian arah penyemprotan pestisida. Implikasi hal tersebut terhadap kesehatan masyarakat yaitu diperlukannya sosialisasi prosedur kerja aman petani dalam menggunakan pestisida dengan menyempurnakan teknik aplikasi pestisida secara baik dan benar dalam pencegahan  PPOK. Disarankan lama paparan pestisida disarankan tidak melebihi 5 jam per hari dan dihindarkan penyemprotan pestisida melawan arah angin. AbstractTitle: Effect of Pesticide Application Technical to The Severity Degree of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on FarmersBackground: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease whose etiology derives from gene-enviroment interaction and has been one of the major occupational diseases associated with exposure to toxic substances in the workplace. Result of analysis of medical record data 2009-2012 in PKU Muhammadiyah Gubug Sub-Province of Grobogan Regency, it is known that the biggest percentage of COPD patients (71%) are farmers. This research aimed to analyze the effect of technical pesticide application on the severity degree of COPD to farmers.Methods: This research is a case-control study which was conducted in Grobogan District with 100 farmers repondents, had been selected by purposive method sampling. Data was collected by interviews, observation, clinical examination and spirometry. Data was analysed by rank spearman correlation and ordinal logistic regression.Results: The results showed that were 23% respondents in moderate COPD, 17% very severe COPD, 7% mild COPD and 3% severe COPD. Most respondents had spraying time pesticide  more than 5 hours daily (69%), more than 1 time weekly (72%), mostly in morning/afternoon (95%). Most of respondents (85%) frequently sprayed pesticides regardless of wind direction, sprayed pesticides against wind direction (42%), sprayed pesticides when high speed winds (36%) and used ?pesticide-exposed clothes? to wipe sweat ( 42%). The result of statistical test showed significant correlation of the severity degree of COPD with pesticide exposure daily (p value = 0,003) and suitability of pesticide spraying direction (0,000). There were significant effect of pesticide exposure daily (p value = 0,004) and suitability of pesticide spraying direction (0,000) to the severity degree of COPD.Conclusion: The new findings in this study are the technical application of pesticide that has been shown to affect the severity degree of COPD is the length of exposure daily and the suitability of the pesticides spraying direction. The implications of this to public health is the need for socialization of safe work procedures of farmers in using pesticides by perfecting technical aspects of pesticide applications properly and correctly in the prevention of COPD. It was recommended not to exceed 5 hours daily and avoid spraying pesticides against the wind direction. 
Pemodelan matematis pengurangan COD dalam air limbah industri penyamakan kulit secara adsorpsi kontinyu menggunakan abu terbang bagas Prasetya, Agus; Sarto, Sarto; Sholeh, Muhammad
Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik Vol 29, No 1 (2013): Majalah Kulit, Karet, dan Plastik
Publisher : Center for Leather, Rubber, and Plastic Ministry of Industry, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (184.475 KB) | DOI: 10.20543/mkkp.v29i1.214

Abstract

ABSTRACTThe objective of this research was to obtain suitable mathematical model for ChemicalOxygen Demand (COD) removal originated from tannery wastewater using bagasse fly ash incontinuous system. In the column experiment, effect of flowrate, concentration of wastewater,and bulk density were studied. Three models: Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yan were applied toexperimental data to predict the breakthrough curve. The best model was evaluated usingcorrelation coefficients. Yan model was found to give the most accurate to describe dynamicbehavior of the column experiment. The best result was obtained at flowrate of 100 mL/min,concentration of 400 mg/L, and bulk density of 61 g/L. The Yan kinetic constant (k ) and the Yadsorption capacity (q ) were 0.3210 mL/mg/min and 17.0947 mg/g respectively and the Ycorrelation coefficient obtained was 0.9379.Keywords: Chemical Oxygen Demand, tannery wastewater, bagasse fly ash, adsorptionABSTRAKpengurangan COD dalam air limbah industri penyamakan kulit mengunakan abu terbang bagassecara kontinyu. Variasi percobaan adsorpsi dalam kolom yang dilakukan yaitu: kecepatan aliranair limbah, konsentrasi air limbah, dan bobot isi. Persamaan Adams-Bohart, Thomas, dan Yandiaplikasikan ke data percobaan untuk memprediksikan kurva breakthrough. Koefisien korelasidigunakan untuk mengevaluasi model terbaik. Proses pengurangan COD dengan abu terbangbagas secara kontinyu dalam kolom paling cocok dimodelkan dengan model Yan. Hasil terbaikdiperoleh pada kecepatan aliran air limbah 100 mL/menit, konsentrasi air limbah 400 mg/L, danbobot isi 61 g/L. Parameter konstanta kinetika (k ) dan kapasitas adsorpsi (q ) yang diperoleh Y Yberturut-turut sebesar 0,3210 mL/mg/menit dan 17,0947 mg/g dengan nilai koefisien korelasiyang didapatkan yaitu 0,9379.Kata kunci: Chemical Oxygen Demand, air limbah industri penyamakan kulit, abu terbang bagas,adsorpsi
Co-Authors Abdullah Isnaini, Abdullah Adi Heru Husodo Adi Heru Sutomo Agus Prasetya Agus Prasetyo Agus Suwarni Amekan, Yumechris Amini, Noor Rosyidah Amir Husin, Amir Andreas Didit Herdito, Andreas Didit Aprodhita Kusumaningtyas, Aprodhita Ariyanto Nugroho Astiti, Dian Fitriani Astrilia Damayanti Bambang Soehendro Bonanza, Baruna Sakti Wicaksono Bonanza, Baruna Sakti Wicaksono Chafid Fandeli Chandra Wahyu Purnomo Damayanti, Sri Ismiyati Desy Renisita, Desy Doni Prakasa Eka Putra Dwi Astuti Dwikorita Karnawati Eka Sari, Eka Elisa Nurnawati Eni Mahawati Erni Martani Gita Khaerunnisa Hariyani, Nurfitria Hary Sulistyo Humairo, Mika Vernicia I Made Bendiyasa Igarashi, Toshifumi Imam Prasetyo Indwiani Astuti JAKA WIDADA Kasam Kasam, Kasam Kyu Mar, Kyu Lestari, Ning Puji Lestari, Ning Puji Made Gunamantba, Made Makmun, Linarsih Makmun, Linarsih Manila, Riang Lala Manila, Riang Lala Muhammad Nur Cahyanto MUHAMMAD SHOLEH Muslikhin Hidayat Nainggolan, Ronald Nurkholis Nurkholis Pangestika, Rismawati Rahayu, Suprihastuti Sri Rahman, Fadhilah Rochmadi Rochmadi Saleh, Yusrizal Djam’an Sarlinda, Febrina Sarlinda, Febrina Sebastian Margino Setianingrum, Novie Putri Setianingrum, Novie Putri Shalibuddin Djalal Tandjung, Shalibuddin Djalal Siti Syamsiah Sunjoto Sunjoto, Sunjoto Susi Iravati Sutijan Sutijan Syarifuddin, Muhamad Syarifuddin, Muhamad Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar Takdir Syarif Wahyudi Budi Sediawan Wangi, Dyah Sekar A P Wiranto Wiranto Wiratni Budhijanto Wulansari, Anjas Yulia Rina Wijaya Yulida, Novriza Yustina Rusnawati, Yustina Yusuf Yusuf Zuhria, Faida