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OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI UNTUK PRODUKSI SELULOSA BAKTERI OLEH STRAIN SLK-1 DALAM MEDIA DASAR AIR KELAPA (Optimization Of Fermentation Conditions For The Production Of Bacterial Cellulose By Slk-1 Strain In Coconut Water Based Medium) Sarkono, Sarkono; Moeljopawiro, Sukarti; Setiaji, Bambang; Sembiring, Langkah
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Seminar Nasional IX Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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Abstract

ABSTRAK   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi terbaik strain Bakteri Asam Asetat penghasil selulosa yaitu isolat SLK-1.  Strain ini diisolasi dari buah salak pada penelitian sebelumnya.  Hasil optimasi menunjukkan bahwa kondisi fermentasi optimum untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi selulosa pada isolat SLK-1  dicapai dengan sumber karbon gula pasir, sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat, pH 7, suhu inkubasi 25°C dan metode fermentasi statis. Karakter struktur permukaan selulosa hasil fermentasi isolat SLK-1 dipengaruhi oleh metode fermentasi yang digunakan.  Metode fermentasi goyangan berpengaruh menurunkan produksi selulosa pada  isolat SLK-1 dan merubah struktur permukaan yaitu susunan mikrofibril lebih renggang dan membentuk gelembung.   Kata Kunci: bakteri asam asetat, optimasi, fermentasi, selulosa bakteri, penggoyangan
Sifat Fisikokimiawi Selulosa Produksi Isolat Bakteri Gluconacetobacter xylinus KRE-65 pada Metode Fermentasi Berbeda Sarkono, Sarkono; Moeljopawiro, Sukarti; Setiaji, Bambang; Sembiring, Langkah
Agritech Vol 35, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (663.464 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/agritech.9327

Abstract

Physicochemical properties of cellulose produced by local bacterial strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus KRE-65 by static and agitated fermentation methods was studied. Cellulose production by G. xylinus KRE-65 was carried out in coconut base medium with static and agitated fermentation methods. The dry weight, morphological and physicochemical properties of bacterial cellulose were compared based on SEM, XRD and FTIR analyses. The results showed that the G. xylinus KRE 65 in the static fermentation produced cellulose higher than agitated fermentation. Static fermentation method produced bacterial cellulose in the sheets form, while agitated fermentation produced fragmented cellulose with predominantly spherical shape. The observation of the surface structure of bacterial cellulose by SEM showed that the static fermentation method generated woven densely cellulose microfibrils, while agitated fermentation significantly changed the surface structure, namely woven microfibrils become more loose with formed larger and higher number of pores. The degree of crystallinity of bacterial cellulose by XRD analysis in static fermentation was 91%, agitated fermentation at 100 rpm was 73% and agitated fermentation at 150 rpm was 72%. FTIR spectra indicated that the pellicles produced by G. xylinus KRE 65 with static and agitated fermentation were found as cellulose. Cellulose produced from both fermentation methods showed different physicochemical properties, therefore they can be applied for different purposes in accordingly.ABSTRAKSifat fisikokimiawi selulosa yang dihasilkan oleh strain lokal bakteri Gluconacetobacter xylinus KRE-65 dengan metode fermentasi statis dan agitatif telah diteliti. Produksi selulosa oleh G. xylinus KRE-65 dilakukan dalam media dasar air kelapa dengan metode fermentasi statis dan agitatif. Selulosa yang dihasilkan selanjutnya dibandingkan berat kering, bentuk morfologi dan sifat fisikokimiawinya menggunakan metode SEM, XRD dan FTIR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa G. xylinus KRE 65 menghasilkan selulosa lebih tinggi pada metode fermentasi statis dibandingkan fermentasi agitatif. Metode fermentasi statis menghasilkan selulosa bakteri yang berbentuk lembaran sedangkan fermentasi agitatif menghasilkan selulosa yang terpecah-pecah dengan bentuk dominan bulat. Pengamatan struktur permukaan selulosa bakteri dengan SEM memperlihatkan bahwa metode fermentasi statis menghasilkan selulosa dengan anyaman mikrofibril yang padat, sedangkan fermentasi agitatif menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan struktur permukaan yaitu melonggarnya anyaman mikrofibril dan terbentuknya pori-pori yang lebih besar dan lebih banyak. Derajat kristalinitas selulosa bakteri dengan analisis XRD pada metode fermentasi statis sebesar 91%, fermentasi agitatif 100 rpm sebesar 73% dan fermentasi 150 rpm sebesar 72%. Spektra FTIR mengindikasikan bahwa pelikel yang dihasilkan oleh G. xylinus KRE 65 pada kedua metode fermentasi tersebut merupakan selulosa. Selulosa yang dihasilkan dari fermentasi statis dan agitatif mempunyai sifat fisikokimiawi yang berbeda sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam aplikasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan sifat fisikokimiawi yang dibutuhkan.
OPTIMASI KONDISI FERMENTASI UNTUK PRODUKSI SELULOSA BAKTERI OLEH STRAIN SLK-1 DALAM MEDIA DASAR AIR KELAPA (Optimization Of Fermentation Conditions For The Production Of Bacterial Cellulose By Slk-1 Strain In Coconut Water Based Medium) Sarkono, Sarkono; Moeljopawiro, Sukarti; Setiaji, Bambang; Sembiring, Langkah
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Seminar Nasional IX Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (426.082 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRAK   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengoptimasi kondisi fermentasi terbaik strain Bakteri Asam Asetat penghasil selulosa yaitu isolat SLK-1.  Strain ini diisolasi dari buah salak pada penelitian sebelumnya.  Hasil optimasi menunjukkan bahwa kondisi fermentasi optimum untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi selulosa pada isolat SLK-1  dicapai dengan sumber karbon gula pasir, sumber nitrogen ammonium sulfat, pH 7, suhu inkubasi 25°C dan metode fermentasi statis. Karakter struktur permukaan selulosa hasil fermentasi isolat SLK-1 dipengaruhi oleh metode fermentasi yang digunakan.  Metode fermentasi goyangan berpengaruh menurunkan produksi selulosa pada  isolat SLK-1 dan merubah struktur permukaan yaitu susunan mikrofibril lebih renggang dan membentuk gelembung.   Kata Kunci: bakteri asam asetat, optimasi, fermentasi, selulosa bakteri, penggoyangan
PERBANDINGAN SIFAT FISIKAWI SELULOSA BAKTERI YANG DIPRODUKSI ISOLAT KRE-12 DENGAN METODE FERMENTASI STATIS DAN PENGGOJOGAN Sarkono, Sarkono
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 11, No 1 (2014): Seminar Nasional XI Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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Abstract

Abstract- Cellulose production in bacteria is influenced by the fermentation method, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Bacterial cellulose produced by different fermentation methods were compared based on the dry weight of the cellulose produced. While the physical properties compared using SEM and XRD technique. Production of cellulose in acetic acid bacteria strain KRE-12 with static fermentation method, shaking 50 rpm, shaking 100 rpm and shaking150 rpm was0,49; 0,12; 0,13 and 0,10 g/100 ml, respectively. The degree of crystallinity by XRD method in static fermentation method was 91 %, shaking fermentation  100 rpm was73 % and shaking fermentation150 rpm was72%. Static fermentation method produces bacterial cellulose in thesheets form, while shaking fermentation produces fragmented cellulose with predominantly spherical shape. The observation of the surface structure of bacterial cellulose by SEM showed that the static fermentation method generates woven densely of cellulose microfibrils. The change from a static method to shaking fermentation causes the surface structure changes. Some changes have been observed in which woven microfibrils become more loose and form a larger gap between the holecellulose woven microfibrils. Keywords : acetic acid bacteria , bacterial cellulose, static fermentation, shaking
Analysis of whole cell protein profiles by SDS-PAGE to identify indigenous cellulose-producer acetic acid bacteria Sarkono, Sarkono; Moeljopawiro, Soekarti; Setiaji, Bambang; Sembiring, Langkah
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 21, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (909.285 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijbiotech.27166

Abstract

This study was carried out to analyze the suitability of the identification of four indigenous cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterial isolates (ANG29, KRE65, ANG32 and SAL53) based on the analysis of whole cellular protein profiles against identification based on phenotypic traits. Whole cellular protein profiles were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. The whole cellular protein profiles obtained from sample isolates, were compared with reference isolates for species identification. The results showed that based on visual observations can be determined as much as 12 bands of protein with a molecular weight of 19,099 KDa up to 132.182 KDa. Based on the analysis of protein bands were detected visually, fourth indigenous cellulose- producing acetic acid bacterial isolates in the study had a higher similarity profile to the reference strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus BTCC 769 compared with other reference strains namely G. hansenii NBRC 14820T. This condition is consistent with the results of the identification of fourth cellulose producing acetic acid bacterial isolates based on phenotypic traits. Thus, the whole cellular protein profiles by SDS-PAGE technique can be used as a one of method to identification of cellulose producing acetic acid bacterial isolates.
SYNTHESIS OF 4-ALLYL-2-METHOXY-6-AMINOPHENOL FROM NATURAL EUGENOL Sudarma, I Made; Ulfa, Maria; Sarkono, Sarkono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 9, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1205.072 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21566

Abstract

The aim of this preliminary research was to synthesize derivatives of eugenol such as 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-nitrophenol (2) and 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol (3). The result could be used as a reference on the transformation of eugenol to its derivatives. Theoriticaly nitration of eugenol (1) by nitric acid could produced 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-nitrophenol (2) and followed by reduction could achieved 4-allyl-2-mehtoxy-6-aminophenol (3). The formation of this product was analyzed by analytical thin layer chromatography (TLC) and GC-MS. These analysis showed the formation of product (2) and (3) were visible. TLC showed product (1) less polar than eugenol and gave orange colour, and supported by GC-MS which showed molecular ion at m/z 209 due to the presence of -NO2 by replacing one H at 6 position of eugenol. Product (3) was afforded by reduction of (2) with Sn/HCl and tlc analysis showed compound (3) more polar than eugenol (1) and (2) and supported by GC-MS which showed molecular ion at m/z 179 due to the presence of -NH2.   Keywords: Synthesis, 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol, Eugenol
CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF EUGENOL ISOLATED FROM CLOVE OIL TO 4-ALLYL-2-METHOXY-6-SULFONICPHENOL AND 4-ALLYL-2-METHOXY-6-AMINOPHENOL Sudarma, I Made; Ulfa, Maria; Sarkono, Sarkono
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 9, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (213.715 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21541

Abstract

The overall objective of this research was to develop new compounds with potential biological activity from readily accessed natural products, in particular eugenol. Eugenol has been reported to posses antioxidant and anticancer properties. In an attempt to enhance  intrinsic activity of this natural compound, some derivatives were possible to synthesize. The main aim of this preliminary research was to isolate eugenol from clove oil and made its sulfonic and amine derivatives through chemical transformation. Clove oil was extracted from clove buds with dichloromethane and followed by isolation of eugenol using column chromatography to afford eugenol (73%). Eugenol has been reported to posses antioxidant and anticancer properties. In an attempt to enhance intrinsic activity of this natural compound, some derivatives were possible to synthesize. Eugenol was transformed to its sulfonic derivative in moderate yield by treatment with chlorosulfonic acid and to its amine by reduction of its nitro derivative. This transformation was rapidly confirmed by GC-MS analysis which showed significance molecular ion at m/z 244 corresponding to molecular formula C10H12SO5. and at m/z 179 corresponding to molecular formula C10H11O2NH2.   Keywords: Chemical Transformation, Eugenol, 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-6-sulfonicphenol and 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-6-aminophenol