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THE EFFECT OF SWEETENER TO THE FORMULATION OF LOZENGES TABLET FROM CITRUS FRUIT PEELS PONTIANAK’S ESSENTIAL OILS Sriasih, Ella; Taurina, Wintari; Sari, Rafika
Majalah Farmaseutik Vol 12, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Pontianak orange (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa) has good benefit for health. Adding value of peel waste, it can be the waste of Pontianak citrus it can be formulated into lozenges contains essential oils. The lozenges were made by direct compress method with variation of manitol-sukrose ratio as sweetening agent. Formula 1 uses sucrose as sweetener, formula 2 employs combination of manitol-sukrose (1:1). Meanwhile, formula 3 uses manitol as sweetening agent. Based on the research, it showed that variations of the sweetener affect the physical properties of lozenges. Friability test of the tablet performed significant difference between formula 1 and formula 2 which formula 1 is better than formula 2 in friability. Taste test and preference of the respondent showed formula 1 as the most preferred with score of 124 in flavor aspect and texture with score of 113. 
AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI MINYAK ATSIRI KULIT JERUK PONTIANAK TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli Sari, Rafika; Mustari, F. Nour Aulia; Wahdaningsih, Sri
Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 18, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Penyakit infeksi dapat disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen diantaranya Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Salah satu tanaman yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai antibakteri adalah minyak atsiri kulit buah jeruk Pontianak (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. microcarpa). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri terhadap bakteri uji Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli dengan metode disc diffusion. Penelitian yang dilakukan bersifat eksperimental dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) Faktorial kemudian hasil dianalisis menggunakan program CoStat metode Two Way ANOVA dan diuji lanjut menggunakan LSD (Least Significant Different). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri kulit buah jeruk Pontianak mengandung flavonoid, saponin, dan triterpenoid. Berdasarkan hasil analisis, menunjukkan bahwa minyak atsiri dari kulit buah jeruk Pontianak memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap bakteri Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus, dimana rata-rata zona hambat terhadap bakteri diperoleh dari konsentrasi 0,5; 1,5; dan 2,5 mg/mL secara berurutan 16,33; 18; dan 21 mm dan  15; 16, dan 19 mm. Konsentrasi terbaik yang memberikan zona hambat terbesar terhadap kedua jenis bakteri adalah konsentrasi 2,5 mg/mL.
Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Daun Gaharu (Aquilaria microcarpa Baill.) Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Proteus mirabilis Muhani, Mutiara; Sari, Rafika; Fajriaty, Inarah
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 4, No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Daun gaharu (Aquilaria microcarpa Bail) merupakan salah satu bahan alam yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui golongan kandungan  senyawa metabolit sekunder daun gaharu dan aktivitas antibakteri terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Proteus mirabilis dengan metode Disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer. Simplisia daun gaharu dimaserasi dengan etanol 96%.  Hasil skrining fitokimia ekstrak etanol daun gaharu  mengandung flavonoid,fenol,tanin,saponin dan steroid. Selanjutnya dilakukan KLT untuk penegasan adanya senyawa kimia pada ekstrak daun gaharu menggunakan fase gerak butanol:asam asetat:air (4:1:5) dengan fase diam silika gel GF254 dengan penampak bercak FeCl3 5% untuk fenolik dan AlCl3 5% untuk flavonoid kemudian di deteksi pada sinar UV 254nm dan 366nm. Kontrol positif yang digunakan adalah Siprofloksasin 50μg sedangkan kontrol negatif yang digunakan adalah DMSO 20%. Berdasarkan hasil rata-rata diameter zona hambat ekstrak etanol daun gaharu pada Staphylococcus aureus dengan konsentrasi 300 mg/mL, 400 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL yaitu 12,50 mm, 13,51 mm,  15,80 mm. Sedangkan pada Proteus mirabilis dengan konsentrasi 300 mg/mL, 400 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL yaitu 12,10 mm, 13,26 mm, 15,19 mm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol daun gaharu memiliki aktivitas pada Gram positif dan Gram negatif.
DAMPAK KEBIJAKAN DESENTRALISASI FISKAL PADA DAERAH TERTINGGAL DI INDONESIA Sari, Rafika
Jurnal Ekonomi & Kebijakan Publik Vol 5, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian, Badan Keahlian DPR RI

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Abstract

Kebijakan desentralisasi fiskal di Indonesia bertujuan untuk memberikan peran dan kemandirian daerah lebih dalam peningkatan kualitas pelayanan publik di daerah. Dana Alokasi Khusus (DAK) merupakan salah satu instrumen transfer daerah yang mengatasi kesenjangan fiskal daerah. Semakin meningkatnya DAK sebagai tindakan afirmatif bagi daerah tertinggal seyogyanya memberikan pengaruh terhadap peningkatan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pengentasan daerah tertinggal. Tujuan dari studi ini adalah mengetahui karakteristik keuangan dan kondisi desentralisasi fiskal daerah tertinggal di Indonesia, serta hubungan DAK terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi di daerah tertinggal pada periode tahun 2010-2012. Dalam studi ini akan digunakan analisis kuantitatif dan analisis kualitatif. Metode kuantitatif yang digunakan adalah rasio kemampuan keuangan daerah, rasio kemandirian keuangan daerah tertinggal, serta membandingkan pertumbuhan alokasi DAK per kapita dan pertumbuhan ekonomi per kapita daerah tertinggal. Populasi yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah 183 kabupaten daerah tertinggal di Indonesia pada tahun 2010-2012. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa derajat desentralisasi fiskal pada daerah tertinggal sangat rendah, dan meningkatnya alokasi DAK pada daerah tertinggal tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi masyarakat.
KEBIJAKAN PENCAPAIAN SWASEMBADA DAGING SAPI TAHUN 2014 Rivani, Edmira; Sari, Rafika
Jurnal Ekonomi & Kebijakan Publik Vol 1, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian, Badan Keahlian DPR RI

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Abstract

The ministry of Agriculture has launched the Strategic Plan (Renstra) in 2010‐2014 to achieve food self‐sufficiency. One of the targets aims to increase the beef production to reach 550 thousand tonnes by 2014. It will be done to continue the availability of beef. However, its efforts to achieve the goal of beef self‐sufficiency must be supported by increased the number of livestocks. This paper discussed the policy of beef self‐sufficiency and the solution how to reach the self‐sufficiency based on the 2010’ Renstra.
CEMARAN BAKTERI Eschericia coli DALAM BEBERAPA MAKANAN LAUT YANG BEREDAR DI PASAR TRADISIONAL KOTA PONTIANAK Sari, Rafika; Apridamayanti, Pratiwi
Kartika Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Jenderal Achmad Yani, Indonesia

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Abstract

Makanan laut merupakan salah satu jenis makanan yang banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat selain sebagai komoditi ekspor. Tingginya kandungan protein dan air serta pH-nya yang mendekati netral menjadikannya media yang cocok untuk pertumbuhan bakteri sehingga menyebabkan makanan laut cepat mengalami proses pembusukan. Mengkonsumsi makanan laut yang telah terkontaminasi bakteri hidup atau toksin yang dihasilkannya dapat menyebabkan keracunan makanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya kontaminasi bakteri koliform E.coli sebagai indikator pencemaran pada makanan laut dan memberikan informasi kelayakan dan keamanan konsumsi dari makanan laut di dua pasar tradisional terbesar di daerah Pontianak.  Sampel yang digunakan adalah ikan, sotong dan udang. Penelitian terhadap sampel dilakukan menggunakan uji Most Probable Number (MPN) yang dilengkapi dengan uji biokimia untuk mengidentifikasi jenis bakteri pada sampel melalui penanaman bakteri pada media agar Lactose Broth (LB) dan Briliant Green Lactose Bile Broth (BGLB). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bakteri koliform E.coli terdeteksi pada 100% sampel dengan nilai MPN  yang tidak memenuhi kriteria kelayakan konsumsi, yakni >3/g, dengan nilai paling terbesar dimiliki oleh sampel sotong yang dijual di kedua pasar tradisional, yakni 220/g. Hasil uji biokimia menunjukkan sampel positif mengandung E.coli dengan terbentuknya cincin berwarna merah pada media uji.
Efektivitas SNEDDS Ekstrak Kulit Manggis Terhadap Bakteri P. mirabilis dan S. epidermidis yang Terdapat pada Ulkus Diabetik Sari, Rafika; Pratiwi, Liza; Apridamayanti, Pratiwi
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 3 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Mangosteen rind has the ability to conduct antibacterial activity. Under the development relating to drug delivery system, SNEDDS were known to boost the penetration of active compound. The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of the antibacterial activity at both SNEDDS preparation and the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind as the antibacteria against the bacteria that cause diabetic ulcers with the most prevalence whether it was Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria like Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The research started by maceration process with the crude extract as the result continued with the phytochemical screening which subsequently prepared as SNEDDS preparations. The SNEDDS preparation prepared earlier then analyzed to see the content of the active compound using spectrophotometer  UV-Vis  and  the measuring of antibacteria activity with bacteria growth inhibitory parameter at ethanol extract SNEDDS preparations of mangosteen rind then compared to ciprofloxacin and were analyzed the data afterwards using ANOVA. The results shows that SNEDDS preparation of mangosteen extract have an activity against both typed of bacteria that cause diabetic ulcers shows by significant differences between both group which is P. mirabilis bacteria group and S. epidermidis bacteria group in ANOVA test  with significant number of 0,000 and shows significant differences between both group.
Optimasi Kombinasi Karbopol 940 dan HPMC Terhadap Sifat Fisik Gel Ekstrak dan Fraksi Metanol Daun Kesum (Polygonum minus Huds.) dengan metode Simplex Lattice Design Sari, Rafika; Nurbaeti, Siti Nani; Pratiwi, Liza
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Indonesia especially west Kalimantan well known by its biodiversity. one of the potential resource is Kesum leaves. Kesum leaves are potential as antibacterial effect, so it can be formulated into pharmaceutical dosage form, especially gel. This research aimed to know the best comparison between Carbopol 940 and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) gel base affecting the physical stability of methanol extract and fraction of kesum leaves gel by Simplex Lattice Design (SLD) method. Gels were prepared into three variation base such as gel A (100% Carbopol - 0% HPMC); gel B (0% Carbopol - 100% HPMC); and gel C (50% Carbopol – 50% HPMC). According to SLD method, the optimum combination obtained among the basis were 100% Carbopol - 0% HPMC for Kesum leaves methanol extract gel and 10% Carbopol – 90% HPMC for Kesum leaves methanol fraction gel. Gel that was formulated were tested their physical stability, including adhesive ability, spreadability and pH. The results were analyzed using One sample t- test and was known there was no difference of the physical stability between Kesum leaves methanol extract gel and Kesum leaves methanol fraction gel.  
Antibiotic Sensitivity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa of Diabetic Patient’s Foot Ulcer Apridamayanti, Pratiwi; Meilinasary, Khairunnisa Azani; Sari, Rafika
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients are at risk to have the diabetic ulcer. The main reason for DM’s patient with ulcer complication to be treated and healed in hospital is bacterial infection. One of many bacteria that infects diabetic ulcer is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This conditian can be treated by antibiotic. The using antibiotic is often inaccurate causing the microbe resistance. To choose the right antibiotic, it needs to test the antibiotic’s sensitivity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aimed of this study was to determine the sensitivity of antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sample was taken from diabetic ulcers swab with grade III and IV Wagner. The identification of bacteria was managed using the biochemical test and Gram staining test. Antibiotic sensitivity was determined by Kirby Bauer method. Antibiotics that were found still sensitive towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa included ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime, whereas cefadroxil and amikacin were resistant. Antibiotics that can be used for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetic foot ulcer patients are ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime.  
Skrining Aktivitas Antibakteri Bakteriosin dari Minuman Ce Hun Tiau Sari, Rafika; Deslianri, Lia; Apridamayanti, Pratiwi
Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR) Vol 3, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Engagement, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Lactic acid bacteria is one of the beneficial bacteria because it can produce an antimicrobial peptide called bacteriocin. Bacteriocin has been applied as a natural food preservative because it prevents effectively the growth of pathogenic bacteria on food or drink. The aimed of this study was to identify the lactic acid bacteria as producers of bacteriocin from Ce hun tiau which has inhibitory activity againts pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus and Salmonella typhi. In this study, Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from Ce Hun Tiau using streak plate method on media deman Rogose Sharpe. Screening bacteriocin use disc diffusion method to find out the inhibitory activity of isolates against Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus and Salmonella typhi and for confirmation test using proteolytic enzymes. The results showed one isolate of lactid acid bacteria was succesfully isolated from Ce hun tiau, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. This isolate could inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus and Salmonella typhi which is a bacteriocin activity.