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Pengaruh Variasi Penambahan Ragi dan Lamanya Waktu Fermentasi terhadap Hasil Fermentasi Etanol dari Serbuk Gergajian Kayu Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri T et B)

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 1, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

The research was aimed to assess the influence of different levels of yeast addition and duration of fermentation on the amount and percentage of ethanol produced from sawdust of ulin wood as raw material.Method used in this experiment was chemical hydrolysis of cellulose by using nitric acid (HNO3) as chemical agent. This substrate was inoculated into yeast cell (khamir) to convert glucose into ethanol. The amount of ethanol (ml) was obtained from distilled water (ml) multiplied by the azeotropic value of ethanol (95,5%), while the value  ethanol (%) obtained was from the amount of ethanol (ml) divided by the amount of distilled water (ml) multiplied by 100 percent.The study used a factorial design of 3 x 3 with 3 replications and the parameters used were A factor (amount of yeast) consisting of 5, 10, and 15 grams, respectively, and B factor (duration of fermentation) consisting of 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively. Significant differences of ANOVA at test levels of 5% and 1% will be continued by interaction test between the two factors to assess the influence of each factor on the amount and percentage of ethanol.Results indicated that the amount of yeast applied, duration of fermentation and interaction between the two gave very significant effects on the amount of ethanol (ml) and its percentage (%). Following the treatment on ulin wood sawdust, the lowest yield of ethanol was found at A1B1 treatment (5 g, 1 day) with. 1.69 ml, while the highest at A3B3 treatment (15 g, 5 day) with 5.19 ml. In terms of ethanol percentage, the lowest was found at A1B1 treatment with 9.4% and the highest at A3B2 treatment with 29.9%. Keywords: Eusideroxylon zwageri T et B, fermentation period, yeast addition, ethanol production.

Penggunaan Tepung Buah Nipah (Nyfa Fruticans Wurmb) sebagai Ekstender pada Perekat Urea Formaldehid untuk Papan Partikel

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 2, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

Nipah fruit (Nyfa Fruticans Wurmb) is a seasonal forest product abundantly produced in each season. Nipah fruit flour is believed to also function as an extender during adhesion process of wood products such as plywoods and particle boards. The study aims to determine the right composition between nipah fruit flour and industrial flour as an extender which, together with urea formaldehyde adhesive, to be applied to particle board. Results revealed that the composition of 50% industrial flour and 50% nipah fruit flour (A3 treatment) gave the highest Modulus of Elasticity (MoE) with value of 16,833.90 kg/cm2 while average value of all treatment was 12,131.41 kg/cm2. The MoE of A3 treatment fulfilled the national standard (SNI) of 15.000 kg/cm2. As for MoE, the composition of A3 (50% industrial flour and 50% nipah fruit flour) was the most efficient mixture in producing the highest MoR with 119.30 kg/cm2. The MoR value for A3 also fulfilled the national standard of 80 kg/cm2. Comparing between treatments, all other treatment gave the MoE value less than reuired by national standard. The particle boards produced by other treatments were easily bent due to high carbohydrate and water content that weaken the elasticity of boards. For MoR character, all treatments gave value as required by national standard (higher than 80 kg/cm2) except treatment A5 which gave the value of less than required (76,36 kg/cm2). Keywords: Nipah flour (Nyfa Fruticans Wurmb), extender, urea formaldehyde, particle board 

RENDEMEN TEPUNG BUAH NIPAH (Nyfa fruticans WURMB) BERDASARKAN JARAK TEMPAT TUMBUH

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 12, No 32 (2011)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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Abstract

This study aims to determine the magnitude of the yield of wheat grown fruit Nipah by site. Nipah fruit yield of flour was 27.69% submerged in water, slightly submerged in water is 25.00% and grown on land which is 24.73%, Based on the analysis of the growing diversity was no significant effect on the yield of the resulting flour. Factors that influence the magnitude of the yield of fruit flour Nipah is the raw material used, Nipah fruit size, equipment used in the production process, and rigor in the process of flour production Nipah fruit. Based on the results obtained it is necessary to study Nipah fruit yield of flour from various regions, with special techniques and tools in the fruit paring Nipah.Keywords: Nipah, starch, sucrose content

PENGARUH BANYAKNYA LAPISAN PADA KAYU TEMPELAN UTUH DAN KAYU TEMPELAN TIDAK UTUH TERHADAP PENGUJIAN KADAR AIR, DELAMINASI DAN GESER HORIZONTAL KAYU GALAM

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 9, No 23 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of physics and mechanis of Galam (Melalueca leucandendron Linn) laminated beams on intact patches of wood and timbar is not intact partches to 4,5 and 6 layers for non structural building materials and wood waste can increase Galam for the manufacture of laminated beams.            The value of water content ranged of Galam lamina beam 10,39% - 11,93%, the results of analysis of variance showed that all factors do not affect the treatment given is no need for further testinDelamination test ranged between 6.59% - 10.84%, the results of analysis of variance showed that the factor A and factor B had significant influence is very real, but does not affect the interaction factor AB. Then do the test using Honestly Significant Difference  test (BNJ) with the results provide significant differences between factor A1 (intact patches of wood) by a factor of A2 (wood patch is not intact). And were significantly different between factor B1 (4 layers) with B2 (5 layers) and B3 (6 layers). Horizontal shear test ranged from 4,68 kg/cm2, the results of analysis of variance showed that the effect is very real factor A and factor B has no effect and the AB interaction effect on reality, and then conducted further tests with Duncan test with significantly different results, were significantly and no significantly different.Key words: wood patch intact, not intact patches of wood, moisture content

PENGARUH POLA SAMBUNGAN DAN BANYAKNYA JUMLAH LAPISAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN LAMINA KAYU MERANTI MERAH (Shorea leprosula Miq)

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 7, No 18 (2006)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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Abstract

The title of this research is The Influence of Extension Pattern and Number of Coat to the Mechanics and Physics Lamina Board of Red Meranti (Shorea leprosula Miq).  In making of lamina board, sawmill waste like small board cutting used as a raw material in length and certain thick.  Extension pattern that used is level off, heel and finger with the coat amount 2 and 3 enduing.  The sample that used in this test is 6 sample for the examination of the physics and 6 sample for the examination of the mechanics, with 3 restating rill for each examination, so the number of all is 18 sample for the examination moisture and 18 sample for the examination of MoE and MoR.  The device that being used is Randomize Complete Design with Factorial  pattern (Factorial RAL).  The examination parameter that being used for physics is moisture and for mechanics are MoE and MoR.  Pursuant to examination which have been conducted hence result for lamina board moisture isn’t influenced by extension pattern and number of coat because it’s depend on moisture at it’s compiler boards, where the boards is dried beforehand with the same method that is air dry.  While mechanics influenced by extension pattern and number of coat.  Extension pattern with the highest or best MoE and MoR value are finger extension pattern for the board of lamina 2 enduing and also 3 enduing, this is because of the pattern of finger extension have wide viscous area among of oblique and the level off extension pattern.  The lamina board coat with the highest value of MoE and MoR at 3 enduing for the extension level off, heel and finger, this matter because of 3 enduing lamina board has the most tying usher coat than 2 enduing. Keywords : Extension Pattern and Number of Coat, Mechanics and Physics Lamina Board, Shorea leprosula Miq

SIFAT FISIKA DAN MEKANIKA PAPAN BUATAN DARI CAMPURAN SERAT SABUT KELAPA (Cocus nucifera L) DAN SERBUK GERGAJI DENGAN PEREKAT UREA FORMALDEHIDA

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 7, No 19 (2006)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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Abstract

Forest and forestry in Indonesia have big enough role in national development.  In line with increasing resident of requirement of wood will also progressively mount, but forest as source of wood on the wane, that is spread of or the potencially so that get wood in number which is a lot of with big diametre.  One of type of crop of plantation which can be exploited among other things is coconut (Cocus nucifera L).  This Research use model of complete random device (RAL) by 5 treatment and 3 restating.  The result of this research indicate that the nature of physics of board made in from mixture of fibre of coir of coconut and sawdust with glue of urea of formaldehyde closeness: 0,93 gr/cm3; rate irrigate: 11,83%; absorbtion irrigate: 31,26% and the thick development 6,70%.  Nature of mechanics of board made in from mixture of fibre of coir of coconut and sawdust with glue of urea of formaldehyde limber impregnability: 15.103,51 kg/cm2 and impregnability broken 127,22 kg/cm2.  From result of research which have been done, suggested a research continued for the closeness perception, absorbtion irrigate, thick development and the impregnability broken with different treatment. Keywords : Cocus nucifera L, closenes, rate irrigate, absorbtion irrigate, the thick development, limber impregnability, impregnability broken

SIFAT FISIK DAN MEKANIK PAPAN SEMEN KAYU KEMIRI (Aleurites moluccana Wild) DENGAN PENAMBAHAN ABU TERBANG DAN KOMPOSISI DUA BAHAN BAKU

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 8, No 20 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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This research is aim to know the nature of physical and mechanical of board cement from Walnut wood (Aleurites moluccana Wild) through flown dusty addition (fly ash) by using two raw material composition.  Rate irrigate board cement wood of Walnut yielded influenced by factor A (raw material composition) with average value 12,29%, where treatment of powder and plan down of Walnut wood (factor A) giving very real influence to improvement of rate irrigate board of cement yielded. While for treatment of addition cement portland and fly ash (factor B) not give a marked difference to rate irrigate so that this treatment not give real influence to rate irrigate board cement Walnut wood.  Closeness of Board cement wood of Walnut yielded influenced by factor B (glue composition) with average value 0,93 gr/cm3. treatment of powder and plan down of Walnut wood (factor A) and treatment of addition cement portland and fly ash (factor B) giving very real influence to improvement of closeness board of cement yielded.  While for combination of treatment of AB not give real influence to closeness of board cement Walnut wood. Impregnability broken the board cement influenced by factor of rate irrigate, closeness, sum up and composition of agglutinant and also the solid usher substance glued and glue with mean 48,13 kg/cm3, all treatment give very real influence and combination of treatment of AB only give real influence to impregnability broken board of yielded cement. Value test the nature of physical and nature of mechanic and cement wood of Walnut yielded fulfill standard SNI-03-2104-1991. From the result of this research furthermore suggested to do research with difference of use composition of flown dusty addition and type of different cement by using other birch, so that can add the variaty of wood panel product. Keywords :  Physical and mechanic, board cement, Walnut wood (Aleurites moluccana Wild), flown dusty (fly ash)

RENDEMEN FINIR PADA MESIN ROTARY COMPUTERIZE BERDASARKAN JENIS KAYU DI PT HENDRATNA PLYWOOD BANJARMASIN KALIMANTAN SELATAN

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 9, No 22 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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Increasing product of  plywood industry should be done by minimized waste in any situation and condition. Target of output : input ratio is more than 70 %.The objective of this research is to find output : input ratio of three species veneer (Keruing, Red Meranti and Benuang), same in diameters,  produced by PT Hendratna Plywood, Banjarmasin. The research showed that average output : input ratio of Red Meranti is 76.770 %, Keruing is 73.324 % and Benuang is 69.916 % ,  Red Meranti is the highest. Statistical analysis shows that output : input ratio of Benuang with Keruing and Benuang with Red Meranti are highly significant. Computer operated of rotary cutting increased  output : input ratio of veneer, but quality and wood species effected the output : input ratio. Key word : output : input ratio, veneer

ANALISIS BIAYA DAN WAKTU PEMBUATAN BRIKET ARANG BERDASARKAN BENTUK DARI KAYU BAKAU (Rhizophora mucronata Lamck) DAN RAMBAI (Sonneratia acida Linn)

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 10, No 26 (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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This research aim to know the cheapest cost and the most efficient time (start from making process until charcoal briquette ready tested) in making charcoal briquette from mangrove wood and wood of rambai until get the highest calorie rate. The benefit from this research was expected get information and input to society if mangrove wood and wood of rambai can exploited efficiently that was with making vinegar wood and the waste from vinegar wood could re-use as charcoal briquette processing with the cheapest cost and the most profit. In this research,charcoal briquette quality from all composition mixture which was have been done in various shape get result average calorie rate do not fulfill conditions quality for standard import briquette. That  have calorie rate  ranging  5311,20 cal/gr up to 5815,63 cal/gr. Average data from cost expenditure during making process charcoal briquette was not differences  between mangrove wood and wood of rambai. The average cost which is expenditure around  IDR 200,000.00 for buying iron mould; for glue of molase IDR 108.00; for buying charcoal from mangrove and wood of rambai  IDR 1.500,00 and tested calorie rate IDR 450,000.00. Average data measurement time during making briquette process was tend to increase with many hole in briquette where was for silinder shape start from 195.7 minutes (without hole) up to 199.2 minutes (five hole) and for  square shape start from 195.7 minutes (without hole) up to 198.7 minutes (five hole). Result from t analysis test showing no differences cost  in making process and testing between both of briquette shape. Keywords : Cost And Time Analysis, Charcoal Briquette, Mangrove Wood

PENGARUH DIAMETER LOG DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS DAN RENDEMEN FINIR KAYU SUNGKAI DALAM KEGIATAN PENYAYATAN FINIR (SLICING) DI PT. DAYA SAKTI UNGGUL CORPORATION

Jurnal Hutan Tropis Vol 10, No 27 (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Hutan Tropis

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The aims of research were to determine the effects of log diameter and steaming duration on the productivity and the recovery of sungkai, to determine factors affecting both, and to test the veneer delamination of sungkai.The research method was the 3 x 3 factorial design. The diameter classes of sungkai were 20-25 cm, 26-30 cm, 31-35 cm. If analysis of variance test had showed a significant effect at the level of significance of 5% and 1%, test would have been continued with honest significant difference test.The productivity of sungkai were affected by the diameter and the steaming duration. The wider the diameter was and the longer the steaming duration was, the higher the productivity was obtained, idest for sungkai with steaming duration 36 hours.The recovery of sungkai were also affected by the diameter and the steaming duration. The wider the log diameter was, the higher the recovery was. A wide log produced more veneer than a narrow log. Slimilarly, the longer the steaming for 36 hours, the hardness of log decreased, wood was more elastic, knots and irregular fibres were softer, and the surface of wood was smoother.The sungkai productivity for A1 (20-25 cm), A2 (26-30 cm) and A3 (31-35 cm) were 0.0281 m3/h, 0.0300 m3/h and 0.0307 m3/h respectively. That of B1 (24 h), B2 (30 h), and B3 (36 h) were 0.0287 m3/h, 0.0288 m3/h, and 0.0313 m3/h respectively. The sungkai final recovery of A1 (20-25 cm) was 7.62%, A2 (26-30 cm) was 8.15%, and A3 (31-35 cm) was 8,49%. That of B1 (24 h) was 7.35%, B2 (30 h) was 8.26% and B3 (36 h) was 8.64%. plywood samples used for A1 were 9 sheets (B1 = 24 hours), 10 sheets (B2 = 30 h), for A2 were 14 sheets (B1), 16 sheets (B2), and 17 sheets (B3), and for A3 were 20 sheets (B1), 23 sheets (B2), and 24 sheets (B3). Key word: Log diameter and steaming duration, productivity, recovery, slicing