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Pengaruh Kecukupan Dana, Daya Dukung Kas, Infleksibilitas Pergeseran Aktiva Inverstasi, dan Efisiensi Pengelolaan Terhadap Profitbilitas Dana Pensiun Di Indonesia

Manajemen Krida Wacana vol. 1 no. 2 (2001)
Publisher : Manajemen Krida Wacana

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Abstract

STUDI KOMPARASI ANTARA METODE LATIHAN AEROBIKA DENGAN METODE LATIHAN SIRKUIT DALAM MENINGKATKAN KONDISI FISIK

Cakrawala Pendidikan CAKRAWALA PENDIDIKAN, EDISI 2,1984,TH.IV
Publisher : LPPMP Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Akhir-akhir ini banyak orang melakukan kegiatan olahraga pada pagi hari. Bermacam-macam metode latihan digunakan untuk meningkatkan kondisi fisiknya. Dua metode latihan yang berkembang pesat, ialah metode Aerobika dan metode Sirkuit. Dalam uraian ini akan dianalisis tentang perbedaan dan persamaan kedua metode itu. Faktor-faktor yang dianalisis ialah: tujuan, bentuk dan pelaksanaan latihan, unsur-unsur kondisi fisik yang dikembangkan, lama waktu dan frekuensi latihan, intensitas latihan dan prinsip-prinsip pembebanan. Metode yang digunakan ialah metode analisis. Setiap faktor dianalisis dan ditarik kesimpulan sementara. Kesimpulan-kesimpulan diambil berdasarkan kesimpulan dari setiap faktor.

CARA SEDERHANA MELAKUKAN SENAM AGAR BADAN TETAP SEGAR

Cakrawala Pendidikan CAKRAWALA PENDIDIKAN, EDISI 2,1985,TH.IX
Publisher : LPPMP Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

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Abstract

Pada setiap hari Jumat pagi yang ditetapkan sebagai hari Krida, semua pegawai negeri diwajibkan melakukan Senam Kesegaran Jasmani, dengan maksuduntuk meningkatkan kesegaran jasmani. Sementara orang berpendapat bahwa dengan melakukan Senam Kesegaran Jasmani setiap hari Krida, meskipun seminggu hanya sekali, maka akan dapat meningkatkan kesegaran jasmani. Bahkan ada yang berpendapat, meskipun ·dalam melakukan Senam Kesegaran Jasmani seenaknya saja, sudah pasti dapat meningkatk~n kesegaran jasmani. Namun sementara orang berpendapat lain, bahwa untuk dapat meningkatkan kesegaran jasmani, maka orahg harus melakukan aktivitas jasmani setiap h3:ri secara teratur, setiap kali melakukan latihan dalam waktu yang lama, dan dilakukan dengan sungguhsungguh dan penuh semangat. Mereka berpendapat bahwa jika melakukan Senam Kesegaran Jasmani hanya sekali seminggu, tidak akan membebani kerja jantung, yang berarti tidak dapat untuk meningkatkan kesegaran jasmani. Yang terang berhasil dengan adanya hari Krida ini adalah usaha untuk mengolahragakan masyarakat, di mana sementara baru masyarakat pegawai negeri. Dengan adanya hari Krida itu orang telah merasakan manfaat senam Kesegaran Jasmani bagi peningkatan kesegaran jasmani, meskipun secara ilmiah belum diadakan penelitian.

Teknologi Esktrasi dan Cara Pemisahannya untuk Mendapatkan Kembali Karotenoid dari Minyak Sawit : Suatu Tinjauan

Jurnal Riset Teknologi Industri Vol 9 No 1 Juni 2015
Publisher : Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Samarinda

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Abstract

Crude palm oil (CPO)is the richest natural plant source of carotenoids in terms of retinol (pro-vitamin A) equivalent, whereas palm oil mill effluent (POME) is generated from palm oil industry that contains oil and carotenes that used to be treated before discharge. Carotenoids are importance in animals and humans for the purpose of the enhancement of immune response, conversion of vitamin A and scavenging of oxygen radicals. This component has different nutritional  functions and benefits to humaan health. The growing interest in the other natural sources of beta-carotene and growing awareness to prevent pollution has stimulated the industrial use of CPO and POME as a raw material for carotenoids extraction. Various technologies of extraction and separation have been developed in order to recover of carotenoids.This article reports on various technologies that have been developed in order to recover of carotenoids from being destroyed in commercial refining of palm oil and effects of some various treatments on the extraction end separation for carotenoid from palm oil and carotenoids concentration. Principally, there are different technologies, and there is one some future which is the use of solvent. Solvent plays important role  in the most technologiest, however the problem of solvents which are used is that they posses potentiaal fire health and environmental hazards. Hence selection of the  most safe, environmentally friendly and cost effective solvent is important to design of alternative extraction methods.Chemical molecular product design is one of the methods that are becoming more popular nowadays for finding solvent with the desired properties prior to experimental testing.ABSTRAKMinyak sawit kasar merupakan sumber karotenoid terkaya yang berasal dari tanaman sawit sebagai senyawa yang sama dengan retinol atau pro-vitamin A; sedangkan limbah pengolahan minyak sawit dihasilkan dari industri pengolahan minyak sawit yang berisi minyak dan karotene yang perlu diberi perlakuan terlebih dahulu sebelum dibuang. Karotenoid merupakan bahan penting yang diperlukan pada hewan dan manusia guna memperkuat tanggapan terhadap kekebalan, konversi ke vitamin A dan penangkapan gugus oksigen radikal. Dengan berkembangnya ketertarikan dalam mencari beta-karotene yang bersumber dari alam lain dan meningkatnya kesadaran untuk mencegah adanya pencemaran lingkungan, maka mendorong suatu industri untuk menggunakan CPO dan POME sebagai bahan baku untuk diekstrak karotenoidnya. Berbagai macam teknologi guna mengekstrak dan memisahkan karotenoid telah dikembangkan untuk mendapatkan kembali karotenoidnya. Makalah ini melaporkan dan membahas berbagai jenis teknologi yang telah dikembangkan guna mendapatkan kembali senyawa karotenoid dari kerusakan di dalam proses pemurnian minyak sawit secara komersial dan pengaruh beberapa perlakuan terhadap ekstrasi dan pemisahan karotenoid dari minyak sawit dan konsentrasi karotenoidnya. Pada prinsipnya, berbagai teknologi yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak dan memisahkan karotenoid terdapat perbedaan, dan terdapat salah satu teknologi yang digunakan untuk esktrasi dan pemisahan karotenoid adalah menggunakan bahan pelarut. Pelarut yang digunakan mempunyai peranan yang penting dalam teknologi ekstrasi; namun pelarut yang digunakan untuk mengekstrak tersebut mempunyai persoalan karena berpotensi mengganggu kesehatan dan membahayakan cemaran lingkungan. Oleh karena itu, pemilihan jenis teknologi yang aman, ramah terhadap lingkungan dan biaya yang efektif untuk penggunaan pelarut merupakan hal penting sebelum dilakukan desain metode/teknologi alternatif untuk esktrasi karotenoid. Pola produk molekuler kimia merupakan salah satu metode yang saat ini menjadi lebih populer untuk mencari pelarut dengan sifat-sifat yang dikehendaki sebelum diujicobakan. Kata kunci :    karotenoid, ekstrasi, pemisahan, teknologi, minyak sawit kasar, limbah industri pengolahan sawit.

Kinetika Pertumbuhan Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 pada Substrat Padat serta Aktivitas Enzim Kasar Ekstraseluler untuk Mereduksi Aflatoksin B

Agritech Vol 28, No 4 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Previous research indicated that Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 be able to degrade aflatoxin B  (AFB1) and it was found 1that extracelular enzymes take a role on degrading and detoxify AFB1 in submerged culture system. Fungal fermenta-tion in solid-state culture more advantage compare to submerged culture system, because of the medium composition is simple and relatively cheaper than submerged culture. Agricultural waste usually used for solid-state culture system for fungal fermentation. The growth kinetics of Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 in solid-state culture and its extracellular enzyme activity were observed in this research. Rice bran was used for growth medium. The inoculated rice bran were aseptically distributed over petridishes containing 29-30 g of inoculated rice bran. Incubation was carried out in an incubator at 27 oC and relative humidity of 87-95 %. Kinetic parameters were studied, i.e. biomass, measured by bio- mass protein and viable plate count method, spore concentration, carbondioxide production rate (CPR), lost of water and dry matter, and the activity of crude extracellular enzyme againts AFB1. Crude extracellular enzyme was extractedfrom fermented rice bran by using 0.05M phosphate buffer and pure AFB1 was used as substrate. The reaction was conducted at 30 oC for 1 hr. It was shown that growth pattern was different between viable plate count and biomass protein. The biomass protein increased until the end of fermentation, and the maximum biomass protein was 2.628 mg/g dry matter. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.022/hr, and the highest carbon dioxide production rate (CPR) was0.0324 mmole/g/day found in the third day of fermentation. The metabolic activities also be shown by the rate of dry matter lost. The highest rate of dry matter lost also found in the third day of fermentation, and the correlation between dry matter lost and CPR was expressed in equation of y = 1.185 x + 0.0079. This result indicated that metabolic activi- ties (CPR, lost of dry matter) was able to be used as the growth parameter. The activity of crude extracellular enzyme associated with the fungal growth, and the highest activity was observed in the third day fermentation, it was 1.699 µg AFB1/ml/hr, or 0.888 µg AFB1/g biomass protein/hr.ABSTRAKPenelitian terdahulu menunjukkan bahwa Aspergillus oryzae KKB4, mampu mendegradasi aflatoksin B  (AFB1)  dan 1diketahui bahwa enzim ekstraseluler berperan dalam mendegradasi dan detoksifikasi AFB1 dengan menggunakansistem kultur rendam. Fermentasi jamur dengan substrat padatmemiliki beberapa keunggulan dibandingkan dengan kultur rendam, terutama karena media yang digunakan lebih murah. Hal ini disebabkan karena dapat mengguna- kan limbah pertanian sebagai media fermentasi. Dalam penelitian ini dilihat kinetika petumbuhan Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 pada substrat padat dan aktivitas enzim kasar ekstraluler terhadap penurunan AFB1. Sebagai media fermentasi digunakan dedak steril. Setelah inokulasi, dedak didistribusikan secara aseptis pada cawan petri sebanyak 29-30 gram tiap petri. Inkubasi dilakukan pada suhu 27 ºC dan RH 87-95 %. Parameter kinetik yang dipelajari adalah pertumbu-han biomasa yang diukur dengan protein biomasa, viable count, konsentrasi spora, laju produksi CO , kehilangan air 2dan kehilangan bahan kering serta aktivitas total enzim ekstriaseluler kasar terhadap AFB1. Enzim kasar diekstraksidari dedak terfermentasi dengan menggunakan buffer fosfat 0,05 M. Reaksi degradasi AFB1 dilakukan pada suhu 30ºC selama 1 jam dengan menggunakan AFB1 murni sebagai substrat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbu- han biomasa berbeda antara yang diukur dengan viable plate count dan dengan pengukuran protein biomasa. Pada hasil plate count menunjukan pertumbuhan biomasa terjadi sampai hari ketiga fermentasi dan relatif konstan setelah periode tersebut, sedangkan dengan protein biomasa pertumbuhan terjadi sampai hari kelima fermentasi, dan terus sedikit meningkat pada periode berikutnya dengan maksimum protein biomasa 2,628 mg/g bahan kering. Laju pertum- buhan spesifik adalah 0,022/jam, dan laju produksi CO  tertinggi adalah 0,0324 mmol/g/hari dan dicapai pada hari 2ketiga fermentasi. Aktivitas metabolisme juga ditandai dengan laju kehilangan bahan kering, degan laju tertingi pada hari ketiga fermentasi 0,035 g/g bahan kering/hari. Hubungan antara kehilangan bahan kering dengan produksi CO dinyatakan dengan persamaan y = 1,185 x + 0,0079. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas metabolik (laju produksi CO  dan jalu kehilangan bahan kering) dapat dipakai untuk mengukur pertumbuhan biomasa. Aktivitas total enzim ekstraseluler tertinggi juga dicapai pada hari ketiga fermentasi, yakni 1,699 µgAFB1/ml/jam, atau 0,888 µg AFB1/gprotein biomasa/jam.

Isolation of Rhizopus oryzae From Rotten Fruit and Its Potency For Lactic Acid Production in Glucose Medium with and without Addition of Calcium Carbonate

Agritech Vol 34, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Studies on lactic acid production by filamentous fungi Rhizopus oryzae have been explored in the world. Unfortunately, these studies are still limited in Indonesia, particularly studies in lactic acid production by indigenous strain R. oryzae. Four strains obtained from rotten avocado and guava were potential in producing lactic acid (AT1, JT1, AT2, and AT3). Rhizopusoryzae AT3 was used for lactic acid production using 100 g/l glucose medium with and without addition of 7.5 g/l calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at initial fermentation. Addition of CaCO3 increased lactic acid concentration of 59.30%, the concentrations were 11.61 g/l and 18.495 g/l in glucose medium and glucose medium with CaCO3 addition, respectively. Glucose+CaCO3 medium also showed higher productivity, reached continuously from 1 day (0.059 g/l/h) until 5 days fermentation (0.154 g/l/h), whereas highest productivity in glucose medium was reached at 1 day fermentation (0.124 g/l/h) and continued to decrease until 5 days fermentation (0.065 g/l/h).

The Effect of Phytic Acid, Zinc and Soybean Extract on The Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

Agritech Vol 30, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

It has been reported that aflatoxin contamination in soybean was relatively low, but it was not guaranteed that soybean products is free from aflatoxin contamination. Naturally, soybean containing phytic acid and it bound zinc and protein. Zinc (Zn) is an important mineral for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Previous research indicated that some soybean products such as kecap was contaminated by aflatoxin. It might be Aspergillus flavus involved during kecap fermentation and it produced phytase for phytic acid degradation. Zinc will be released and available for aflatoxin biosynthesis. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid, Zn and soybean extract on the growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus flavus. Five kind of medium were used in the experiment, Glucose Ammonium Nitrate (GAN) medium, a special medium for aflatoxin production, GAN without Zn, GAN supplemented with phytic acid, GAN supplemented with soybean extract instead of glucose and soybean extract supplemented with phytic acid. Two and a half milliliter of spore suspension ��07spores/ml) was inoculated into 250 ml of each medium in 1 liter flask. Incuba�tion was done in shaker incubator at room temperature. The growth of mold and AFB� production were analy�ed on 3 and 6 days incubation time. The result indicated that phytic acid lowering the growth of mold in the early 3 days, but not at all after 6 days incubation. It seems that phytic acid delays the aflatoxin production. Lack of Zn in the medium brought about the lowering of aflatoxin production. Even glucose concentration in soybean extract medium was lower than in GAN medium, the growth of the mold was not inhibited but lower on glucose affect on decreasing of AFB1 production.

Occurrence and Detoxification of Mycotoxinsin Food

Agritech Vol 23, No 2 (2003)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

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Aspergillus Proteolitik Indigenous dari Koji dan Kemampuannya Mendegradasi Aflatoksin B1

Agritech Vol 24, No 3 (2004)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Legume and cereals are always exposed to the danger of fungal contamination. Among such fungi, some species of the genus Aspergillus are potential of aflatoxins producer. Aflatoxin BI (AFB1) which is the most carcinogenic mycotoxins , known very stable under cooking condition and other processing factors. The removal of AFB1 by degradation or detoxification is critical to reduce risk to human health. Microbiological degradation is a promising method for AFB1 degradation compared to others. The aim of this research was to isolate the proteolytic Aspergillus strain from "koji" and to determine its ability to degrade AFB). Out of 18 strains of Aspergillus, 16 strains were found proteolytic and only 5 strains had no afiatoxigenic properties, but all of them were able to degrade AFB1. There were no spesific pattern of the rate of AFBI degradation. Strain of KKB4 was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, that possess the highest ability to degrade AFB1. Two kind of substances were formed after degradation which were more polar than AFB1. The rate of AFB) uptake by Aspergillus oryzae KKB4 was similar with that of mycelia! growth. Aflatoxin BI inhibits mycelium growth, vesicle and conidial head formation.

Pengurangan Aflatoksin B (AFB ) dengan Proses Fermentasi Menggunakan Rhizopus Oligosporus MK-1 pada Pembuatan Bumbu Pecel

Agritech Vol 28, No 4 (2008)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

Aflatoxin B  is the most harmfull mycotoxin for human health because of the toxicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity 1and mutagencity. Aflatoxin is the common mycotoxin contaminant in grains, nuts and their products such as “bumbupecel”. Bumbu pecel is a kind of spice used for serving vegetable foods called “pecel” which is very popular in In-donesia. Biological reduction of aflatoxin is an important process in order to degrade aflatoxin in foods. The aim of this research was to modify the steps of bumbu pecel production to reduce aflatoxin B  content through fermentation of peanut by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. The research was carried out in two steps that were modifying process inbumbu pecel production and sensory test for modified bumbu pecel. Modification process consisted of bean soaking, germ pealing, washing, steaming, fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 and roasting. Aflatoxin analysis was carried out by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). The result indicated that fermentation process by Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 reduced 88.95 % aflatoxin B accumulatively in three days fermentation. Aflatoxin reduction 1was greater with the of length fermentation time and correlated with the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Twodays fermentation did not affect the sensory characteristic of bumbu pecel.ABSTRAKAflatoksin B  adalah mikotoksin yang paling berbahaya untuk kesehatan manusia, karena bersifat racun, karsinogenik, teratogenik dan mutagenik. Aflatoksin adalah mikotoksin yang sering mencemari biji-bijian, kacang-kacangandan juga produk biji-bijian maupun kacang-kacangan seperti bumbu pecel. Bumbu pecel adalah bumbu yang digu- nakan bersama sayuran yang biasa disebut “pecel” yang sangat popular di Indonesia. Reduksi biologis aflatoksin adalah proses yang sangat penting untuk menurunkan kandungan aflatoksin selama fermentasi kacang oleh Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 2 tahap yaitu modifikasi proses produksi bumbu pecel dan uji sensoris terhadap bumbu pecel yang telah dimodifikasi. Modifikasi proses meliputi perendaman biji, pengupasan kulit biji, pen- cucian, perebusan, fermentasi Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 dan penyangraian. Analisis aflatoksin menggunakan ELISA (Enzym Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses fermentasi menggunakan Rhizopus oligosporus MK-1 menurunkan kadar aflatoksin B  sekitar 88,95 % selama 3 hari proses fermentasi. Semakin lama proses fermentasi, maka penurunan kadar aflatoksin juga semakin banyak dan berhubungan dengan pertumbuhanRhizopus oligosporus MK-1. Fermentasi selama 2 hari tidak berpengaruh terhadap karakter sensoris bumbu pecel.