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Ketahanan Asam Lemak Tidak Jenuh dalam Crude Palm Oil Terproteksi terhadap Aktivitas Mikrob Rumen Domba in Vitro Tiven, N C; Yusiati, L M; Rusman, Rusman; Santoso, U
MEDIA PETERNAKAN - Journal of Animal Science and Technology Vol 34, No 1 (2011): Media Peternakan
Publisher : Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (170.885 KB) | DOI: 10.5398/

Abstract

The experiment was aimed to study the composition of unsaturated fatty acid, fermentation parameter and microbial activity in the rumen-buffer mixture when protected CPO with casein and formaldehyde was incubated in the in vitro fermentation. CPO and milk powder (1:2) were mixed, added technical formaldehyde 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% by weight of blend, mixed again to form CCPO. The amount of 0% (0 mg), 1.5% (4.5 mg), 3% (9 mg), 4.5% (13.5 mg) and 6% (18 mg) CCPO was inserted into fermenter bottles containing napier grass and rice bran (60:40), was tested in vitro. The data were analyzed by completely randomized design with factorial pattern 4 x 5 (level of formaldehyde as factor A and level of CPO as factor B). The different of treatments were tested by Duncans new multiple range test.  Result shows that the increase of formaldehyde level could increase unsaturated fatty acids content, CMC-ase activity, microbial protein and number of protozoa, but decreased NH3, VFA, and pH of rumen fluid. The increase of CPO level also increased fatty acid composition and microbial protein, but decreased NH3, VFA, and pH, CMC-ase activity and number of protozoa in rumen fluid. It can be concluded that encapsulated CPO with formaldehyde increased unsaturated fatty acid composition and microbial activity, but decreased fermentation parameters.   Key words: unsaturated fatty acid, fermentation parameters, rumen microbial activity
Effects of Sallropus androgynus (katuk) leaf extract on growth, fat accumulation and fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens Santoso, U; Handayani, E; ., Suharyanto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.627 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i4.244

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus leaf extract on growth, carcass quality and the number of fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens. Forty-eight male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (21-d-old) obtained from a commercial hatchery were used in the present study. Experiment consisted of four treatment groups with four pen replicates of three broilers allotted randomly to each dietary treatment from day 21-42 old. One group was the control with no additional Sauropus androgynus leaf extract (SAE) (P0), and other three groups were given drinking water supplemented with 1.5 g (PI), 3.0 g (P2) or 4.5 g SAE/l water (P3). The diet used was a commercial mix (Crude protein: 19% and Metabolizable Energy 3200 kcal/kg). Feed intake significantly reduced in P2 or P3 as compared with the control (P<0.05). A decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment groups as compared with Po (P<0.05). Abdominal fat, neck fat and liver fat content were significantly reduced by SAE (P<0.05), while carcass fat content was not significantly different. Number of fecal Escherichia coli in P1 or P3 (P<0,01) and fecal Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp. were significantly (P<0,01) reduced by SAE supplementation as compared with the control, while fecal Bacillus subtilis in P2 and Lactobacillus sp. in P1 (P<0,01) were significantly higher as compared with other groups. SAE (P2 or P3) also significantly improved meat taste, shank color but lowered meat color (P<0.05) as compared with the control group. It was found that the number of fecal Streptococcus sp was suitable to predict abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inclusion of SAE at 4.5 g/l drinking water resulted in the best performance and carcass quality.   Key words: Sauropus androgynus leaf extract, fat accumulation, broilers
Effect of age on hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities and fat accumulation in broiler chicks Santoso, U; Tanaka, K
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (162.058 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.223

Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of age on hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities and lipid fraction in broiler chicks. Eighty broiler chicks were distributed into one group. Broilers were fed commercial diet and provided drinking water ad libitum. At 5, 10, 12, 15, 17,20,22,25,27, and 56 days of age (27, 42, and 56 days of age for serum and carcass collection), 5 chicks were selected based on weights and killed. Experimental results show that the older chicks would have lower specific activity of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthetase (F AS) activities (P<0,01). Age influenced hepatic triglyceride (P<0.05), serum cholesterol ester and free cholesterol (P<O.OI). The older chicks had higher serum phospholipid and triglyceride (P<0.01). The older chicks had higher carcass fat and abdominal fat (P<0,01), and lower carcass moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, the older chicks had lower specific activities of hepatic ACC and FAS (lipogenic enzymes) with higher lipid accumulation.   Key words: Age, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, lipid accumulation, broiler chicks
Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers Santoso, U
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (143.467 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.279

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707) were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter) and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib.) were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05), lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05), and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05). Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05), lower abdominal fat (P<0.05) and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05). In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.   Key words: House type, early feed restriction, fat deposition, unsexed broilers
Effect of feeding methods of katuk (Sauropus androgynus) extract on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens Santoso, U; Suteky, T; ., Heryanto; ., Sunarti
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 3 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (156.187 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i3.287

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0), whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P3), and basal diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 2.25 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P4). Experimental results showed that weight gain of P1 and P4 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of P0 and P2. Feed conversion ratio of P1 and P4 were significantly lower than those of P0 and P2 (P<0.05). Feed intake, water intake, the weights of heart, liver and gizzard were not significantly different (P>0.05), but the weight of intestine was significantly affected (P<0.05) Abdominal fat of P4 was significantly lower than that of P0, P1 and P2 (P<0.05). Carcass color of P4 was significantly better than that of P0, P1, P2 and P3 (P<0.01). Katuk extract feeding had no effect on smell and taste of meat (P>0.05). P4 had better meat color than P0, P1, dan P2 (P<0.05). Katuk extract feeding had no effect on meat bone ratio, carcaas weight and cooking loss (P>0.05). In conclusion, in order to improve performance and carcass quality, broiler chickens could be given katuk extract through diet plus drinking water at level of 4.5 g/kg diet plus 2.25 g/l drinking water.   Key words: Katuk extract, performance, carcass quality, abdominal fat
Effects of Sallropus androgynus (katuk) leaf extract on growth, fat accumulation and fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens Santoso, U; Handayani, E; ., Suharyanto
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 6, No 4 (2001)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.627 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i4.244

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus leaf extract on growth, carcass quality and the number of fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens. Forty-eight male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (21-d-old) obtained from a commercial hatchery were used in the present study. Experiment consisted of four treatment groups with four pen replicates of three broilers allotted randomly to each dietary treatment from day 21-42 old. One group was the control with no additional Sauropus androgynus leaf extract (SAE) (P0), and other three groups were given drinking water supplemented with 1.5 g (PI), 3.0 g (P2) or 4.5 g SAE/l water (P3). The diet used was a commercial mix (Crude protein: 19% and Metabolizable Energy 3200 kcal/kg). Feed intake significantly reduced in P2 or P3 as compared with the control (P<0.05). A decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment groups as compared with Po (P<0.05). Abdominal fat, neck fat and liver fat content were significantly reduced by SAE (P<0.05), while carcass fat content was not significantly different. Number of fecal Escherichia coli in P1 or P3 (P<0,01) and fecal Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp. were significantly (P<0,01) reduced by SAE supplementation as compared with the control, while fecal Bacillus subtilis in P2 and Lactobacillus sp. in P1 (P<0,01) were significantly higher as compared with other groups. SAE (P2 or P3) also significantly improved meat taste, shank color but lowered meat color (P<0.05) as compared with the control group. It was found that the number of fecal Streptococcus sp was suitable to predict abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inclusion of SAE at 4.5 g/l drinking water resulted in the best performance and carcass quality.   Key words: Sauropus androgynus leaf extract, fat accumulation, broilers
Effects of Sallropus androgynus (katuk) leaf extract on growth, fat accumulation and fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens Santoso, U; Handayani, E; ., Suharyanto
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 4 (2001): DECEMBER 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (166.627 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i4.244

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus leaf extract on growth, carcass quality and the number of fecal microorganisms in broiler chickens. Forty-eight male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (21-d-old) obtained from a commercial hatchery were used in the present study. Experiment consisted of four treatment groups with four pen replicates of three broilers allotted randomly to each dietary treatment from day 21-42 old. One group was the control with no additional Sauropus androgynus leaf extract (SAE) (P0), and other three groups were given drinking water supplemented with 1.5 g (PI), 3.0 g (P2) or 4.5 g SAE/l water (P3). The diet used was a commercial mix (Crude protein: 19% and Metabolizable Energy 3200 kcal/kg). Feed intake significantly reduced in P2 or P3 as compared with the control (P<0.05). A decrease in feed conversion ratio was observed in treatment groups as compared with Po (P<0.05). Abdominal fat, neck fat and liver fat content were significantly reduced by SAE (P<0.05), while carcass fat content was not significantly different. Number of fecal Escherichia coli in P1 or P3 (P<0,01) and fecal Streptococcus sp and Salmonella sp. were significantly (P<0,01) reduced by SAE supplementation as compared with the control, while fecal Bacillus subtilis in P2 and Lactobacillus sp. in P1 (P<0,01) were significantly higher as compared with other groups. SAE (P2 or P3) also significantly improved meat taste, shank color but lowered meat color (P<0.05) as compared with the control group. It was found that the number of fecal Streptococcus sp was suitable to predict abdominal fat. In conclusion, the inclusion of SAE at 4.5 g/l drinking water resulted in the best performance and carcass quality.   Key words: Sauropus androgynus leaf extract, fat accumulation, broilers
Effect of age on hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities and fat accumulation in broiler chicks Santoso, U; Tanaka, K
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 6, No 2 (2001): JUNE 2001
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (162.058 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v6i2.223

Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of age on hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities and lipid fraction in broiler chicks. Eighty broiler chicks were distributed into one group. Broilers were fed commercial diet and provided drinking water ad libitum. At 5, 10, 12, 15, 17,20,22,25,27, and 56 days of age (27, 42, and 56 days of age for serum and carcass collection), 5 chicks were selected based on weights and killed. Experimental results show that the older chicks would have lower specific activity of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthetase (F AS) activities (P<0,01). Age influenced hepatic triglyceride (P<0.05), serum cholesterol ester and free cholesterol (P<O.OI). The older chicks had higher serum phospholipid and triglyceride (P<0.01). The older chicks had higher carcass fat and abdominal fat (P<0,01), and lower carcass moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, the older chicks had lower specific activities of hepatic ACC and FAS (lipogenic enzymes) with higher lipid accumulation.   Key words: Age, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, lipid accumulation, broiler chicks
Effect of feeding methods of katuk (Sauropus androgynus) extract on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens Santoso, U; Suteky, T; ., Heryanto; ., Sunarti
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 3 (2002): SEPTEMBER 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (156.187 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i3.287

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate effect of feeding methods of katuk extract on performance and carcass quality of broilers. Sixty 20-d-old male broilers were distributed to 5 treatment groups of 4 replicates with 3 birds each. One treatment group was fed basal diet without katuk extract (P0), whereas other treatment groups were fed basal diet plus 18 g katuk extract/kg diet (P1), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P2), basal diet plus 9 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P3), and basal diet plus 4.5 g katuk extract/kg diet plus 2.25 g katuk extract/l drinking water (P4). Experimental results showed that weight gain of P1 and P4 were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of P0 and P2. Feed conversion ratio of P1 and P4 were significantly lower than those of P0 and P2 (P<0.05). Feed intake, water intake, the weights of heart, liver and gizzard were not significantly different (P>0.05), but the weight of intestine was significantly affected (P<0.05) Abdominal fat of P4 was significantly lower than that of P0, P1 and P2 (P<0.05). Carcass color of P4 was significantly better than that of P0, P1, P2 and P3 (P<0.01). Katuk extract feeding had no effect on smell and taste of meat (P>0.05). P4 had better meat color than P0, P1, dan P2 (P<0.05). Katuk extract feeding had no effect on meat bone ratio, carcaas weight and cooking loss (P>0.05). In conclusion, in order to improve performance and carcass quality, broiler chickens could be given katuk extract through diet plus drinking water at level of 4.5 g/kg diet plus 2.25 g/l drinking water.   Key words: Katuk extract, performance, carcass quality, abdominal fat
Effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition in unsexed broilers Santoso, U
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (143.467 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.279

Abstract

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of house type and early feed restriction on performance and fat deposition of unsexed broilers. Four hundreds seven-day old unsexed broilers (Arbor Acres CP 707) were distributed into eight treatment groups. Each treatment group was represented by five replicates of ten broilers each. Two types of house (cage vs litter) and four levels of feeding (ad lib., 75% ad lib., 50% ad lib. and 25% ad lib.) were tested as treatment factors. Broilers were feed-restricted for 6 days from 7 to 13 days of age and thereafter they were fed ad lib. Feed intake of restricted broilers during restriction period was calculated from feed consumed by ad lib. group in the previous day. Results showed that unsexed broilers raised in litter had higher body weight (P<0.05), lower abdominal fat and higher triglyceride concentration at 42 days of age (P<0.05), and lower liver fat and higher carcass percentage at 56 days of age (P<0.05). Early feed restriction reduced body weight of 42-day old unsexed broilers except for broilers fed 75% ad lib. At 56 days of age, restricted broilers had similar body weight to those fed ad lib. At 56 days of age, broilers fed 25% ad lib. had lower FCR (P<0.05), lower abdominal fat (P<0.05) and lower triglyceride concentration (P<0,05). In conclusion, unsexed broilers fed 25% ad lib. showed compensatory growth with better FCR and lower fat accumulation at 56 days of age. Broilers raised in litter had higher body weight and lower abdominal and liver fat deposition.   Key words: House type, early feed restriction, fat deposition, unsexed broilers