Articles

PHENOMENA INTRUSI DASAR DI TELUK HURUN LAMPUNG Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL AIR INDONESIA Vol 3, No 1 (2007): JURNAL AIR INDONESIA
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

Research aimed to learn and know the bottom intrusion mechanism in Hurun Bay Lampung. Three kinds surveys were conducted consist of mooring survey, synoptic oceanographic survey and 25 hour survey. The monitoring data of water temperature indicated that at Hurun Bay occurred bottom intrusion from middle February until early July.The mass water was colder, more saline and contained less DO than the overlaying water. These phenomena may be caused by eastern monsoon from Java Sea to Lampung Bay and Hurun Bay. Vertical profile distribution showed that there are significant different in temperature, salinity and DO between surface and bottom layer. Along bottom deeper than 22m were identified as a termocline layer which was colder and more saline and contained less DO. Result of 25 hour survey resumed that the lowest DO in this water mass appeared in early July and it propagated from offshore to the coast with velocity 0.07 m/s. This condition will be a treatment for marine cultivation stakeholder in this area.
IDENTIFIKASI HYPOXIA DI TELUK HURUN LAMPUNG Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 6, No 2 (2005): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of hypoxia in the tropical coastal sea. The general oceanographic surveys were conducted two times in Hurun Bay, 5-7 February and 17-19 February, 2003. And also, a day-night survey (25 hours survey) and the continuous monitoring of water temperature, current and meteorology were carried out. The monitoringdata of water temperature indicated that the seasonal variation and the spatial in temperature in Hurun Bay were small. The difference in temperature between the surface and bottom water was less than 1.3 oC. The water temperature increased from February and the highest in April.It gradually decreased to late June and a sudden decrease occurred in the early July. The lowest temperature was observed in September and then it increased again. The seasonal variation in the thermal stratification was not happened. Instead of the weak thermal stratification, a sharp picnocline was formed around 20m in the dry season. The water below the picnoline was colder and more saline and contained less DO than the overlaying water. The cold water mass which has high salinity and lower DO was situated along bottom deeper than 20m on 17-19 July. The lowest DO in this water mass was 0.4 mg/l. Such a cold water mass appeared in early July and it propagated from offshore to the coast. The oxygen consumption rate of the water column was about 0.1 mgO2/L/hour in Hurun Bay. Comparing these oxygen consumption rates and the DO of water, if the oxygen supply was restricted, the water in Hurun Bay could become hypoxic easily.
PEMANTAUAN HIDROGRAFI DAN KUALITAS AIR DI TELUK HURUN LAMPUNG DAN TELUK JAKARTA Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 6, No 3 (2005): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

The present study, which was performed in Hurun Bay Lampung and Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, aimed to present the similar method using digital device Chlorotec, type AAQ1183, Alec Electronics for describing the characteristics of tropical coastal hydrography and water quality. The reason of selecting these two locations was to obtain a representation of different dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity levels. Jakarta Bay receives large amounts of nutrient-enriched waters, Hurun bay Lampung has moderate or small level of nutrient inputs of organic-polluted waters. The advantage of this method is the observation of field study able to hold with simply and accurately.
KUALITAS NUTRIEN PERAIRAN TELUK HURUN, LAMPUNG Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 7, No 2 (2006): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

Some rivers that flow into Hurun Bay waters, agriculture, fishery andhuman settlement and floating cage and oysters faming could benegative impact to waters organisms. Waters fertility is one of somefactors that support the action of determining waters quality. Somenutrient chemistry parameters (anmonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate)were analyzed base on specific methods for the parameters. Thenutrient concentrations were variated, for the parameters respectively,ammonia between 4.38 – 23.91 μg/L, nitrite 0.24 – 6.34 μg/L, nitratebetween 1.11 – 7.81 μg/L, and phosphate between 2.17 – 5.75 μg/L.At that moment, the nutrients concentrations were still good for marinewaters category. The environment condition at waters surrounding(river flow, agriculture, human settlement and fishery industry) did notinfluenced to nutrient concentrations.
KANDUNGAN ZAT HARA FOSFAT PADA MUSIM BARAT DAN MUSIM TIMUR DI TELUK HURUN LAMPUNG Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 8, No 3 (2007): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Abstract

The result of phosphate analysis in Hurun Bay Lampung described thatconcentration phosphate in the West season was greater than in the East season. In the February 2003, phosphate concentration was 9.51±1.54 ì g/L while in July 2003 around 6.32±3.8 ì g/L. The phosphate dissociation and phosphate run-off from land through river may increase phosphate concentration in West season. The other result shows that phosphate concentration in the surface was higher than in the bottom layer in the all season.
TEKNOLOGI KONSERVASI DAN REHABILITASI TERUMBU KARANG Santoso, Arif Dwi
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Vol 9, No 3 (2008): JURNAL TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN
Publisher : Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

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Indonesia’s rich supplies of corals and reef fish are endangered by destructive fishing practices. Cyanide and blast fishing are widespread throughout the archipelago even in protected areas. Indonesian reefs are also subject to various pressures from inland activities. Forestation and other land-use changes have increasedsediment discharge onto reefs, and pollution from industrial effluents, sewage, and fertilizer compounds the problem. Cumulatively, these pressures appear to have significantly degraded Indonesia’s reefs over time. Unfortunately, Indonesia has only limited monitoring. Few reefs are regularly studied, making the assessment of condition and change for the country quite difficult. Currently, most monitoringmindicates clearly that reef condition is declining. This article showed the status, biology, and monitoring-rehabilitation method of coral reef in Indonesia.
MICROALGAE FOR CO2 REDUCTION AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT APPLICATION IN INDUSTRIAL AREA Santoso, Arif Dwi; Darmawan, Rahmania A.; Susanto, Joko P.
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 3, No 2 (2011): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

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Abstract

The microalgae incorporated photobioreactor (PBR) is a highly efficient biological system for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) gases into biomass and treating wastewater. In this study, the freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. was cultured in two unit photobioreactors which were connected to a boiler of dairy factory. The source of water for microalgae culture media (in the photobioreactors) are collected from the waste water treatment plant of the dairy factory itself. The objective of this microalgae photobioreactor activity were to reduce CO2, produce biomass and as a part of a waste water treatment in a dairy industry in Indonesia. Both photobioreactors were operated for 14 days culture interval in the semi continuous cultivation, with initial stocking rate of 2 x 105 cells/ml microalgae. Carbon dioxide concentration from the boiler stack was 10-11 % vol. The photobioreactors were injected with the specified CO2 concentration with flow rate of 2 l/min. and 1.5 l/min. The result showed that microalgae photobioreactors capability in CO2 absorption were 0.78 ± 0.25 and 0.92 ±0.36 g CO2/l media/day, respectively. Before and after utilized by the photobioreactors system, Nitrate and Phosphate concentration of the culture media (supplied from the waste water treatment plant) decreased from 3-4 mg/l to 0.05-0.1 mg/l. After 14 days cultivation, biomass concentration of microalgae which were injected with CO2 flow rate of 2 l/min. and 1.5 l/min. were 19 x 106 cells/ml and 15 x 106 cells/ml respectively. Results showed that microalgal photobioreactors operated in an industrial area could reduce CO2 concentration and produce biomass.Keywords: photobioreactor (PBR), Chlorella sp., CO2 flue gas emissions, wastewater
TEKNOLOGI REDUKSI CO2 DARI CEROBONG INDUSTRI DENGAN FOTO BIO-REAKTOR MIKROALGA SEBAGAI SALAH SATU IMPLEMENTASI GREEN INDUSTRY Santoso, Arif Dwi; Darmawan, Rahmania A; ., Kardono
Jurnal Riset Industri Vol 4, No 3 (2010): Green Industry
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Industri

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Abstract

Peningkatan konsentrasi gas karbondioksida (CO2) yang merupakan salah satu gas rumah kaca dominan diduga sebagai penyebab dalam permasalahan pemanasan global. Salah satu metode dalam upaya untuk mengurangi emisi gas CO2 adalah penggunaan mikroalga dalam fotobioreaktor. Mikroalga dipilih untuk membantu mereduksi emisi gas CO2 akrena kemampuannya dalam mengabsorbsi CO2 dalam proses fotosintesisnya. Penelitian penyerapan gas CO2 oleh aktivitas fotosintesis mikroalga pada fotobioreaktor (FBR) telah dilakukan BPPT sejak tahun 2008. Pada penelitian sistem batch, secara meyakinkan dihasilkan bahwa CO2 dengan konsentrasi sekitar 12% dapat direduksi hingga 0% dalam kisaran waktu 7 hari oleh Chlorella sp dan 13 hari oleh Chaetoceros sp. Kemudian pada tahun 2009, uji coba secara kontinyujuga menunjukkan kemampuan mikroalga dalam menyerap gas CO2. Pada tahap ini dapat diketahui bahwa kemampuan mikroalga dalam mereduksi gas CO2 adalah sebesar 0,8 – 1 gr CO2/liter media/ hari, 0,871 ± 0,294 gr CO2/liter media/ hari dan 0,833 ± 0,298 gr CO2 dan sebagai penghasil gas O2.Kata kunci: alga, gas karbon dioksida, fotobioreaktor. 
LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA Santoso, Arif Dwi; Sudaryono, Sudaryono
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Biaya produksi biodiesel menjadi salah satu hambatan program konversi bahan bakar minyak ke biodiesel negara-negara termasuk Indonesia dalam upaya mengantipasi terjadinya krisis energi. Salah satu penyebab biaya produksi yang tinggi adalah karena variabel biaya produksi yang diperbandingkan selama ini belum sepenuhnya mencerminkan keseluruhan potensi yang terkandung dalam biodiesel. Potensi biodiesel yang tergolong ke dalam komoditas lingkungan seperti sifat terbarukan, rendah dalam penggunaan lahan, dan ramah lingkungan perlu dimasukkan dalam perhitungan agar mendapatkan perbandingan perhitungan yang obyektif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh penambahan komoditas lingkungan pada stuktur biaya produksi biodiesel dari minyak sawit dan minyak alga. Nilai komoditas lingkungan diperkirakan dengan metode metode benefit transfer dan untuk memperlihatkan nilai keuntungan digunakan pendekatan willing to pay (WTP). Nilai-nilai komoditas lingkungan diacu dari hasil perhitungan perangkat lunak Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS) versi 2000. Untuk kasus Indonesia, nilai komoditas lingkungan EPS diinferensi dengan elastisitas berdasarkan dari perbandingan nilai pendapatan per kapita negara Swedia dan Indonesia. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa analisis life cycle costing (LCC) yang diaplikasikan dengan menambahkan variabel eksternalitas dapat memberikan informasi yang detil tentang komposisi biaya produksi biodiesel dan dapat digunakan sebagai metode untuk mendapatkan gambaran total biaya produksi yang paling kompetitif dari beberapa sumber.  Analisis juga menyimpulkan bahwa variabel eksternalitas turut mempengaruhi kenaikan total biaya produksi biodiesel hingga 14%. Hasil analisis profitabilitas menyatakan bahwa pasokan biomasa alga untuk produksi biodiesel lebih terjamin dan berkelanjutan dibandingkan biomasa sawit karena kendala teknis dan non teknis pada produksi biomasa alga lebih mudah diatasi selain itu juga keunggulan perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.
Perhitungan Potensi Limbah Padat Kelapa Sawit untuk Sumber Energi Terbaharukan dengan Metode LCA Susanto, Joko Prayitno; Santoso, Arif Dwi; Suwedi, Nawa
Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan Vol 18, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Center for Environmental Technology - Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology

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Abstract

Proses produksi crude palm oil (CPO) dan biodiesel kelapa sawit menghasilkan limbah padat sebanyak 35-40% dari total tandan buah segar (TBS) yang diolah, dalam bentuk tandan buah kosong, serat, cangkang buah dan abu bakar. Keberadaan limbah yang melimpah ini berpotensi mencemari lingkungan bila tidak tertangani dengan baik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas dan menghitung potensi limbah padat sawit menjadi energi terbarukan dan pengaruhnya terhadap peningkatan nilai net energy ratio (NER) dan net energy balance (NEB). Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode life cycle assessment (LCA) untuk menghitung neraca limbah padat yang hasilnya akan dikonversikan ke dalam nilai faktor energi dari sumber pustaka yang terpercaya. Hasil neraca massa limbah sawit menunjukkan bahwa total limbah padat serat dan cangkang yang dihasilkan setiap pengolahan 1 ton TBS adalah 130 kg dan 65 kg. Limbah ini bila digunakan sebagai bahan bakar boiler akan berpotensi menghasilkan energi sebesar 10.118 MJ/ton biodiesel. Tambahan energi terbarukan ini akan meningkatkan nilai NER dan NEB secara signifikan. Nilai NEB naik 27.199 MJ menjadi sekitar 37.317 MJ (37,2%) dan nilai NER naik dari 3,19 menjadi 4,01 atau meningkat 25,5%.Kata kunci : CPO, biodiesel, kelapa sawit, limbah padat sawit, NER, NEB, LCA