Gunawan Widi Santosa
Marine Science Department, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Diponegoro University Jl. H. Prof. Sudarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia. 50275

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Kandungan Logam Berat Hg dan Cd dalam Air, Sedimen dan Kerang Darah (Anadara granossa) dengan Menggunakan Metode Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN) Wulandari, Sri Yulina; Yulianto, Bambang; Santosa, Gunawan Widi; Suwartimah, Ken
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 14, No 3 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kandungan dan tingkat pencemaran logam berat Hg dan Cd dalam air, sedimen dan kerang darah (Anadara granossa) di perairan Morodemak, Banjir Kanal Timur dan Mangkang Semarang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus 2004-Januari 2005 dengan metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN). Hasil penelitian kandungan logam berat Hg dan Cd pada ketiga lokasi menunjukkan pola akumulasi yang cenderung sama di stasiun muara dan laut, baik pengamatan dalam sedimen maupun air. Kandungan logam berat Hg dan Cd pada kerang Anadara granosa menunjukkan nilai yang bervariasi, namun cenderung dipengaruhi sedimen dan air pada dua media tersebut, terkait dengan sifatnya yang filter feeder dan sessil. Meskipun demikian variasi faktor lingkungan seperti suhu, salinitas, pH, kecepatan arus dan jenis sedimen juga memberikan kontribusi yang cukup penting. Kandungan logam berat Hg dan Cd dalam kolom air di Morodemak, Banjir Kanal Timur dan Mangkang telah melampaui batas yang diperbolehkan, demikian pula kandungan berat Hg pada kerang darah  sudah melampaui baku mutu yang ditetapkan. Kata kunci : Hg, Cd, Air, Sedimen, Anadara granossa,metode APN  The aims of the research is to analyze the heavy metals concentrations and the pollution level of Hg and Cd in water, sediment and blood mussels (Anadara granossa) at Morodemak, Banjir Kanal Timur and Mangkang Rivers. This research was conducted from August 2004 to January 2005 using The Neutron Activation Analysis Method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations of Hg and Cd  in water and sediment tend to show similar accumulation patern both on estuary and the sea. While the heavy metals concentrations of Hg and Cd in blood mussels (Anadara granossa) show a variated value, which was influenced by the environmental conditions, due to the their behaviour as filter feeder and sesille. The environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, pH, current dan sediment type also play an important role and contributed significantly to the heavy metals accumulation. The concentrations of Hg and Cd in water at the  Morodemak, Banjir Kanal Timur dan Mangkang was higher than standard quality, so does  the Hg concentration in blood mussels. Key words : Hg, Cd, water, sediment, Anadara granossa, NAA method.
PENGARUH PERENDAMAN AIR KAPUR TERHADAP KADAR SULFAT DAN KEKUATAN GEL KARAGINAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii Haris, Radityo; Santosa, Gunawan Widi; Ridlo, Ali
Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 2 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

Gel formation is the result of crosslinking between adjacent helical chains, with sulphate groups facing to the outside. The theoretical basic is using alkaline compounds are cheap and easily available to eliminate the sulfate groups on the K-carrageenan, with the water immersion method of Ca(OH)2 to increase the degree of molecular uniformity and gel strength. This study is to determine the effect of Ca(OH)2 water immersion of sulphate content and gel strength. This study its experimental research laboratory with a completely randomized design and variations in treatment where seaweed samples were treated with submersion of Ca(OH)2 at different concentration (1.2 g/L, 0.6 g/L, and 0.3 g/L). The experiments were performed with 3 replications. The first extraction process used 5% KOH, being the second extraction used 1% KCl. Determination was carried out toward powder of carrageenan, its chemical characters (moisture content, ash, and sulphate), physical characters (viscosity, gel strength, and color of thalus) carrageenan had produced. The results showed that seaweed treated with 0.3 g/L Ca(OH)2 very significantly influent (p <0.01), produced the highest gel strength at 516.23 dyne/cm with the lowest sulfate levels at 20.84 %.
Studi Herbivori Rumput Laut Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty oleh Ikan Baronang Siganus sp. pada Salinitas yang Berbeda Framegari, Vera; Nirwani, Nirwani; Santosa, Gunawan Widi
Journal of Marine Research Vol 1, No 1 (2012): Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

Kappaphycus alvarezii is one of seaweed species widely cultivated for producing high economic value carrageenan as raw material for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, etc.. During the cultivation of this seaweed there are some constrains found that is by fish herbivory by rabbitfish (Siganus sp.). One of factors thought to affect fish herbivory rabbitfish on seaweed is the salinity. Therefore, there is a need to conduct observation on Siganus sp. Herbivory at different levels of salinity. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments with 3 replications, namely were the treatment A (salinity 28 ppt), treatment B (30 ppt salinity), treatment C (salinity 32 ppt), treatment D (34 ppt salinity), and treatment E (salinity 36 ppt). Data were analyzed statistically with one-way ANOVA using SPSS software. The results showed that the salinity treatment gave a very significant influence (P <0.01) of seaweed herbivory K. alvarezii by rabbitfish. The results of this study were showed that the total weight of seaweed eaten by rabbitfish during the maintenance period of 30 days were: treatment A = (149.19 g), treatment B = (191.17 g), treatment C = (298.12 g), treatment of D = (212.87 g) and treatment E = (89.15 g). Body weight of fish at the end of the study were: treatment A (33.93 ± 6.35 g), treatment B (34.51 ± 4.34 g), treatment C (49.79 ± 5.67 g), treatment D (33.44 ± 14.12 g) treatment E (32.44 ± 2.72 g).
Pengaruh Konsentrasi KOH yang Berbeda Terhadap Kualitas Alginat Rumput Laut Coklat Sargassum duplicatum J. G. Agardh Anwar, Fauzi; Djunaedi, Ali; Santosa, Gunawan Widi
Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

Indonesia has plentiful resources and high biological diversity. One of them is brown seaweed Sargassum duplicatum which has potential as source for alginate. Alginate is often used in food and other industry, however extraction method is still becoming handycap to get high quality alginate. The objective of research was to know the effect of different concentration of soaking media KOH on quality of alginate. The method used was laboratory experiment. Design experiment applied was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three different concentrations of KOH, namely 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7%. Each treatment was repeated three times. The result showed that the highest yield was obtained at 0.3% KOH concentration at 33.63 ± 2.11%. The highest viscosity was obtained at 0.7% KOH concentration at 23.33 ± 2.08 cPs. The lowest water content was obtained at 0.7% KOH concentration at 14.71 ± 0.32%. The ashes content was obtained at 0.7% KOH concentration at 27.82 ± 0.88%.
Pengaruh Konsentrasi NaOH yang Berbeda Terhadaap Mutu Agar Rumput Laut Gracilaria verrucosa Kusuma, Wakhid Indra; Santosa, Gunawan Widi; Pramesti, Rini
Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 2 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

ponds in Indonesian. Agar from G. verrucosa is widely used in the food industry, one of which is used as a thickener or stabilizer of food. However, a good quality of agar with high durability needs developed. The purpose of this study with the addition of NaOH before extracted is to determine the effect of different concentrations of NaOH on the agar quality of seaweed G. verrucosa. This study was conducted from July 30 until August 16, 2012 in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Mathematics - University of Diponegoro. Sampling was conducted on July 21, 2012. G. verrucosa was obtained from local ponds Tambak Harjo, Krapyak, District of West Semarang - Semarang. The method used was laboratory experimental methods with completely randomized design (CRD) to determine differences in the concentration of NaOH. The results showed that the effect of the concentration of NaOH affected the gel strength, sulphate content, ash content, moisture content, and yield on agar G. verrucosa (p ˂ 0,05). The higher the concentration of NaOH the higher gel strength, ash content, water content, and yield, but lowering sulphate levels. The best results obtained in the treatment with NaOH solution concentration of 6 %.
Struktur Komunitas Zooplankton di Perairan Desa Mangunharjo Kecamatan Tugu Semarang Ana, Desy Lasri; Endrawati, Hadi; Santosa, Gunawan Widi
Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 3 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Mangunharjo village waters is located in Subdistrict Tugu, Semarang is the waters close to densely populated settlements. Household waste and industrial waste will affect water quality and community structure of zooplankton in waters. The aims of the research was to find out the community structure of Zooplankton in the village Mangunharjo Waters, subdistrict Tugu, Semarang. The method in this research was case study method with the exploratory nature of data collection used Sample Survey Method. The location was set as a research location was the location 1, as the areas of a body of a river, Location 2 as the river estuaries, and Location of 3 as ocean waters. Sampling was performed every 2 weeks for 5 times the sampling making use planktonnet with mesh size 45 μm. Sampling was carried out vertically at high tide and low tide began from May to July 2012. The results obtained 49 genera at high tide, while at low tide obtained 44 genera. Abundance obtained when the observation was an average of 17.90 specs/L at high tide, and at low tide the average gained 20.49 specs/L. Diversity of zooplankton an average of 2.20 obtained at high tide, and an average of 2.13 obtained at low tide. Homogeneity obtained average for sampling at the time of high tide and low tide with the same value at 0.56. The index domination at high tide and low tide also have the same value, the average 0.44.
Pengaruh Penambahan NPK dan UREA Pada Media Air Pemeliharaan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Rumput Laut Caulerpa racemosa var. uvifera Setiaji, Kristama; Santosa, Gunawan Widi; Sunaryo, Sunaryo
Journal of Marine Research Vol 1, No 2 (2012): Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Seaweed is a low-level photosynthetic organism that has no stem, leaves, or root. Seaweeds are commonly used as food and as an ingredient for the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics industry, and other industries. Caulerpa is potential to be cultivated because it has been known and liked by people. Beside, Caulerpa also has economic value for people. This kind of seaweed grows seasonally, but sometimes Caulerpa cannot be found in the water even during the season because its growth highly depends on the environment’s condition. This situation leads to Caulerpa production shortages. Hence, Caulerpa cultivation is necessary. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of adding NPK and urea at different concentration to the growth rate of Caulerpa racemosa var. uvifera. This research was conducted from May till July 2011 at Laboratory of Marine Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Diponegoro University, Teluk Awur, Jepara. C. racemosa var. uvifera samples were taken from Bandengan coastal waters, Jepara the method used in this research was experimental method with a completely randomized block design. This research used 5 of treatments, each repeated 3 times. The cultivation medium used was sea water that has been deposited for 24 hours, with fertilizers added in different concentration: medium A was not added with fertilizers, medium B was added with 1.60 ppm of NPK fertilizers and 5.40 ppm of urea fertilizers, medium C was added with 4.93 ppm of NPK fertilizers and 10.82 ppm of urea fertilizers, medium D was added with 8.26 ppm of NPK fertilizers and 16.26 ppm of urea fertilizers, and medium E was added with 11.60 ppm of NPK fertilizers and 21.70 ppm of urea fertilizers. The data gained were wet weight of seaweed and water quality of the cultivation medium. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The result showed that the addition of NPK and urea fertilizers in different concentration gave different effect (p < 0.01) among each treatment. The highest specific growth rate of C. racemosa var. uvifera was achieved in medium D (6.86 % per day with 8.26 ppm of NPK and 16,26 ppm of urea addition) while the lowest specific growth rate was obtained in medium A (5.97% per day with no NPK and urea addition).
PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN Divine Cigarette TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN RUMPUT LAUT Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfus Imaniar, Khajar; Sunaryo, Sunaryo; Santosa, Gunawan Widi
Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 2 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Seaweed culture in Indonesia has a good prospects and is very important in the supply of row material at agar industry. Request seaweed for industrial use can met through the culture process. Optimalitation of the seaweed production in marine culture need to pay attention to environmental factors, especially mercury. Pollution of mercury in the water rearing media of seaweed can damage on tissue of plant. The Divine cigarette can catch, control and decay free radicals, may with its application in the process of cultivation very important to do. This research was aimed to know the influence of Divine cigarette on the rearing media to the growth of seaweed G. verrucosa. This research was conducted at the Hatchery of Coastal Ecodevelopment Area Laboratory (LPWP) Prof. Dr. Ir. Gatot Rahardjo Joenoes, the University of Diponegoro, Jepara on June-July 2012. Treatments were the addition of the Divine cigarette in the fertilizer (A) and without Divine cigarette addition (B) on fertilizer rearing in the media of seaweed G. verrucosa. The observation were made on the spesific growth rate of seaweed G. verrucosa and statistically analyzed using t-test. The results of this research showed that the growth respons of G. verrucosa was significantly difference (p<0,05).
Effect of pH on Growth and Survival Rate of Artemia Fed on Picophytoplankter Nannochloris sp. (Pengaruh pH Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kelulushidupan Artemia yang Diberi Pakan Nannochloris sp.) Santosa, Gunawan Widi
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 18, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Akumulasi CO2 dan naik turunnya pH adalah faktor yang sangat penting untuk dikendalikan dalam mengkultur hewan yang diberi pakan algae. Percobaan pemberian pakan dengan salah satu picophytoplanton  seperti Nannochloris sp sebagai penyumbang utama produktifitas primer dalam ekosistem laut, menjadi penting untuk dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan kelangsunganhidup Artemia setelah diberi pakan sel algae baik dalam keadaan hidup atau mati dalam media dengan pH yang berbeda. Dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 1500 nauplii Artemia dikultur, dalam tabung Ferbach  dengan posisi terbalik, pada kisaran pH  6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, dan 9. Sebanyak 4.0 x 106 sel.mL-1 Nannochloris sp pada fase logaritme diberikan sebagai konsentrasi awal pakan sampai hari ke-4. Mulai hari ke-5 pakan diberikan setiap 12 jam. Perubahan konsentrasi pakan dan pH media dicatat tiap hari dan selalu dikembalikan pada konsentrasi awal. Setiap dua hari disampling untuk menghitung pertumbuhan panjang/berat, kelulushidupan Artemia dan efisiensi pertumbuhannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan Artemia mengikuti pola yang sama di semua tingkatan pH (kisaran 4,37-5.28 mm), namun tidak berbeda secara statistik pada P>0.05. Sebaliknya, kelangsungan hidup Artemia menunjukkan adanya pengaruh yang nyata pada kondisi ini pada P<0.05 (kisaran 82,5-95.0%). Dari kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa kisaran pH media masih baik untuk kultur Artemia pada kondisi laboratoris penelitian, buktinya kelangsunganhidupnya mencapai 95% dengan pakan sel mati dan 82,5% dengan pakan sel hidup. Hasil ini mengkonfirmasikan bahwa Nannochloris sp merupakan pakan yang layak diberikan kepada Artemia baik dalam kondisi hidup maupun mati. Kata kunci: pertumbuhan, kelangsungan hidup, artemia, picofitoplankton, Nannochloris sp.  Accumulation of CO2 and associated with drift of pH is one of important factors should be controlled in culturing animals fed on microalgae. Feeding trials with Artemia fed on one of picophytoplankters Nannochloris sp, which has been to be major contributor of the primary productivity of marine ecosystems, is becoming importance to be done. The experiment was aimed to investigate the growth and survival rate of Artemia after consuming on either live or dead cells of algae in different pH media. In this experiment 1500 Artemia nauplii were cultured in upside down potition of Ferbach glass in various pH levels ranged from 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 9.0 respectively. The food was added to the culture flasks from day 0 to give an initial population density of 4.0 x106 cells.mL-1 and thereafter at 24 h intervals until day 4. From day 5 the food were given to the animal at 12 h interval with each addition regulated to restore the population density to the initial level. pH level was kept and adjustment was made by addition of NaOH and or HCl to bring the pH at original levels. Water media was changed at every four day period. Every two and four days the animals were sampled for body length/weight, growth efficiency, and survival rate measurement. The results showed that growth of Artemia followed a similar pattern in all levels of pH (ranged from 4.37-5.28 mm), however, there was no effect on body length growth rate of Artemia after 15 days period of incubation at P>0.05. On the other hand, the survival rate of Artemia showed a significant effect under these condition at P<0.05. From the present study it could be confirmed that range of pH in the media was suitable for the culture of Artemia in the current laboratory conditions as evidenced by higher survival (up to 95% fed on  dead cell and 82.5% fed on live cell). This result also confirmed that Nannochloris sp. was suitable food for Artemia culture both given alive or dead cell. Keywords: Growth, Survival, Artemia, picophytoplankton, Nannochloris sp.
Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Klorida (hcl) Terhadap Mutu Alginat Rumput Laut Coklat Sargassum sp. dari Perairan Teluk Awur Kab. Jepara Dan Poktunggal Kab. Gunungkidul Rifandi, Raditya Ahmad; Santosa, Gunawan Widi; Ridlo, Ali
977-2407769
Publisher : Program Studi Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas PerikanJurusan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro

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Rumput laut merupakan sumber daya hayati laut yang potensial digunakan dalam industri pangan dan non pangan, salah satu jenisnya ialah Sargassum sp. yang ditemukan melimpah hampir di seluruh perairan Indonesia dan telah dimanfaatkan berupa alginat yang dalam industri digunakan sebagai pengental, pensuspensi, penstabil, pembentuk film, pembentuk gel, dan bahan pengemulsi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi HCl terhadap kualitas Natrium alginat rumput laut coklat Sargassum sp. yang diambil dari Perairan Teluk Awur, Jepara dan perairan Poktunggal, Gunungkidul yang meliputi rendemen, viskositas, kadar air dan kadar abu. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimental laboratorium dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Sampel diekstraksi dengan perlakuan perbedaan konsentrasi HCl 3%, 5%, 7% dan 9% saat pembentukan asam alginat masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Hubungan antara konsentrasi HCl dan kualitas natrium alginat menunjukan model regresi linier positif untuk rendemen natrium alginat, model regresi polinomial positif untuk viskositas, regresi linier positif dan negatif pada kadar air, lalu regresi polinomial negatif pada kadar abu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen natrium alginat tertinggi dihasilkan pada konsentrasi HCl 9% yaitu sebesar 15,41 ± 2,17% untuk perairan Teluk Awur dan 14,44 ± 2,94% untuk perairan Poktunggal. Viskositas tertinggi dihasilkan pada konsentrasi HCl 5% yaitu sebesar 10,33 ± 1,52 cPs untuk perairan Teluk Awur dan 12,65 ± 1,48 cPs untuk perairan Poktunggal