Semuel Sandy
Balai Litbang Biomedis Papua, Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Jl. Kesehatan No. 10 Dok II, Jayapura

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BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus) MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE Sandy, Semuel
Balaba Vol 10, No 1 Jun (2014)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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ABSTRAKMalaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Provinsi Papua dengan angka Annual Parasite Incidence (API) padatahun 2011 sebesar 58 per 1000 penduduk dan Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) sebesar 169 per 1000 penduduk. Vektormalaria Papua dilaporkan Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus dan An. koliensis. Tiga spesies tersebut aktif menggigit padamalam hari (nokturnal), antropofilik dengan karakteristik tempat perkembangbiakan, aktifitas menggigit, dan tempatistirahat dilaporkan spesifik setiap spesies. Kajian ini untuk melihat beberapa aspek bionomi (tempat perkembangbiakan,aktifitas menggigit, dan tempat istirahat. Larva An. farauti memiliki habitat di daerah pantai, perairan payau (memilikitoleransi terhadap salinitas 4,6%), irigasi buatan atau alami. Nyamuk dewasa An. farauti betina bersifat nokturnal,eksofagik, eksofilik, dan antropofilik. Larva An. koliensis tidak ditemukan di perairan payau, banyak ditemukan di hutanrawa, hutan sagu, kolam semi permanen atau permanen yang dangkal dan terpapar sinar matahari langsung. Nyamukdewasa An. koliensis bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (78% menggigit manusia), eksofagik, eksofilik sedangkan larva An.punctulatus tidak ditemukan di air payau, tetapi ditemukan pada kolam dengan air jernih atau keruh dengan vegetasi atautanpa vegetasi air. Larva An. punctulatus juga ditemukan di hutan sagu dan hutan rawa dengan paparan sinar mataharilangsung. Nyamuk dewasa An. punctulatus bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (98% menggigit manusia), eksofagik, endofilik.Data dasar mengenai perilaku nyamuk Anopheles (bionomi) sangat diperlukan dalam mengembangkan pola intervensi dankontrol vektor yang lebih efektif dan efisien.Kata kunci: vektor malaria, An. punctulatus group, bionomi, PapuaABSTRACTMalaria is a major health problem in Papua province with Annual Parasite Incidence (API) was reported 58/1000population in 2011, and the Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) was 169/1000 population. The malaria vector in Papua wereAnopheles farauti, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. These three species were nocturnal, antrophopilic with the diferrencebionomics such as breeding habitats, biting activity, and resting places. The aim of this study was to determine the bionomicaspects of the malaria vectors (resting places, biting activity and breading habitats) in the study areas. The larvae of An.farauti was reported found at coastal, area with brackish water (salinity ± 4.6 %), natural or artificial irrigation canals.Adult female mosquitoes of An. farauti were found nocturnal, eksofagik eksofilik , and antrophopilic habit. An. koliensislarvae not found in brackish, they were found in the swamp and sago forest, semipermanent or permanent ponds whichshallow and exposed to direct sunlight . Adult mosquitoes of An. koliensis were nocturnal, antrophopilic (78% human bites),eksofagik, eksofilik. The larvae of An. punctulatus was not found in brackish water, it was found in a pool with clear or turbidwater which presence or no water vegetation, the larvae of An. punctulatus also found in sago and swamp forest withexposure to direct sunlight. Adult mosquites of An. punctulatus were nocturnal, antrophopilic (98% human bites), eksofagik,endofilik. Basic data on the behaviour of Anopheles spp (bionomic) is necessary in developing effective and efficientintervention pattern and control vector.Key words: malaria vector, An. punctulatus group, bionomic, Papua
Analisis Subtipe HIV-1 dan Faktor Penyebarannya pada Penderita HIV di RS. Yowari Kabupaten Jayapura, Papua Widiyanti, Mirna; Sandy, Semuel; Wibowo, Holy A.
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Publisher : Jurnal Biologi Papua

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Acquaired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a symptoms caused by infection with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). There are two types of HIV genetically distinguished as HIV-1 and HIV-2 subtype. Subtypes of HIV-1 globally have different distribution in state, where geographical factors could affected to the subtype differences. Papua is one of the provinces that have high case of HIV/AIDS. High number of people with HIV/AIDS in Papua caused by new regional area expansion and mobilization of the population in province and district area. This study was aimed to identify the sub type HIV-1 and the risk factors that correlated in the transmission of HIV-1 type. The research study was performed by cross-sectional design. There were 36 HIV patient sample respondent willing to participate in research and they were sign inform consent. Subtype HIV-1 identification was performed by used Nested-PCR, sequencing, and BLAST to found subtype HIV-1. The interview method used a questionnaires to found of  the risk factors  related to subtype HIV-1. The results of research showed that HIV-1 subtype found in people with HIV in Yowari hospital is CRF01_AE subtype (31 respondent) and subtype B ( 5 respondent). Chi-squre and Fisher exact test analysis of risk factors that influence the spread of HIV-1 subtype showed a non significant results. The research study concluded sub-type HIV-1 in patients is CRF01_AE and subtype B and  there were not correlated risk factors with HIV-1 subtype.Key words: HIV/AIDS , type HIV-1 , CRF01_AE , Sub type-B, RS Yowari.
Analisis model faktor risiko infeksi cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides) pada murid SD di Distrik Arso Kabupaten Keerom Papua Sandy, Semuel; Irmanto, Maxsi
Buski Vol 5, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Buski

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Infeksi soil transmitted helminthes (STH), merupakan penyakit neglected tropical diseases yang disebabkan oleh beberapa spesies cacing yaitu  Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale dan Trichuris trichiura. World Health organization (WHO) memperkirakan 250 juta orang terinfeksi askariasis. Kondisi geografis, sosial-budaya, ekonomi, pendidikan, perubahan iklim merupakan faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi infeksi askariasis. Jumlah kasus kecacingan di Kabupaten Keerom  yaitu 599 kasus pada  tahun 2011, identifikasi faktor-faktor risiko terhadap penularan penyakit askariasis dapat digunakan mengembangkan metode intervensi yang efektif dan efisien. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain potong lintang (cross sectional) dengan lokasi di Distrik Arso, Kabupaten Keerom pada bulan September-Desember 2012. Sampel merupakan murid SD kelas 3 – 6 sebanyak 224 murid SD yang bersedia ikut dalam penelitian. Pengambilan data faktor risiko menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur, pengukuran antropometri dan kadar Hemoglobin (Hb) menggunakan Quick Chek Hb-meter. Spesimen tinja diperiksa menggunakan metode Kato-Katz untuk menemukan telur cacing gelang (A. lumbricoides). Analisis data menggunakan statistik bivariat   (Chi Square) dan multivariat (logistik berganda). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  prevalensi askariasis 23,2 % (N = 224 responden) sedangkan yang menjadi faktor risiko dari analisis multivariate yaitu jenis lantai rumah [OR 0,436 ; (95% KI 0,217-0,876) ; p = 0,02 ] , kebiasaan mencuci tangan sebelum makan [ OR 0,05 ; (95% KI 0,009-0,288) p = 0,001 ] dan setelah buang air besar [ OR 0,05 ; (95% KI 1,292-23,181) p = 0,021 ].  Prevalensi askariasis pada murid SD di Distrik Arso Kabupaten Keerom cukup tinggi sehingga masih menjadi permasalahan kesehatan. Diperlukan suatu intervensi yang efektif dan efisien untuk menurunkan jumlah kasus cacingan.
DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (DHF) IN KEEROM REGENCY, PAPUA PROVINCE IN 2011-2014 Sandy, Semuel; Sasto, Iman HS
Balaba Vol 11, No 1 JUN (2015)
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang Banjarnegara

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Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB) demam berdarah Dengue di Papua pernah dilaporkan pada tahun 1993, 1994 dan 2001. DiKabupaten Keerom sudah ditemukan kasus DBD walaupun jumlahnya sedikit.Tujuan penulisan artikel ini untukmemberikan gambaran mengenai situasi DBD di Kabupaten Keerom periode 2011-2014 sehingga dapat digunakan menjadidata dasar program pengendalian DBD. Artikel ini menggunakan hasil kajian data sekunder DBD dari Dinas KesehatanKabupaten Keerom dan Balai Metereologi dan Geofisika (BMG) Jayapura, kemudian dilakukan analisis secara deskriptifuntuk menilai kecendrungan kasus DBD periode tahun 2011-2014. Angka insidensi (IR) cenderung meningkat dari 15.99 per100.000 penduduk tahun 2011 menjadi 19.30 per 100.000 penduduk pada tahun 2012, 28.97 per 100.000 penduduk padatahun 2013 dan 34.44 per 100.000 penduduk pada tahun 2014. DBD periode 2011-2014 lebih banyak ditemukan pada lakilaki(31 kasus) dibandingkan perempuan (20 kasus), sedangkan kelompok umur yang paling banyak terkenana demamberdarah adalah kelompok usia 5-14 tahun. DBD di Kabupaten Keerom mengalami peningkatan seiring denganperkembangan mobilitas penduduk, pembukaan lahan pemukiman dan juga adanya pengaruh perubahan iklim global.Kata kunci: angka insidensi, Dengue, Kabupaten Keerom
Hubungan Higiene Perorangan dengan Kejadian Kecacingan pada Murid SD Negeri Abe Pantai Jayapura Martila, Martila; Sandy, Semuel; Paembonan, Nopita
JURNAL PLASMA Vol 1, No 2 Jun (2015)
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis Papua

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Kecacingan merupakan salah satu penyakit berbasis lingkungan yang menjadi masalah bagi kesehatan masyarakat. Kecacingan dapat disebabkan oleh sejumlah cacing perut yang ditularkan melalui tanah disebutSoil Transmitted Helminths (STH) seperti cacing gelang (Ascaris lumbricoides), cacing tambang Ancylostoma duodenale dan Necator americanus) dan cacingcambuk (Trichuris trichiura). Higiene perorangan dan sanitasi lingkungan yang kurang baik pada anak- anak merupakan faktor yang memudahkan penularan kecacingan.Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui hubungan higiene perorangan dengan kejadian kecacingan pada murid SD Negeri Abe Pantai Jayapura. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptif analitik, dengan rancanganpotong lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh murid SD Negeri AbePantai Jayapura yang berjumlah 384 orang. Sampel yang terkumpul sebanyak 70 orang yang diambil secara stratified random sampling. Cara pemeriksaan tinja secara kualitatif dengan metode langsung (direct) menggunakan larutan lugol. Analisa data menggunakan uji statistik chi - square.Hasil penelitian diperoleh murid yang positif kecacingan sebanyak 50%, infeksi kecacingan terbanyak adalah Ascaris lumbricoides 48,5%, Trichuris trichiura 28,6%, Cacing Tambang 14,3%, dan infeksi campuran yang disebabkan oleh dua spesies atau lebih sebanyak 8,6%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tidak ada hubungan higiene perorangan dengan kejadian kecacingan pada murid SD Negeri Abe Pantai Jayapura (P Value= 0,47 dengan RP = 1,26, CI 95% 0,79-2,01).Kata Kunci :Kecacingan, Higiene PeroranganHelmints infection is an environmental based diasease and become a public health problem. and caused by Soil Transmitted Helminthes (STH) such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus andTrishuris trichiura. Personal hygiene and environmental sanitation are factors that contributed in worm infection.The aim of the research is to identify the relation between personal hygiene and worm infection among students of SD Negeri Abe Pantai Jayapura. An analytic and cross sectional study was conducted. Seventy stool samples were collected randomly and examine direct methode. Data was analyzed using ch-square. Results: 50% samples have worm infection, 48,5%,Ascaris lumbricoides,28,6%Trichuris trichiura, 14,3%hook worm and 8,6% samples have mixed infection. No relation between personal hygiene and worm infection amon students of SD Negeri Abe Pantai Jayapura (p>0,05).Keywords:Soil Transmitted Helminthes, Personal Hygiene
Analisis Subtipe HIV-1 dan Faktor Penyebarannya pada Penderita HIV di RS. Yowari Kabupaten Jayapura, Papua Widiyanti, Mirna; Sandy, Semuel; Wibowo, Holy A.
JURNAL BIOLOGI PAPUA Vol 6, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : JURNAL BIOLOGI PAPUA

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Acquaired immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a symptoms caused by infection with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV). There are two types of HIV genetically distinguished as HIV-1 and HIV-2 subtype. Subtypes of HIV-1 globally have different distribution in state, where geographical factors could affected to the subtype differences. Papua is one of the provinces that have high case of HIV/AIDS. High number of people with HIV/AIDS in Papua caused by new regional area expansion and mobilization of the population in province and district area. This study was aimed to identify the sub type HIV-1 and the risk factors that correlated in the transmission of HIV-1 type. The research study was performed by cross-sectional design. There were 36 HIV patient sample respondent willing to participate in research and they were sign inform consent. Subtype HIV-1 identification was performed by used Nested-PCR, sequencing, and BLAST to found subtype HIV-1. The interview method used a questionnaires to found of the risk factors related to subtype HIV-1. The results of research showed that HIV-1 subtype found in people with HIV in Yowari hospital is CRF01_AE subtype (31 respondent) and subtype B ( 5 respondent). Chi-squre and Fisher exact test analysis of risk factors that influence the spread of HIV-1 subtype showed a non significant results. The research study concluded sub-type HIV-1 in patients is CRF01_AE and subtype B and there were not correlated risk factors with HIV-1 subtype. Key words: HIV/AIDS , type HIV-1 , CRF01_AE , Sub type-B, RS Yowari.
Entomological Surveillance of Malaria Vectors in Saumlaki, Maluku Tenggara Barat Regency, Maluku Province Sandy, Semuel; Ayomi, Ivon; Suebu, Melda S; Maladan, Y; Pardi, M Rahardjo; Lewier, Jan
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Vol 12, No 2 (2017): Jurnal KEMAS Vol.12 No.2 : January 2017
Publisher : Jurusan Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Ilmu Keolahragaan

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The research aims to determine the prevalence of malaria and Anopheles spp using bio-ecology surveillance in Alusi and Waturu community health centers in Maluku Tenggara Barat Regency. The study was conducted in March-April 2015 with cross sectional design. In this research, we performed mass blood survey on 489 participants in the Kilmasa village and 434 participants in Waturu village. We also performed entomology surveillances, i.e. larval density, catching Anopheles spp, temperature, humidity, and salinity. To confirm malaria vectors, we used enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. The data analyzed descriptively. The results of the study showed proportion 0.20% malaria morbidity in Kilmasa village and 0.23% in Waturu village. Anopheles flavirostris and An. barbirostris group were likely to bite a human outside and inside the house and peaked at 11.00 pm-12.00 pm. The parous rate of An. flavirostris and An. barbirostris was 46% and 26%, respectively. Human blood index of An.flavirostris and An. barbirostris was 33.3% and by 70%, respectively. Anopheles flavirostri and An. barbirostris were malaria vectors with sporozoite rate 0.38% and 12.5%, respectively.
Footwear as a risk factor of hookworm infection in elementary school students Sandy, Semuel; Sumarni, Sri; Soeyoko, Soeyoko
Universa Medicina Vol 33, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

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BACKGROUNDIn Indonesia, there is still a high prevalence of hookworm infection, especially in poor areas with poor sanitation. The number of helminthic diseases in Keerom Regency was about 599 cases in 2010. This number is bound to increase due to the low sanitation, hygiene and socio-economic status of the people in the regency. The children are a group at risk for contracting infections, especially intestinal worms, which affect the child’s physical growth and intelligence. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of hookworm diseases in elementary school students.METHODSA cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 elementary school students.Demographic data were obtained by questionnaire, comprising gender, parental socio-economic status, household sanitation, and personal hygiene. Body mass index was calculated by measurement of body weight and height. And hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Quick Check Hb-meter. Stool samples were microscopically examined using the Kato-Katz method. We used chi-square and logistic regression to find predictors of hookworm infections, with level of significance at p<0.05.RESULTSThe number of hookworm infection was 6.7% and the risk factor of hookworminfection among elementary school students was the habit of using footwearoutdoors [OR 5.3; 95% CI 1.7-17.7; p=0.004].CONCLUSIONThe use of footwear outdoors was a predictor of hookworm infections inelementary school children. An effective and efficient intervention program isneeded to prevent and eradicate hookworm infection among primary schoolchildren.
Gambaran pengetahuan, perilaku dan pencegahan malaria oleh masyarakat di Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat dan Maluku Barat Daya Sandy, Semuel; Ayomi, Ivon
JHECDs: Journal of Health Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases Vol 4 No 1 (2018): JHECDs Vol. 4, No. 1, Juni 2018
Publisher : Balai Litbangkes Tanah Bumbu

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Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat dan Maluku Barat Daya merupakan salah satu daerah endemis malaria di Provinsi Maluku. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian malaria antara lain pengetahuan, aktifitas masyarakat, keberadaan habitat nyamuk dan pengunaan kelambu. Desain penelitian potong lintang, sampel diambil secara purposive, dan pengambilan data dilakukan dengan wawancara. Analisis data secara deskriptif dan bivariat non parametrik (Uji Chi Square dan Uji Fisher ). Hasil penelitian faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan pencegahan malaria pada masyarakat di Kabupaten Maluku Tenggara Barat dan Maluku Barat Daya antara lain: pengetahuan masyarakat tentang gejala penyakit malaria OR=10,523 (p=0,002), informasi tentang malaria dari petugas kesehatan OR=7,302 (p=0,003) dan aktifitas masyarakat di kebun pagi hari (pukul 05.00) dan sore hari (pukul 18.00) OR=3,685 (p=0,007).
Gambaran Subtipe HIV-1 dengan Kadar CD4, Stadium Klinis, dan Infeksi Oportunistik Penderita HIV/AIDS di Kota dan Kabupaten Jayapura, Papua Widiyanti, Mirna; Sandy, Semuel
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 48, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Indonesia akhir Maret 2013 tercatat 103.759 kasus dan 43.347 kasus AIDS yang tersebar di Indonesia. Papua merupakan provinsi ketiga yang memiliki jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS cukup tinggi, yaitu 10.881 kasus HIV dan 7.795 kasus AIDS. Tujuan penelitian ini melihat distribusi subtipe HIV-1 yang dominan di Papua dan mengetahui hubungan subtipe HIV-1 dengan kadar CD4, stadium klinis, dan infeksi oportunistik penderita HIV/AIDS. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan potong lintang. Pemeriksaan subtipe HIV-1 menggunakan RT-PCR dan sekuensing. Penelitian dilaksanakan di RSUD Dok II, RS Abepura, dan RSUD Yowari Kabupaten Jayapura pada bulan November–Desember 2012. Data CD4, stadium klinis, dan jenis infeksi oportunistik dicatat melalui rekam medis pasien. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji statistik chi-kuadrat. Subtipe HIV-1 yang dominan ditemukan, yaitu CRF01_AE sebanyak 51 orang (54%) dan subtipe B sebanyak 43 orang (46%). Dari 94 pasien HIV sebanyak 62 orang (66%) menderita infeksi oportunistik TB paru dan beberapa menderita lebih dari satu jenis infeksi oportunistik. Uji statistik menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan bermakna subtipe HIV-1 dengan kadar CD4 dan stadium klinis, tetapi menunjukkan korelasi bermakna terhadap infeksi oportunistik. Simpulan ditemukan subtipe HIV-1 yang dominan di Papua adalah CRF01_AE dan infeksi oportunistik terbanyak pada penderita adalah tuberkulosis. [MKB. 2016;48(1):1–6]Kata kunci: CD4, infeksi oportunistik, stadium klinis, subtipe HIV-1 Overview of HIV-1 Subtype with CD4 Levels, Clinical Stage and Opportunistic Infections HIV/AIDS in City and Regency of Jayapura-PapuaAbstractThe number of HIV/AIDS cases recorded in March 2013 in Indonesia is 103,759 HIV cases and 43,347 AIDS cases. Papua is the province that has the third highest number HIV/AIDS cases with 10,881 HIV cases and 7,795 AIDS cases. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes which are dominant in Papua and to identify opportunistic infections related to HIV/AIDS and their relationship with HIV-1 subtypes. This study is a cross-sectional study. The identification of HIV-1 was performed using nested-PCR and sequencing to look for HIV-1 subtypes. The study was conducted in Dok II, Abepura and Yowari VCT Hospital in Jayapura District during the period of November–December 2012. CD4 and opportunistic infections were retrieved from patient medical records. Data were analyzed statistically using chi-square test. The dominant HIV-1 subtypes found were subtype CRF01-AE, which was found in 51 people (54%), and subtype B, which was found in 43 people (46%). Of 94 HIV patients, 62 (66%) respondents suffered from pulmonary tubeculosis opportunistic infection and some patients suffered more than one type of opportunistic infections. There was no significant difference found between the HIV-1 subtypes, CD4 level, and clinicial stage. However, a significant correlation with opportunistic infections was found. It is concluded that the dominant HIV-1 subtype in Papua is CRF01_AE with tuberculosis as the most frequent opportunistic infection. [MKB. 2016;48(1):1–6]Key words: CD4, clinical stage, HIV-1 subtypes, opportunistic infection