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Journal : Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia

PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI HIDROLISAT PROTEIN DARI IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus) MENGGUNAKAN ENZIM PAPAIN Salamah, Ella; Nurhayati, Tati; Widadi, Indah Rahayu
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 1 (2012): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is important freshwater fish commodity in Indonesia. African catfish also has high protein content, which is potential to be used as protein hydrolysate. Fish protein hydrolysate offered many advantages in food, feed, agriculture, microbiology and medicinal’s field. This research aimed to determine the optimal condition for hydrolysis of African catfish protein and to characterize protein hydrolysate from African catfish. The optimal concentration of papain used for hydrolysis of African catfish protein was 5% (w/v) for 6 hours hydrolysis time and degree of hydrolysis was 35.37%. Protein hydrolysate from African catfish revealed 21.16% of yield and water content of 5.46%; ash content of 5.71%; protein content of 53.29%; and fat content of 1.94%. Protein hydrolysate from African catfish contained 15 types of amino acids, with 9 types of essential amino acids and 6 types of non essential amino acids. The highest essential amino acid composition was lysin of 5.23%, while the highest non essential amino acid composition was glutamic acid of 7.77%. Protein hydrolysate from African catfish showed protein digestibility by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of 98.57%.Key words: African catfish, amino acid, fish protein hydrolysate, papain
PURIFIKASI PARSIAL DAN KARAKTERISASI ENZIM KATEPSIN DARI IKAN BANDENG (Chanos Chanos Forskall) Nurhayati, Tati; Salamah, Ella; Dynnar, nico
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Decomposition of protein in the enzymatic process will lead to changes in odor, texture, and appearance of fish. The enzymes that play a role in the enzymatic process is primarily proteolytic enzymes. Cathepsin enzyme is one of the proteolytic enzymes found in animal tissue that hydrolyzes peptide bonds of proteins. Information on optimal conditions of cathepsin enzyme activity is useful in the process of good handling,  to avoid environmental conditions that can increase cathepsin enzymes activity, especially in milkfish. The purposes of this study were to partial purify the catepsin  enzyme of milkfish and characterize the enzymes. Crude extract of enzyme had specific activity 0.8598 U/mg and after presipitation with ammonium sulphate 70% obtained specific activity of 4.4643 U/mg and after 6 hours of dialysis obtained specific activity 14.4404 U/mg. The enzyme cathepsin worked optimally at 40 °C and pH 4, and 3%  substrate. Divalent metal ions inhibited the activity of the enzyme, higher compared to monovalent or trivalent metals. Cathepsin enzyme identified had molecular weight of 86.67 kDa.Key words: cathepsin, characterization, milkfish, purification
AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KOMPONEN BIOAKTIF PADA SELADA AIR (Nasturtium officinale L . R. Br) Salamah, Ella; Purwaningsih, Sri; Permatasari, Ellis
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 14, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. R. Br) is aquatic plant that grown across mainland Europe and Asia. Beside as food  watercress also as help detoxify the liver, purify the blood and improve digestion. Research about properties of watercress for human health is still not fully elucidated. This research was aimed to measure rendement, chemical content of watercress, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and peroxide number of watercress and its parts (leaves and stems). The yield of leaves and stems were 23.43% and 59.38%, respectively. Water, protein, lipid, ash, acid insoluble ash and carbohydrate contents obtained from proximate analysis were 94.64%, 2.11%, 0.22%, 1.14%, 0.29% and 1.90%, respectively. Based on phytochemical test, watercress contained alkaloids, steroids/triterpenoids, phenols hydroquinone, carbohydrates and free amino acids. Test of antioxidant activity using DPPH method resulting IC  of the extract of intact watercress, leaves and stems were 337.32 ppm, 331.39 ppm and 439.10 ppm, respectively. The leaves extract has been shown to reduce the peroxide number of 0,8mg eq/kg bulok. Keywords: antioxidant, bioactives compounds, peroxide number, proximate, watercress.
PERANAN INHIBITOR KATEPSIN DARI IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus) UNTUK MENGHAMBAT KEMUNDURAN MUTU IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos Forskal) Nurhayati, Tati; Salamah, Ella; Tampubolon, Komariah; Apriland, Ary
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

The process of deterioration of fresh  sh quality begins with an enzimatis damage, one of them is katepsin.To prevent deterioration of  sh, an inhibitor can be obtained naturally from the body of  sh. The purpose of this research was to use extract of cathepsin inhibitor from cat sh for inhibit deterioration of milk sh. This researchshowed that temperature of 80 ºC was the optimum temperature for extracting inhibitor complex with inhibitoryactivity of 92,88%. Cathepsin inhibitor gave the most effective to prevent deterioration (85,29% inhibitory activity) after diluted two fold on buffer solution. Soaking with inhibitors from cat sh katepsin capable to inhibit thedeterioration of  sh quality longer than 72 hours (3 days) compared with control  sh, milk sh (soaking in buffer).Keywords : catsh, cathepsin, inhibitor, milksh
Diversification Kerupuk Opaque Product with Addition Of Layur Fish (Trichiurus sp.) Meat Salamah, Ella; Susanti, Mar’atun Rohmah; Purwaningsih, Sri
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 1 (2008): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Ikan layur merupakan salah satu jenis ikan air laut yang ada di Indonesia. Ikan ini belum banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber pangan. Upaya peningkatan kesukaan dan pemanfaatan terhadap ikan ini adalah adanya diversifikasi menjadi produk yang digemari salah satunya adalah kerupuk opak. Kerupuk opak merupakan salah satu bentuk produk kerupuk yang cukup dikenal di Sukabumi. Kerupuk opak dibuat dari singkong secara sederhana dan tidak harus menggunakan teknologi proses yang rumit, sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam usaha skala kecil atau skala rumah tangga. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap yaitu pendahuluan dan utama. Konsentrasi daging ikan layur (Trichiurus sp) yang digunakan pada penelitian pendahuluan meliputi 0% (kontrol) dan dengan penambahan daging ikan layur (Trichiurus sp) sebesar 6 %, 12 %, 18 %, 24 % dan 30 %. Penelitian tahap pendahuluan panelis lebih menyukai kerupuk opak dengan konsentrasi daging ikan sebesar 6% berdasarkan uji sensori. Kerupuk opak ikan terpilih tersebut digunakan pada penelitian utama dengan perlakuan pengemasan plastik PE (polietilen) tertutup (sealer) dan terbuka (tidak disealer), serta disimpan selama 6 minggu. Penelitian utama panelis lebih menyukai kerupuk opak ikan 6 % dengan kemasan terbuka pada penyimpanan minggu ke-1. Kerupuk opak ikan 6% dengan kemasan terbuka memiliki kadar air yaitu 14,05 %, kadar abu 4,70 %, protein 6,81 %, lemak antara 0,76 %, dan karbohidrat 73,90 %. Kerupuk opak ikan 6 % yang disimpan selama 1 minggu memiliki aktivitas air sebesar 0,64, tingkat kekerasan/kerenyahan sebesar 931,25 gf, volume pengembangan kerupuk 6,66 %, dan nilai Total Plate Count (TPC) rata-rata sebesar 2,25x102 koloni/ml.Kata kunci: kerupuk, ikan layur, pengemasan, penyimpanan
KANDUNGAN GIZI KEONG IPONG-IPONG (Fasciolaria salmo) AKIBAT METODE PENGOLAHAN Purwaningsih, Sri; Salamah, Ella; Sari, Tiza Yunisca
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2012): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Ipong-Ipong (Fasciolaria salmo) snail is a local name of marine mollusc from gastropod  class in Cirebon, West Java, which is consumed by public and believed to improve health.  The purpose of this research was to find out effect of processing (boiling, steaming, and boiling with 3% salt water) methods on  the nutrition content, such as proximate, fatty acids, and cholesterol in F. salmo. The data were analysed using the analysis of variance test (ANOVA).  The Duncan test was used to compare means when a significant variation was highlighted by the ANOVA.  The results showed nutrition content of  fresh F. salmo was: 72.10% water (wet matter basis); protein 62.72% (dry matter basis), ash 7.80% (dry matter basis), cholesterol (0.045%) and 1.71% fat (dry matter basis), monounsaturated fatty acid (11.75%), polyunsaturated fatty acids (7.31%), polyunsaturated fatty acid long chain (5.34%), and saturated fatty acids (long-chain) (4.03%). Acid insoluble ash content was 0.72%. The results of statistical analysis showed that  processing method impact the nutritional value of  F. salmo.  The results  of duncan test showed that decreassing content of proximate dan fatty acids caused by steaming method was lower than the boiling and boiling with 3% salt water method.  From the research results recommended that the best treatment method  is steaming.Keywords: cholesterol, Fasciolaria salmo, fatty acid, processing methods
Karakteristik Hidrolisat Protein Ikan Selar (Caranx leptolepis) yang Diproses secara Enzimatis Nurhayati, Tati; Salamah, Ella; Hidayat, Taufik
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2007): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Hidrolisat protein ikan mempunyai manfaat yang besar baik dalam bidang pangan termasuk pangan fungsional, maupun dalam bidang farmasi. Oleh karena itu dalam rangka diperolehnya produk pangan fungsional asal ikan yang memenuhi standar dan dalam rangka pemanfaatan ikan selar, maka dibuat produk hidrolisat ikan secara enzimatis melalui modifikasi proses. Penelitian ini diawali dengan penetapan konsentrasi enzim protease serta waktu dan pH hidrolisis enzim yang tepat dalam pembuatan produk. Kondisi terbaik digunakan untuk penelitian lanjutan guna melihat karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi enzim yang tepat untuk pembuatan produk adalah 5 %(b/v) dengan pH 7 dan waktu hidrolisis 6 jam. Karakteristik hidrolisat protein ikan, yaitu kadar air 91,99 %, kadar abu 1,36 %, kadar protein sebesar 5,3 %, kadar lemak sebesar 0,43 %. Kandungan α-amino nitrogen bebasnya sebesar 0,06 g/100 g. Nilai perbandingan α-amino nitrogen bebas dan nitrogen total yang dihasilkan sebesar 0,07. Kandungan asam amino produk hidrolisat protein ini terdiri dari 17 macam asam amino, dan hampir semua asam amino esensial pada produk hidrolisat protein ini dihasilkan, kecuali triptofan.Kata kunci: enzimatis, hidrolisat protein ikan, pangan fungsional
Characteristics of Quality And Solubility Kitosan From Head Of Shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) Silase Dregs Zahiruddin, Winarti; Ariesta, Aprilia; Salamah, Ella
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2008): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Silase merupakan produk cair hasil proses fermentasi rerumputan, ikan ataupun limbahnya yang digunakan sebagai campuran pakan ternak. Selain menghasilkan produk dalam bentuk filtrat, silase kepala udang windu (P. monodon) juga menghasilkan limbah yaitu ampas silase. Ampas ini dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan kitosan. Kitosan merupakan senyawa golongan karbohidrat yang dihasilkan dari limbah hasil laut, khususnya golongan udang, kepiting, ketam dan kerang. Kitosan dapat digunakan untuk berbagai keperluan seperti mencegah pengerutan dalam industri kertas, pulp dan tekstil, untuk memurnikan air minum serta banyak manfaat lainnya. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi dua tahap yaitu pembuatan starter bakteri bentuk cair sebagai sumber bakteri asam laktat dalam pembuatan silase kepala udang dan tahap pembuatan kitosan. Kitosan yang dihasilkan dianalisis mutu serta sifat kelarutannya. Ampas silase terbaik dihasilkan pada perlakuan penambahan karbohidrat berupatepung tapioka 45 % dengan kadar abu dan kadar protein terendah masing-masing sebesar 22,82% dan 12,98%.Ampas silase dibuat menjadi kitosan dengan penggunaan konsentrasi NaOH (deproteinasi) dan suhu deasetilasi yang berbeda-beda. Perlakuan terbaik adalah penggunaan NaOH 3,5% dan suhu deasetilasi 140oC yang menghasilkan kitosan dengan karakteristik kadar abu 0,17%, kadar air 8,91%, kadar nitrogen 3,03%, derajat desetilasi 84,61% dan rendemen 15,26 %. Kitosan tersebut mempunyai daya larut yang lebih besar apabila dilarutkan asam asetat dengan konsentrasi 1%, 2 %, 3% dan 4% dibandingkan dengan kitosan tanpa proses fermentasi pada bahan bakunya.Kata kunci : ampas silase, fermentasi, karakteristik mutu, kepala udang windu, kitosan, silase
Utilization of Crabs Shell (Portunus pelagicus) as Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus in Making of Crackers Product Yanuar, Vita; Santoso, Joko; Salamah, Ella
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 12, No 1 (2009): Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Crabs shell is main waste product from pasteurization or canning industry of crabs. It contains high minerals content especially Ca and P. The objectives of this experiment were to produce crabs shell powder through two methods i.e. dry and wet methods and to evaluate their physicochemical characteristics include solubility of Ca and P. Production methods of crabs shell powder did not significantly affected the physicochemical properties; however, wet method produced slightly higher solubility of Ca and P than dry method. Crabs shell powder addition in different concentrations (0, 0.75, 1.50, 2.25, and 3.00%) into crackers product did not affect  significantly sensory parameters through scoring test, therefore the smallest and the highest concentration of crabs shell powder addition, namely formulas A and D, were chosen to be tested for their physicochemical properties. Formula D crackers obtained high number of Ca and P and significantly different from other formulas include commercial product, however formula A crackers had the highest solubility of Ca and P with values were 42.12% and 57.08% respectively.Keyword: calcium crackers, phosphorus, solubility, shell powder, crabs
Pemanfaatan Limbah Tulang Ikan Tuna (Thunnus sp.) sebagai Sumber Kalsium dengan Metode Hidrolisis Protein Trilaksani, Wini; Salamah, Ella; Nabil, Muhammad
Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia Vol 9, No 2 (2006): Buletin Teknologi Hasil Perikanan
Publisher : Departement of Aquatic Product Technology

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Abstract

Penelitian tentang pemanfaatan limbah tulang ikan tuna (Thunnus sp.) dimaksudkan untuk menghasilkan tepung tulang ikan tuna berkalsium tinggi dan mengetahui karakteristik mutu tepung tulang yang dihasilkan dengan waktu autoklafing dan frekuensi perebusan yang berbeda pada proses hidrolisis protein dalam pembuatan tepung tulang. Parameter yang diukur dalam penelitian ini adalah kadar kalsium, fosfor, air, abu, protein, lemak, pH, derajat putih, daya serap air, kemudahan melarut, densitas kamba dan bioavailabilitas kalsium. Tepung tulang ikan yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini mengandung kalsium tertinggi 39,24 % dan fosfor 13,66 % yang diperoleh dari kombinasi perlakuan autoclaving 2 (dua) jam dan perebusan 3 (tiga) kali. Kadar air pada tepung tulang sebesar 5,60 %, abu 81,13 %bb, protein 0,76 %bb dan lemak 3,05 %bb. Nilai beberapa parameter fisik tepung yaitu derajat putih 64,7 %, densitas kamba 8,14 g/ml, pH 7,13, daya serap air 14,5 % dan kemudahan melarut sebesar 4,45 % pada menit ke 15, 29,20 % pada menit ke 180. Nilai bioavailabilitas kalsium tepung sebesar 0,86 %. Nilai ini diperoleh dari hasil pengukuran tepung dengan kadar kalsium tertinggi.Kata kunci: autoclaving , hidrolisis, kalsium, perebusan tulang, dan tuna.