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Kehadiran Bakteri Coliform dalam Es Batu pada Tiga Rumah Makan Ayam Goreng Siap Saji di Bandung

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 9, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Some reports have shown that ice cubes may contain Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. This descriptive, observational research aims to analyze the microbiological quality of the ice cubes served at three selected restaurants  (1,2,3).  Three  samples  of  ice  cubes  were  rinsed  with  steril  water,  left  melted,  and  diluted serially.  Each  diluted  sample  was  inoculated  into  MacConkey  Agar  and  EMB  Agar  with  pour  plate method duplo. The data collected were the number of colonies (interpreted as cfu or colony forming unit) of Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. The species of selected colonies were identified by  biochemical reactions. The result showed that sample 1 contained 3 cfu/ml Escherichia coli and 5 cfu/ml Pseudomonas  sp.  Sample  2  contained  10  cfu/ml  Escherichia  coli  and  4  cfu/ml  Pseudomonas  sp.,  but sample 3 didn’t contain Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae bacteria members. It is concluded that ice cubes from restaurant 3 met the requirement for drinking water, whereas those from restaurants 1 and 2 did not.  Keywords: ice cubes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp.

Aspek Onkologi Human Papillomavirus

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 9, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of DNA-based viruses that may infect the skin and mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. There are over 100 different human papillomavirus (HPV) types that have been identified. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal factor in the development of cervical cancer. However, the HPVs mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been completely identified. The possibility of evolving HPVs into the direction of malignancy will depend on several factors, i.e. the type of the virus, the host and the environment, all of which are able to modify the course of HPV infection. Based on the epidemiological classification, HPVs can be divided into the high-risk and low-risk types. The high-risk types have a marked tendency to integrate in the host genome. The integration process may cause the interruption of E2 gene, which has the consequence of losing its control over E6 and E7 expressions. Moreover, E6 and E7 products will interact with and inhibit the function of the cellular tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and pRB).

Mekanisme Toksigenitas Molekuler dan Potensi Medik Toksin Difteri

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 5, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Diphtheria is a very acute contagious and acute upper respiratory tract infection caused by toxigenic strain Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The characteristic pseudomembrane may cause respiratory obstruction, so untreated infection can be fatal. Pathogenesis of Corynebaterium diphtheriae begins with colonization of the upper respiratory tract, followed by production of exotoxin which inactivate EF-2, consequently protein synthesis is block completely and irreversibly, causing cell death. Regulation of diphtheria toxin is controlled by dtxR gene in bacteria activated by Fe system. Nowadays, diphtheria toxin has been introduced as a new method in cancer therapy. Diphtheria toxin can be modified by substitution or germline engineering so that its toxicity is aimed only to cancer cells.

Perbandingan Efektivitas Pasta Gigi Herbal dan Pasta Gigi Nonherbal dalam Menghambat Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β-hemoliticus dan Candida albicans In Vitro

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 4, No 1 (2004)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Mouth and teeth are part of the gastrointestinal tract that have to keep then healthy. Brushing with toothpaste is important in keeping mouth and teeth healthy, so that nowadays many toothpaste companies add some special ingredient to the toothpaste like piper betle extract and aloe vera extract which have antimicrobial activity.The aim of this research was compare the antimicrobial activity between herbal and nonherbal toothpaste.This research was a prospective experimental in vitro study against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β-hemoliticus and Candida albicans.The results showed that the herbal toothpaste was more effective than the nonherbal toothpaste to control the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. On the other hand, The herbal and nonherbal toothpaste had the same effectiveness in controlling the growth of Streptococcus β-hemoliticus.

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Javanese Tamarind Leaves Infusion (Tamarindus indica Linn.) in Escherichia coli

Journal of Medicine and Health Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Maranatha Christian University

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Abstract

Escherichia coli is the most common bacteria that cause diarrhea. Based on Kurniawati’s research, ethanol extract of tamarind leaves has an antimicrobial effect to Escherichia coli. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial effect using disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of tamarind leaves infusion against Escherichia coli. This research was done using a real laboratory experimental design with tamarind leaves infusion and Escherichia coli microbes as the research objects. Zones of inhibition were observed using disk diffusion method by putting the tamarind leaves infusion disks on Mueller-Hinton agars with Ampicillin antibiotic for comparison, followed by observing the MIC using macro broth dilution method  and MBC. The result of disk diffusion showed that tamarind leaves infusion had no zone of inhibition, whereas the mean value of the zones of inhibition of ampicillin is 17.2 mm. The MIC of tamarind leaves infusion is 62.5 mg/mL. Average growth of bacteria  for the MBC of tamarind leaves infusion at 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL concentration are 13 CFU/mL and >300 CFU/mL. It can be concluded that tamarind leaves infusion has antimicrobial activity effect against E.coli and that effect is bacteriostatic. Keywords: Tamarindus indica Linn, Escherichia coli, MIC, MBC

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Javanese Tamarind Leaves Infusion (Tamarindus indica Linn.) in Escherichia coli

Journal of Medicine & Health Vol 1, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Escherichia coli is the most common bacteria that cause diarrhea. Based on Kurniawati’s research, ethanol extract of tamarind leaves has an antimicrobial effect to Escherichia coli. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial effect using disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of tamarind leaves infusion against Escherichia coli. This research was done using a real laboratory experimental design with tamarind leaves infusion and Escherichia coli microbes as the research objects. Zones of inhibition were observed using disk diffusion method by putting the tamarind leaves infusion disks on Mueller-Hinton agars with Ampicillin antibiotic for comparison, followed by observing the MIC using macro broth dilution method  and MBC. The result of disk diffusion showed that tamarind leaves infusion had no zone of inhibition, whereas the mean value of the zones of inhibition of ampicillin is 17.2 mm. The MIC of tamarind leaves infusion is 62.5 mg/mL. Average growth of bacteria  for the MBC of tamarind leaves infusion at 125 mg/mL and 62.5 mg/mL concentration are 13 CFU/mL and >300 CFU/mL. It can be concluded that tamarind leaves infusion has antimicrobial activity effect against E.coli and that effect is bacteriostatic. Keywords: Tamarindus indica Linn, Escherichia coli, MIC, MBC

Antioxidant Activity of Phyllanthus niruri Extract, Rutin and Quercetin

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 9, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Normal metabolism of oxygen and exogenous factors constantly generate free radicals which could be harmful to the human body. Human need antioxidants to provide protection against free radicals, thus plants are a good source of natural antioxidants. Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) has been known to possess several medicinal properties and contain numerous active phytochemical. In this research, we conducted phytochemical screening and antioxidant assay of P. niruri extract along with the compounds rutin and quercetin, which are flavonoids possessing medicinal properties. This study was conducted to determine P. niruri, rutin and quercetin as antioxidant.METHODS: In this study, qualitative phytochemical screening was performed to detect phenol, flavonoid, saponin, tannin, steroid/triterpenoid, terpenoid and alkaloid in P. niruri extract. Antioxidant analysis of P. niruri, rutin and quercetin was conducted using total measured phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.RESULTS:  The study revealed that P. niruri extract contained saponin, phenol, flavonoid and tannin based on phytochemical screening. In DPPH and ABTS assays quercetin possessed highest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.55 and 1.17 μg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, P. niruri extract showed the highest FRAP activity which was 373.95 μM Fe(II)/μg extract. Rutin possessed the lowest antioxidant activity in all antioxidant assays.CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that P. niruri extract and quercetin have great potential as a natural antioxidant source.KEYWORDS: asntioxidant, phytochemical, Phyllanthus niruri, quercetin, rutin, free radical