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ANALYSIS OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR BEAN PHYSICAL QUALITY CHARACTERS AND CLUSTERIZATIONS OF ELEVEN GENOTYPES OF ROBUSTA COFFEE (Coffea canephora)

Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 14, No 2 (2013): October 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

The genetic parameters of coffee related to their bean physical quality characters are important for breeder to improve the  bean quality. Eleven genotypes of robusta coffee were identified and their genetic relationship to the bean physical quality were characterized. The research was conducted at coffee plantation of the Association of Indonesian Coffee Exporters in West Lampung, altitude of 800 m above sea level, Latosol type of soil, and A type of climate, starting from 2010 to 2012. The objectives of this study were to estimate the genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance of the bean physical quality characters, and clusterization analysis of eleven genotypes of robusta coffee. A randomized complete block design with eleven treatments of coffee genotypes and three replications was used in this study. The results showed that the estimated values of genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance for small-size normal bean characters of robusta coffee were very high, so the genetic improvement for these characters has a high probability of success by direct selection. Clusterization of the genotypes resulted three clusters with their respective characteristics. The study implies that future breeding program especially for hybridization should be conducted between genotypes arising from different clusters to obtain the possible high heterosis effects.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS ON ARABICA COFFEE (Coffea arabica)

Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 14, No 2 (2013): October 2013
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Propagation of Coffea arabica L. through direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis technique is promising for producing large number of coffee seedlings. The objectives of the research were to evaluate methods for direct and indirect somatic embryo-genesis induction of C. arabica var. Kartika. The explants were the youngest fully expanded leaves of arabica coffee. The evalu-ated medium was modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with a combination of 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; 4.52 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron; or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Both calli (100 mg) and pre-embryos developed from the edge of leaf explants were subcultured into regeneration medium (half strength MS with modified vitamin, supplemented with kinetine 9.30 µM and adenine sulfate 40 mg L-1). The results showed coffee leaf explant cultured on medium containing 2.26 µM 2,4-D + 4.54 or 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induce direct somatic embriogenesis from explant, while that of 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron to induced indirect somatic embrio-genesis. The medium for calli induction from coffee by explants was medium supplemented with 4.52 or 9.04 µM 2,4-D in combination with 9.08 µM thidiazuron. On the other hand, the best medium for activation of induction of somatic embryos was MS medium supplemented with 9.04 µM 2,4-D + 9.08 µM thidiazuron. Based on this results, the first step for developing micropropagation for coffee has been resolved. The subsequent studies will be directed to evaluate agronomic performance of the derived planting materials.

Peningkatan Produksi dan Pengembangan Kakao ( Theobroma cacao L. ) di Indonesia

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 3, No 1 (2012): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah Dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Indonesia dikenal sebagai negara pengekspor biji kakao terpenting di dunia. Tahun 2010 Indonesia menduduki posisi sebagai pengekspor biji kakao terbesar ketiga dunia dengan produksi biji kering 550.000 ton. Pada tahun tersebut dari luas 1.651.539 ha areal kakao, sekitar 1.555.596 ha atau 94% adalah kakao rakyat. Hal ini mengindikasikan peran penting kakao baik sebagai sumber lapangan kerja maupun pendapatan bagi petani. Di samping itu, areal dan produksi kakao Indonesia meningkat pesat pada dekade terakhir, dengan laju 5,99% per tahun. Namun demikian, seiring dengan semakin luasnya daerah pengembangan kakao, akhir-akhir ini produksi dan produktivitas kakao di Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan yang sangat berarti. Selain tingkat produktivitas yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan potensi klon atau bahan tanam yang ada, aspek mutu juga mengalami penurunan. Menurunnya mutu dan daya hasil tersebut dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor antara lain serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman seperti infeksi penyakit dan serangan hama penggerek buah kakao (PBK), bahan tanam kakao yang diusahakan, penanganan pasca panen, dan sistem usahatani. Teknologi yang tersedia untuk mendukung peningkatan produksi dan pengembangan kakao antara lain bahan tanaman unggul, informasi kesesuaian lahan, teknologi perbanyakan bahan tanaman, teknologi pengendalian hama dan penyakit utama, teknologi sambung samping dan sambung pucuk, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan teknologi pengembangan industri kakao. Bahan tanaman unggul memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam usahatani kakao di Indonesia. Saat ini telah dihasilkan beberapa  klon unggul kakao dengan produktivitas di atas 2 ton/ha/th, beberapa di antaranya juga mempunyai sifat tahan terhadap hama dan penyakit utama kakao. Pengendalian hama dan penyakit tersebut, saat ini telah diimplementasikan model pengendalian secara terpadu yang melibatkan komponen bahan tanam unggul resisten terhadap hama dan penyakit, teknologi budidaya serta kriteria lahan yang sesuai untuk tanaman kakao. Produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao sangat ditentukan oleh kualitas bahan tanam. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao dapat dilakukan dengan teknik klonalisasi dengan cara sambung samping. Teknik sambung samping telah terbukti mampu memperbaiki produktivitas dan mutu kakao rakyat. Teknologi sambung samping telah diadopsi oleh para petani pekebun khususnya untuk merehabilitasi tanaman tua dan tanaman kurang produktif. Selain itu, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan pengembangan industri hilir juga telah banyak tersedia antara lain teknologi fermentasi, teknologi pengolahan limbah, dan teknologi diversifikasi produk. Agar usahatani kakao dapat berkembang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan, ke depan diperlukan upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan pengembangan penanganan hasil dan produk kakao di Indonesia. Improvement and Development Production of Cocoa in IndonesiaABTRACT Indonesia is known as important exporting country of the worlds cocoa beans. In 2010 Indonesia is the third largest world exporter of cocoa beans with production estimated 550,000 tons of dry beans. From1,651,596 ha in Indonesia, approximately 1,555,539 ha or 94% is managed by smallholders. This indicates an important role of cocoa both as a source of employment and income for farmers. In addition, the acreage and production of cocoa Indonesia increased rapidly in the last decade, a rate of 5,99% per year. Cocoa crop is non-oil export commodity which is very important in the estate sub-sector. Aside from being a source of state divisa, cocoa trees in Indonesia is a source of income and employment to estate farmers. Along with the vast development of new cocoa areas in Indonesia, the recent production and productivity of cocoa in Indonesia continues to a significant decline. In addition to a smaller level of productivity compared to the clone or plant material potency, the quality aspect also decreased. The decline in the quality and yield are influenced by many factors, among others, the attacks of infectious diseases and pests such as cocoa fruit borer Conophomorpha cramerella, plant materials, post harvest and farming systems. Technology available to support increased production and development of cocoa among other superior cacao plant materials, information, suitability of land for cocoa, the technology of plant propagation materials, technology major pest and disease control, side-grafting technology and continued shoots, processing technology and technological development of the cocoa industry. Superior cocoa plant material plays a very important role in cocoa farms in Indonesia. At present it has produced some excellent cocoa clones with productivity above 2 tons/ha/yr, some of which also have properties resistant to pests and major diseases of cocoa. To control pests and diseases have now implemented an integrated control model that involves components of superior planting materials that are resistant to pests and diseases, cultivation technology, and the criteria for suitable land for cocoa plants. Productivity and quality of cocoa is largely determined by the quality of planting material. One effort to improve cocoa productivity and quality results can be done with the clonalisasion technique by side-grafting. Side-grafting technique has been shown to improve cocoa productivity and quality of the people. Side-grafting technology has adopted by farmers to rehabilitate crop planters, especially older and less productive plants. Besides processing technology and the development of downstream industries have also been widely available among other  fermentation technology, processing technology and waste  product diversification technology. In order cocoa farming can be developed in the future, the next necessary efforts is to improve product development and processing of cocoa.

Pengaruh Komposisi Media terhadap Pembentukan Kalus Embriogenesis Somatik Kopi Arabika ( Coffea arabica )

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 3, No 1 (2012): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah Dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Induksi embrio somatik pada kopi arabika (Coffea arabica) dengan menggunakan beberapa zat pengatur tumbuh (ZPT) telah berhasil dilakukan. Pengaruh komposisi media terutama kombinasi antara jenis ZPT yang berbeda dan tanggap genotipe tanaman dilaporkan sangat bervariasi. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengkaji pengaruh pemberian 2,4-D dan kinetin dalam proses pembentukan dan pertumbuhan kalus embriogenik asal daun. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan (Puslitbangbun) Agustus 2011 sampai Januari 2012. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun dari kopi arabika varietas Sigarar Utang yang merupakan tanaman koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar (Balittri). Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 5 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan terdiri dari 5 eksplan. Peubah yang diamati, meliputi persentasi kalus yang terbentuk, morfologi kalus, berat basah kalus, dan jumlah globular. Hasil menunjukkan semua perlakuan dapat membentuk kalus, pertambahan berat eksplan tertinggi diperoleh pada media kombinasi 2,4-D 1 mg/l atau 2 mg/l dan kinetin 1 sampai 4 mg/l. Embrio somatik terbanyak diperoleh pada media yang diberi 2,4-D 0,5 mg/l dan kinetin 1 mg/l. Selain kalus, massa proembrio dan embrio, juga terbentuk akar adventif yang jumlahnya tidak nyata antar perlakuan.  The Effect of Composition Media to Callus Formation of Somaticembryogenesis of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica)ABSTRACT Induction of somatic embryos with plant growth regulators (PGR) has successfully performed in arabica coffee. However, the influence of media composition combined with different PGR, explants and genotype of plants is widely various in response yields. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2,4-D and kinetine in process of formation and growth of embryogenic callus developed from leaves of arabica coffee. The studiy was carried out at a laboratory of Indonesian Research Center for Estate Crops (Puslitbangbun) from August 2011 to January 2012. Plant materials used are coffee leaves var. Sigarar Utang taken from a germplasm collection of the crop grown at Pakuwon Research Station, Indonesian Research Institute for Industry Crops (Balittri) located at Sukabumi, West Java. A completely randomized design with 5 replications and plot size of five explants was used. Parameters observed are percentage of callus formation, morphology of the callus, fresh weight of callus, and number of globular. Results show that all treatments examined are able to form callus. The highest increase in weight of explants was obtained from the media treated with 2,4-D (conc. of 1mg/l or 2 mg/l) and kinetin (conc. of 1 to 4 mg/l). While, the most number of somatic embryo formed was obtained from those of treated with 2,4-D 0.5 mg/l and kinetin 1 mg/l. In addition to callus formation, proembryo mass, embryo and adventive roots were also formed in spite of not significant between different the treatments.

Konstruksi Pustaka Genom Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) untuk Sekuensing Genom Total Menggunakan Next Generation Sequencing HiSeq2000

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 3, No 2 (2012): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah Dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Pemuliaan kakao secara konvensional memerlukan waktu panjang (10-15 tahun). Pemanfaatan marka DNA akan memperpendek siklus pemuliaan kakao. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkonstruksi pustaka genom tiga genotipe kakao yang dapat digunakan untuk sekuensing genom total kakao menggunakan NGS HiSeq2000 dan mendapatkan data resekuen genom total tiga genotipe kakao.  Bahan tanaman terdiri dari tiga klon unggul kakao (ICCR02, ICCR04, dan SUL02) diperoleh dari Balittri, Pakuwon.  DNA genomik diisolasi dari daun muda sebagai bahan konstruksi pustaka genom total. Sekuensing pustaka dilakukan pada mesin HiSeq2000 mengikuti protokol dari Illumina. Pustaka genom yang telah berhasil dikonstruksi berukuran 300 pasang basa (bp) masing-masing dengan konsentrasi 14,70 ng/µL (ICCR02), 15,20 ng/µL (ICCR04), dan 12,90 ng/µL (SUL02). Ukuran dan konsentrasi pustaka genom yang dihasilkan sangat ideal untuk sekuensing menggunakan HiSeq2000. Sekuensing ketiga genom menghasilkan data sekuen 52,9 x 109 bp.  Klaster DNA pustaka genom memiliki nilai Q scores>30 (75,0%) dengan tingkat kesalahan pembacaan basa rendah (1,47%).  Nilai densitas klaster, persen klaster PF, intensitas basa, persen phasing, dan persen prephasing menunjukkan kualitas klaster pustaka genom ketiga genotipe kakao termasuk kategori pustaka ideal. Data sekuen yang dihasilkan juga sangat ideal untuk identifikasi marka SNP genom kakao. Koleksi marka SNP digunakan untuk identifikasi gen pengendali karakter penting kakao dan pemuliaan berbasis marka DNA untuk memperpendek siklus pemuliaan kakao. Genomic Library Construction Of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) For Whole Genome Sequensing Using A Next Generation Sequencer Hiseq2000Conventional cocoa breeding is slow and takes about 10-15 years to complete a breeding cycle. Applying genomic technology using DNA markers will significantly decrease cocoa breeding cycle. The objectives of this study were to construct cocoa whole genome genomic libraries to be used for resequencing the whole genome of cocoa and obtain whole genome resequence data of three cocoa genotypes. Three Indonesian cocoa genotypes (ICCR02, ICRR04, and SUL02) were used. DNA genomic was isolated from young leaf and used to construct genomic DNA libraries and generate DNA clusters. DNA clusters were sequenced using a HiSeq2000 platform. The whole genome libraries of the cocoa genotypes were successfully constructed. The library size was 300 bp with concentrations of 14.70 ng/µL (ICCR02), 15.20 ng/µL (ICCR04), and 12.90 ng/µL (SUL02), respectively. The genomic library size and concentrations are suitable for sequencing study using the NGS HiSeq2000. Total sequencing output obtained was 52.9 x 109 bp. The genomic library clusters resulted during the sequencing process demonstrated the Q scores > 30 of 75.0% with low error sequencing rate of 1.47%. Cluster densities, percentage of cluster PF, base intensity, and percentage of phasing and prephasing indicated the cluster quality of the genomic libraries is classified as an ideal one to be used for resequencing study using NGS HiSeq2000. The resequence data were ideal for SNP marker discovery. SNP markers are used to identify economically important genes of cocoa and marker-aided cocoa breeding to decrase the cocoa breeding cycle.

DINAMIKA POPULASI KUTU TEMPURUNG (Coccus viridis) DAN KUTUDAUN (Aphis gossypii) PADA TIGA VARIETAS KOPI ARABIKA (Coffea Arabica)

853-8212
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

ABSTRAKSalah satu kendala dalam pembibitan kopi arabika di rumah kaca adalahadanya serangan hama kutu tempurung (Coccus viridis) dan kutudaun(Aphis gossypii) yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan dan perkembangantanaman. Persaingan dalam memanfaatkan unsur hara dan nutrisi yangberada pada jaringan tanaman kopi dapat menyebabkan tanaman yangterserang menjadi lebih parah bahkan tidak jarang menyebabkan kematiantanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dinamika populasikutu tempurung dan kutudaun pada benih kopi arabika varietas SigararUtang, Kartika, dan S795. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca PusatPenelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan (Puslitbangbun), sejak bulanAgustus 2011 sampai Januari 2012. Jumlah benih kopi arabika yangdiamati sebanyak 200 benih yang terdiri dari varietas S795, Sigarar utang,dan Kartika. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali sebanyaksepuluh kali pengamatan dengan menghitung populasi serangan hama danmembandingkan frekuensi populasi (perkembangan) kutu tempurung (C.viridis) dan kutudaun (A. gossypii) dengan metode regresi dan uji t. Darihasil pengamatan, ditemukan 2 jenis populasi hama yaitu populasi kututempurung (C. viridis) dan kutudaun (A. gossypii) yang menyerang benihkopi arabika di pembibitan dengan tingkat populasi kutu tempurung (C.viridis) lebih banyak dijumpai dibandingkan dengan populasi kutudaun (A.gossypii) yaitu sebanyak 81,23%. Pada kopi arabika varietas Kartikapaling banyak ditemukan populasi kutu tempurung (C. viridis) dan kutudaun (A. gossypii) dibandingkan dengan varietas Sigarar Utang dan S795.Kopi arabika varietas Kartika memiliki percabangan yang agak lentur danmemiliki ruas yang pendek sehingga kutu tempurung (C.viridis) dankutudaun (A. gossypii) lebih senang berinang pada varietas Kartikadibandingkan varietas Sigarar Utang dan S795, karena lebih mudah untukmemperoleh makanannya dengan mengisap cairan yang ada padapercabangannya. Perkembangan populasi C. viridis membentuk garis lurusselama 5 bulan dengan nilai r masing-masing 0,98 pada varietas SigararUtang; 0,98 pada varietas Kartika; dan 0,99 pada varietas S795.Perkembangan populasi A. gossypii membentuk dua buah garis yangbertemu di satu titik dan sebuah garis lurus dengan nilai r masing-masing0,99 pada Sigarar Utang; 0,98 pada varietas Kartika; dan 0,99 padavarietas S795.Kata kunci: Kopi arabika, dinamika populasi, Aphis gossypii, CoccusviridisABSTRACTOne of the main constraints on the growth of coffee seedlings in thegreenhouse is pests lice green scales (Coccus viridis) and Aphids (Aphidsgossypii) that can inhibit the growth of plants. Competition in utilizingnutrients can cause the attacked plants to become more severe, even someplants to be dead. This study aims to determine the population dynamics ofC. viridis and A. gossypii on arabica coffee seedlings of Sigarar Utang,Kartika, and S795 varieties. The study was conducted in the greenhouse ofIndonesian Center For Estate Crops Research and Development, fromAugust 2011 to January 2012. 200 seedlings of arabica coffee consisting ofS795, Sigarar Utang, and Kartika varieties were planted in polythene bagsin the greenhouse. Observations were made every two weeks for ten timesthe observations by calculating the pest populations and comparepopulation growth of C. viridis and A. gossypii by regression method and ttest. It was found that mite green scale (C. viridis) population were moredominant than the aphids (A. gossypii) population, with a total populationof green scales (C. viridis) as much as 81.23%. Green scales (C. viridis)and aphids (A. gossypii) were found more abundant in the Kartikaseedlings compared to Sigarar Utang and S795 varieties. It is easier for thepests to obtain their food by sucking the liquid inside in the branches. Thegrowth population of C. viridis forming a straight line for 5 months with rvalues respectively, Sigarar Utang is 0,98; Kartika is 0,98; and S795 is0,97. Growth population of A. gossypii forming straight lines with thevalue of r : Sigarar Utang is 0,99; Kartika is 0,98; and S795 is 0,99.Key words: Coffea arabica, population dynamics, Aphis gossypii, Coccusviridis

Keefektifan Paket Teknologi Pengendalian Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK) di Provinsi Bali

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 4, No 1 (2013): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Hama penggerek buah kakao (PBK) (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.) merupakan hama utama yang menyerang hampir seluruhperkebunan kakao di Indonesia, termasuk Bali. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan paket teknologi yang efektif untukmengendalikan PBK. Penelitian dilakukan pada areal kakao di kelompok Subak Abian Puncaksari, Kabupaten Tabanan, Provinsi Balidari tahun 2006 sampai 2009. Paket teknologi pengendalian PBK yang diuji ialah: P0 (teknologi petani), P1 (panen sering +penyarungan buah muda + pemangkasan), P2 (panen sering + pemangkasan + Beauveria bassiana), dan P3 (panen sering +pemangkasan + penyarungan buah muda + Beauveria basiana) dengan 5 ulangan. Setiap paket diintroduksikan kepada masing-masing 5petani pada lahan 0,5 ha. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa paket teknologi P1 dan P3 merupakan paket teknologi pengendalianPBK yang efektif menurunkan tingkat dan intensitas serangan PBK dan menekan kehilangan hasil sampai 0%.Kata Kunci: Kakao, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.), pengendalianThe cocoa pod borer (CPB) caused by Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.) is one of major pests having attacked almost all cocoa plantations inIndonesian, including Bali. The aim of this research was to find out of CPB control technology in Tabanan Regency, the province of Bali. The studywas conducted at the group of Subak Abian Puncaksari, province of Bali during 2006 until 2009. The CPB control technology packages tested are P0(farmer’s technologies), P1 (frequent harvesting + pods sleeving + pruning), P2 (frequent harvesting + pruning + Beauveria bassiana), P3 (frequentharvesting + pruning + pods sleeving + B. bassiana. Each package was applied to cocoa plantations of 5 farmers having of 0.5 ha each. The resultsindicated that P1 and P3 packages can reduce the rate and intensity of CPB attack and reduce losses 0 percent.

Pengaruh Fermentasi terhadap Citarasa Kopi Luwak Probiotik

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Semakin tingginya permintaan akan kopi luwak, menyebabkan produksinya tidak bisa hanya mengharapkan dari hewan luwak liar maupun luwak budidaya. Salah satu alternatif adalah dengan penggunaan mikroba probiotik yang hidup pada saluran pencernaan hewan luwak yang dapat menghasilkan kopi terfermentasi dengan citarasa dan aroma yang khas. Penelitian produksi kopi luwak probiotik Robusta secara mikrobiologis untuk mendapatkan kualitas citarasa terbaik telah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Provinsi Bali dari bulan Maret hingga Desember 2012. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan teknik periode fermentasi probiotik yang tepat dalam menghasilkan kualitas citarasa dan aroma kopi Robusta yang mendekati kualitas kopi luwak Robusta asli. Fermentasi dilakukan dalam 2 tahap, yaitu (1) fermentasi dilakukan dengan mikroba probiotik yang diisolasi dari intestum tenue (usus halus) luwak dan (2) fermentasi dilakukan dengan mikroba probiotik yang diisolasi dari caecum (usus buntu) luwak. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah P1=fermentasi tahap I selama 4 hari dan tahap II selama 4 hari, P2=fermentasi tahap I selama 5 hari dan tahap II selama 5 hari, P3=fermentasi tahap I selama 6 hari dan tahap II selama 6 hari, P4=fermentasi tahap I selama 7 hari dan tahap II selama 7 hari, dan sebagai pembanding P5=biji kopi luwak Robusta asli dari pembudidaya luwak. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa produksi kopi luwak secara probiotik merupakan cara pembuatan kopi luwak yang jauh lebih praktis daripada produksi kopi luwak melalui budidaya luwak. Kopi luwak probiotik Robusta yang mempunyai citarasa terbaik diperoleh pada perlakuan P3 dengan total skor citarasa 79,92, dengan citarasa yang sedikit lebih baik dibandingkan kopi luwak Robusta asli. Kata Kunci: Kopi luwak, produksi, probiotik, RobustaThe higher demand for civet coffee, causing production can not only expect from wild civet and civet cultivation. One alternative is to use probiotic microbes that live in the civet digestive that can produce fermented coffee with flavor and distinctive aroma. Research on the production of Robusta probiotic civet coffee microbiological to get the best flavor quality has been carried out in the laboratory of BPTP in Bali Province from March to December 2012. The objective of this research was to determine the appropriate probiotic fermentation period to produce flavor and aroma quality of Robusta coffee which are approaching the quality of the original Robusta civet coffee. Fermentation is done in 2 phases: the first phase, the fermentation is done with probiotic microbes isolated from intestum tenue of cive; and second phase, the fermentation is done with probiotic microbes isolated from the caecum of civet treatments examined are P1 = first phase fermentation for 4 days and second phase for 4 days; P2 = first phase fermentation for 5 days and second phase for 5 days; P3 = first phase fermentation for 6 days and second phase for 6 days; P4 = first phase fermentation for 7 days and second phase for 7 days, and as a comparison P5 = original Robusta civet coffee. The results found that civet coffee production in probiotic is a way of making a much more practical than production of civet coffee cultivation. The best flavor of Robusta probiotic civet coffee is obtained in P3 treatment with a total score of cupping test is 79,92, has a slightly better flavor than original Robusta civet coffee. 

Peningkatan Produksi dan Pengembangan Kakao ( Theobroma cacao L. ) di Indonesia

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 3, No 1 (2012): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah Dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Indonesia dikenal sebagai negara pengekspor biji kakao terpenting di dunia. Tahun 2010 Indonesia menduduki posisi sebagai pengekspor biji kakao terbesar ketiga dunia dengan produksi biji kering 550.000 ton. Pada tahun tersebut dari luas 1.651.539 ha areal kakao, sekitar 1.555.596 ha atau 94% adalah kakao rakyat. Hal ini mengindikasikan peran penting kakao baik sebagai sumber lapangan kerja maupun pendapatan bagi petani. Di samping itu, areal dan produksi kakao Indonesia meningkat pesat pada dekade terakhir, dengan laju 5,99% per tahun. Namun demikian, seiring dengan semakin luasnya daerah pengembangan kakao, akhir-akhir ini produksi dan produktivitas kakao di Indonesia terus mengalami penurunan yang sangat berarti. Selain tingkat produktivitas yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan potensi klon atau bahan tanam yang ada, aspek mutu juga mengalami penurunan. Menurunnya mutu dan daya hasil tersebut dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor antara lain serangan organisme pengganggu tanaman seperti infeksi penyakit dan serangan hama penggerek buah kakao (PBK), bahan tanam kakao yang diusahakan, penanganan pasca panen, dan sistem usahatani. Teknologi yang tersedia untuk mendukung peningkatan produksi dan pengembangan kakao antara lain bahan tanaman unggul, informasi kesesuaian lahan, teknologi perbanyakan bahan tanaman, teknologi pengendalian hama dan penyakit utama, teknologi sambung samping dan sambung pucuk, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan teknologi pengembangan industri kakao. Bahan tanaman unggul memegang peranan yang sangat penting dalam usahatani kakao di Indonesia. Saat ini telah dihasilkan beberapa  klon unggul kakao dengan produktivitas di atas 2 ton/ha/th, beberapa di antaranya juga mempunyai sifat tahan terhadap hama dan penyakit utama kakao. Pengendalian hama dan penyakit tersebut, saat ini telah diimplementasikan model pengendalian secara terpadu yang melibatkan komponen bahan tanam unggul resisten terhadap hama dan penyakit, teknologi budidaya serta kriteria lahan yang sesuai untuk tanaman kakao. Produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao sangat ditentukan oleh kualitas bahan tanam. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu hasil kakao dapat dilakukan dengan teknik klonalisasi dengan cara sambung samping. Teknik sambung samping telah terbukti mampu memperbaiki produktivitas dan mutu kakao rakyat. Teknologi sambung samping telah diadopsi oleh para petani pekebun khususnya untuk merehabilitasi tanaman tua dan tanaman kurang produktif. Selain itu, teknologi pengolahan hasil dan pengembangan industri hilir juga telah banyak tersedia antara lain teknologi fermentasi, teknologi pengolahan limbah, dan teknologi diversifikasi produk. Agar usahatani kakao dapat berkembang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan, ke depan diperlukan upaya untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan pengembangan penanganan hasil dan produk kakao di Indonesia. Improvement and Development Production of Cocoa in IndonesiaABTRACT Indonesia is known as important exporting country of the worlds cocoa beans. In 2010 Indonesia is the third largest world exporter of cocoa beans with production estimated 550,000 tons of dry beans. From1,651,596 ha in Indonesia, approximately 1,555,539 ha or 94% is managed by smallholders. This indicates an important role of cocoa both as a source of employment and income for farmers. In addition, the acreage and production of cocoa Indonesia increased rapidly in the last decade, a rate of 5,99% per year. Cocoa crop is non-oil export commodity which is very important in the estate sub-sector. Aside from being a source of state divisa, cocoa trees in Indonesia is a source of income and employment to estate farmers. Along with the vast development of new cocoa areas in Indonesia, the recent production and productivity of cocoa in Indonesia continues to a significant decline. In addition to a smaller level of productivity compared to the clone or plant material potency, the quality aspect also decreased. The decline in the quality and yield are influenced by many factors, among others, the attacks of infectious diseases and pests such as cocoa fruit borer Conophomorpha cramerella, plant materials, post harvest and farming systems. Technology available to support increased production and development of cocoa among other superior cacao plant materials, information, suitability of land for cocoa, the technology of plant propagation materials, technology major pest and disease control, side-grafting technology and continued shoots, processing technology and technological development of the cocoa industry. Superior cocoa plant material plays a very important role in cocoa farms in Indonesia. At present it has produced some excellent cocoa clones with productivity above 2 tons/ha/yr, some of which also have properties resistant to pests and major diseases of cocoa. To control pests and diseases have now implemented an integrated control model that involves components of superior planting materials that are resistant to pests and diseases, cultivation technology, and the criteria for suitable land for cocoa plants. Productivity and quality of cocoa is largely determined by the quality of planting material. One effort to improve cocoa productivity and quality results can be done with the clonalisasion technique by side-grafting. Side-grafting technique has been shown to improve cocoa productivity and quality of the people. Side-grafting technology has adopted by farmers to rehabilitate crop planters, especially older and less productive plants. Besides processing technology and the development of downstream industries have also been widely available among other  fermentation technology, processing technology and waste  product diversification technology. In order cocoa farming can be developed in the future, the next necessary efforts is to improve product development and processing of cocoa.

Induksi Kalus Embriogenik dan Daya Regenerasi Kopi Arabika Menggunakan 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine

Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Vol 4, No 2 (2013): Buletin Riset Tanaman Rempah dan Aneka Tanaman Industri
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

Embriogenesis somatik kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) masih mengalami kendala dalam meregenerasikan planlet dari eksplan yang dikulturkan. Kemampuan eksplan daun membentuk embrio dalam proses embriogenesis somatik kopi sangat dipengaruhi oleh komposisi media dan zat pengatur tumbuh. Penelitian bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine dalam proses pembentukan kalus embriogenik dan daya regenerasi kopi Arabika. Penelitian dilakukan di Unit Pengembangan Benih Unggul Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian pada bulan Juli 2011 sampai Desember 2012. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah daun kopi Arabika varietas S795 koleksi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar. Rancangan perlakuan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 6 ulangan, masing-masing ulangan terdiri dari 5 eksplan. Induksi kalus menggunakan 5 kombinasi perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; dan kontrol (tanpa penambahan 2,4-D dan BA). Peubah yang diamati meliputi jumlah kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, berat basah kalus, dan jumlah proembrio. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; dan 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l dapat membentuk kalus kecuali perlakuan kontrol. Berat kalus, persentasi kalus embriogenik, dan jumlah proembrio tertinggi diperoleh pada media kombinasi 2,4-D 2 mg/l dan BA 1 mg/l. Kalus yang mampu beregenerasi berasal dari media kombinasi 2,4-D 1 mg/l dan BA 2 mg/l dengan persentasi 16,67% dengan 6 kecambah per 0,2 gram kalus.Kata Kunci: Coffea arabica, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid, 6-Benzyladenine, embriogenesis somatikRegeneration of planlets from cultured explants has been an obstacle in somatic embryogenesis of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.). The ability of leaf explants to generate embryos in somatic embryogenesis process of coffee was affected by composition of media and plant growth regulators. The objectives of the research was to examine the effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid dan 6-Benzyladenine in the process of embryogenic callus and regeneration potential of arabica coffee. The study was conducted at Agricultural Superior Seed Development Unit, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD) from July 2011 to December 2012. Plant material used was leaves of S795 variety which is collected by Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design with 6 replications, each replication consist of 5 explants. Callus induction used 5 treatments, i.e. 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 0 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; 2,4-D 1 mg/l + BA 2 mg/l; 2,4-D 2 mg/l + BA 1 mg/l; and control (without 2,4-D and BA). Variables observed were number of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, callus fresh weight and number of proembryo. Result showed that all treatments can produce the callus except control. Combination of 2,4-D 2 mg/l and BA 1 mg/l gave the highest of fresh weight of callus, percentage of embryogenic callus, and number of proembryo. Regenerating callus of 16.67% with the number of sprouts of 6 per 0.2 gram only derived from combination of 2,4-D 1 mg/l BA and 2 mg/l.