Imron Riyadi
Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, Bogor

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EX VITRO ROOTING OF OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) PLANTLETS DERIVED FROM TISSUE CULTURE Sumaryono, Sumaryono; Riyadi, Imron
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 12, No 2 (2011): October 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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Abstract

Plantlets of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) derived from so-matic embryos sometimes do not form well developed-roots. Root formation of unrooted-plantlets can be induced with aux-in during ex vitro acclimatization period to simplify the proce-dure and to reduce seedling production cost. Experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design to determine the effect of different types of auxin, i.e. indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA) at different concentrations, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mM on root development of oil palm plantlets. The plantlets used were derived from somatic embryos of MK 649 oil palm clone. The basal end of the shoots was dipped in auxin solution for 10 minutes before the shoot was cultured in a small plastic pot containing a mixed growing medium. The cultures were then placed inside a closed transparent plastic tunnel (240 cm x 100 cm x 95 cm) for 12 weeks. The results showed that without auxin treatment only 15% of the shoots formed roots. Dipping in auxin solution increased significantly root frequen-cy to more than 50%. The best root formation was found on the shoots treated with 2 mM NAA by which rooting frequency was 80%. Auxin treatments also increased root quality as indi-cated by more number of primary and secondary roots. IAA, IBA, and NAA treatments at all concentrations tested increased significantly shoot height on average by 42% and shoot diame-ter by 30% compared to control treatment, but did not influ-ence root length. The best treatment for inducing roots of oil palm plantlets ex vitro was by dipping the basal end of the plant-lets in 2 mM NAA solution. The result showed that rooting of oil palm plantlets could be successfully conducted ex vitro that would eliminate sterile rooting stage thus simplify the protocol and reduce seedling production time and cost.
Pengaruh jumlah subkultur dan media sub-optimal terhadap pertumbuhan dan kemampuan regenerasi kalus tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Effect of repeated subculture and suboptimum media on the growth of sugarcane calli (Saccharum officinarum L.)) MINARSIH, Hayati; Suharyo, .; RIYADI, Imron; RATNADEWI, Diah
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 84, No 1: Oktober 2016
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (657.274 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v84i1.219

Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar production. One attempt to increase sugarcane productivity is through micropropagation and quality improvement of sugarcane seedlings in vitro. This research aimed to study the effect of repeated subcultures on callus capacity for regeneration and plant survival in acclimatization phase, as well as the influence of suboptimum media on the recovery capability of sugarcane callus to proliferate in vitro. Fourth subcultured sugarcane callus derived from young leaves were used as material in this research. Basic medium of Murashige and Skoog (MS) added with 3 mg/L 2,4-D, 10% coconut water, and 3% sucrose was used for callus initiation. For callus regeneration, the MS medium was supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP, 0.2 mg/L IAA, 10% coconut water, and 3% sucrose. Study on the effect of subculture numbers consisted of three stages, i.e. initiation, regeneration, and acclimatization, while the study on resting phase or the use of sub-optimal media included six treatment media and two pathways. Results showed that the fifth subcultures produced embryoid callus (91%), the highest non mucilaginous callus (97%), and the highest abnormality rate (6%). Results from the suboptimum media treatment, showed that B pathway (4 week resting phase) was better than the A pathway (8 week resting phase), based on fresh weight and callus abnormality percentage. A and B pathways indicated that the growth of callus can be recovered when it was grown back to the normal media and 1.5D-MS treatment of the resting phase showed the best growth and appearance. 
Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan kalus embriogenik dan embrio somatik kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pada sistem perendaman sesaat Growth and differentiation of embryogenic callus and somatic embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in a temporary immersion system SUMARYONO, .; RIYADI, Imron; KAS, Pauline D.; GINTING, Gale
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 75, No 1: Juni 2007
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (231.615 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v75i1.152

Abstract

SummaryIn temporary immersion system (TIS),plant materials are exposed to the medium fora short time, therefore they are more exposedto the air and a lack of oxygen frequentlyexperienced by a liquid culture can be avoided.This experiment was conducted to determinethe procedure for callus proliferation up tosomatic embryo germination of oil palm(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in TIS culture.Embryogenic calli of oil palm clone MK 638from Marihat Research Institute were culturedon solid medium in the dark culture room andthen used as materials for TIS. Immersion timefor all cultures was three minutes every sixhours. Callus proliferation was conducted inDF liquid culture with 5 mg/L 2,4-D and0.1 mg/L kinetin with transfer interval of 4, 6and 8 weeks. The treatments for somaticembryo maturation were kinetin and ABA,whereas for somatic embryo germination wasIBA, kinetin and GA 3 . The results show thatthe best transfer interval for callus proli-feration was four weeks. In this treatment therelative growth rate of callus was0.38 g/g/week. Somatic embryo initiation fromthe callus was done in DF mediumsupplemented with 1 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.1 mg/Lkinetin. The percentage of somatic embryowas 80% based on biomass fresh weight afterthe fourth subculture. The addition of 0.5 mg/Lkinetin and 0.05 mg/L ABA improved somaticembryo maturation of oil palm; the averagenumber of somatic embryos at advanced stages(torpedo and cotyledonary) was 16.3 embryosper flask. The addition of 2 mg/L IBA and0.5 mg/L kinetin in DF medium with half-strength macro-salt enhanced significantly thegermi-nation of somatic embryos. GA 3 at0.1 mg/L increased the total number ofgerminants.RingkasanPada sistem perendaman sesaat (SPS),bahan tanam hanya terpapar sebentar dalammedium sehingga paparan dengan udara lebihlama dan kekurangan oksigen yang seringterjadi pada kultur cair dapat diatasi. Penelitianini bertujuan menetapkan prosedur untukperbanyakan kalus embriogenik sampai denganperkecambahan embrio somatik kelapa sawit(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) dalam kultur SPS.Kalus embriogenik kelapa sawit klon MK 638yang diperoleh dari Balai Penelitian Marihatdiperbanyak pada medium padat di ruang gelapyang kemudian digunakan sebagai bahan untukkultur cair SPS. Lama perendaman semuakultur di SPS diatur tiga menit denganfrekuensi setiap enam jam. Perbanyakan kalusdalam medium cair DF dengan 2,4-D 5 mg/Ldan kinetin 0,1 mg/L dilaksanakan denganinterval subkultur 4, 6 dan 8 minggu.Perlakuan pematangan embrio somatik adalahkinetin dan ABA sedangkan perlakuan untukperkecambahan embrio somatik adalah IBA,kinetin dan GA 3 . Hasil penelitian menunjuk-kan bahwa untuk proliferasi kalus embriogenikkelapa sawit, interval subkultur terbaik adalahempat minggu. Pada perlakuan ini laju tumbuhrelatif kalus mencapai 0,38 g/g/minggu.Inisiasi embrio somatik dari kalus dilakukanpada medium DF ditambah 2,4-D 1 mg/L dankinetin 0,1 mg/L. Persentase embrio somatikmencapai 80% dari total bobot basah biomassasetelah subkultur keempat. Penambahan kinetin0,5 mg/L dan ABA 0,05 mg/L meningkatkanpematangan embrio somatik kelapa sawit; rata-rata jumlah embrio somatik fase lanjut (torpedodan kotiledon) adalah 16,3 embrio per bejana.Penambahan IBA 2 mg/L dan kinetin 0,5 mg/Lpada medium DF dengan setengah garammakro meningkatkan perkecambahan embriosomatik secara nyata. GA 3 0,1 mg/L mening-katkan jumlah kecambah yang terbentuk.
Pengaruh periode perendaman air dan komposisi media tumbuh terhadap keberhasilan aklimatisasi planlet sagu (Effect of water immersion period and growing media composition on acclimatization success of sago palm plantlets ) SUMARYONO, .; RIYADI, Imron
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 85, No 2 (2017): Oktober 2017
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1553.389 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v85i2.242

Abstract

Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) is a carbohydrate-producing crop, commonly propagated by suckers.  The availability of planting materials in a large quantity hinders the development of commercial sago plantations.  Sago propagation by tissue culture via somatic embryogenesis has been developed to provide superior planting materials of sago palm.  One of the major problems faced in tissue culture of sago palm is the low survival rate of plantlets during acclimatization period. The objective of this research was to increase the acclimatization success of sago plantlets in term of survival rate and growth at ex vitro conditions.  The experiments were conducted using a randomized block design with two factors i.e. water immersion period and growing media composition.  The water immersion periods used were without immersion, immersion for 2 days with 1 day intermittent period, immersion for 1 day with 1 day intermittent period, immersion for 1 day with 2 days intermittent period, and continuous immersion.  The growing media used were consisted of top soil, sand, dung manure, and cocopeat at different compositions.  Sago plantlets were planted on small plastic pots and placed inside a closed plastic tunnel for 12 weeks.  Research results showed that continuous water immersion and mixed composition of soil, sand, and cocopeat (1:1:2 v/v) was the best conditions for acclimatization of sago plantlets with the survival rate of 70% after 12 weeks.  The survived plants had good leaves and roots, ready to be transferred to big plastic bags in the main nursery. [Keywords: Metroxylon sagu, sago palm, acclimatization, immersion, media composition]  AbstrakTanaman palma sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) termasuk tanaman penghasil karbohidrat yang umumnya diperbanyak dengan anakan (suckers).  Ketersediaan bahan tanam dalam jumlah besar merupakan hambatan pengembangan perkebunan sagu komersial.  Kultur jaringan tanaman sagu telah dikembangkan melalui teknik embriogenesis somatik untuk memenuhi kebutuhan bahan tanam unggul sagu.  Salah satu masalah utama dalam kultur jaringan sagu adalah rendahnya daya hidup planlet pada tahap aklimatisasi.  Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan keberhasilan aklimatisasi planlet sagu yang meliputi daya hidup dan pertumbuhan bibit pada lingkungan ex vitro.  Percobaan dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan dua faktor yaitu perendaman air dan komposisi media. Perlakuan perendaman air adalah tanpa perendaman, perendaman 2 hari diselang tanpa perendaman 1 hari, perendaman 1 hari diselang tanpa perendaman 1 hari, perendaman 1 hari diselang tanpa perendaman 2 hari, dan perendaman terus menerus.  Komposisi media tumbuh yang digunakan berupa perbandingan volume penyusun yaitu tanah, pasir, pupuk kandang dan cocopeat.  Planlet ditanam di pot kecil dan diletakkan di dalam sungkup plastik tertutup selama 12 minggu.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan perendaman terus menerus dan media tumbuh campuran tanah, pasir, cocopeat (1:1:2 v/v) merupakan kondisi terbaik pada aklimatisasi planlet sagu dengan daya hidup mencapai 70% setelah 12 minggu.  Bibit yang dihasilkan memiliki daun dan perakaran yang baik, siap untuk dipindahkan ke pot plastik besar di persemaian utama.[Kata kunci:  Metroxylon sagu, sagu, aklimatisasi, perendaman, komposisi media]
Identifikasi dan pencegahan kontaminasi pada kultur cair sistem perendaman sesaat Identification and prevention of contamination in liquid culture of temporary immersion system SINTA, Masna Maya; RIYADI, Imron; SUMARYONO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 82, No 2: Desember 2014
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (230.566 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v82i2.21

Abstract

AbstractLiquid culture is commonly used to scale up in vitro culture production as well as to optimize the developmental phase of plant in vitro culture. One of the liquid cultures that has been used widely is temporary immersion system (TIS). The main problem of liquid culture is contamination. The use of antibiotics sometimes controls the contaminants less effectively and hinders the growth of plant culture. The purpose of this research was to determine sources of contaminant on whole sequence of TIS to identify and to prevent the emergence of the contaminants. Sampling method was applied to each section and stage of TIS culture and the contaminants found were identified. The results revealed that compartment of TIS was the main source of contaminant (100%). Furthermore, from all components of TIS compartment, washer (a small ring seal connecting screen disc and basket) was the main source of TIS contaminant (41.2%). Four contaminants found were identified as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus firmus. Two times sterilization of washer in an autoclave at temperature of 121 oC and air pressure of 1 kg/cm2 for 20 minutes before and after being installed reduced the contamination level on TIS culture significantly.AbstrakKultur cair umumnya digunakan untuk meningkatkan skala produksi dan mengoptimalkan fase perkembangan kultur in vitro tanaman. Salah satu jenis kultur cair yang banyak digunakan adalah sistem perendaman sesaat (SPS). Masalah utama dalam kultur cair adalah kontaminasi. Penggunaan antibiotika terkadang kurang efektif dalam me-ngendalikan kontaminan dan menghambat pertumbuhan kultur tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui sumber kontaminan pada seluruh rangkaian kultur SPS serta mengidentifikasi dan mencegah munculnya kontaminan tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah  pengambilan contoh pada tiap bagian dan fase kultur SPS, serta kontaminan yang ditemukan kemudian diidentifikasi. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa kompartemen SPS merupakan sumber utama kontaminan (100%). Selanjutnya, dari seluruh komponen kompartemen SPS, washer (cincin penutup yang menghubungkan penyaring dan keranjang) di dalam rangkaian SPS merupakan sumber utama kontaminan (41,2%).  Empat  kontaminan yang ditemukan diidentifikasi sebagai Bacillus macerans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus sphaericus dan Bacillus firmus. Sterilisasi cincin penutup sebanyak  dua  kali  dalam  autoklaf pada suhu 121 oC dan tekanan udara 1 kg/cm2selama 20 menit sebelum dan sesudah dirangkai secara nyata menurunkan tingkat konta-minasi pada kultur SPS. 
Pertumbuhan biak kalus dan suspensi sel tanaman kina (Cinchona ledgeriana Moens) Growth of callus and cell suspension cultures of cinchona (Cinchona ledgeriana Moens) SUMARYONO, .; RIYADI, Imron
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 73, No 1: Juni 2005
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (819.279 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v73i1.158

Abstract

SummaryIn vitro technology of plants can be used topropagate plants and to produce secondarymetabolites with a short and continuousproduction cycle. Callus cultures of cinchona(Cinchona ledgeriana Moens) on solid media andcell cultures in liquid media have beenestablished. Callus could be easily initiated fromvarious explants of cinchona clone CB5, GA22and QRC312. The best callus initiation andproliferation were obtained on a Woody Plant(WP) solid medium supplemented with 15 µMpicloram,0.5 µM BAP and 1 µM phloroglucinol.In this medium the fresh weight of callusincreased by 12 to 14-fold within 5 to 6 weeks.Callus that constantly grew fast was selected as amaterial source for cell suspension cultures. InWP liquid medium with the same composition,the cells remained to grow fast where cell volumeafter sedimentation (CVS) increased by almost4-fold in two weeks. However, repeated sub-cultures decreased cell growth rate. The cellsuspension culture was then scaled-up in a 5-Lbioreactor. The culture medium was the same asin Erlenmeyer flasks. Cells in a bioreactor grewvery slowly, the cell biomass fresh weight andpacked cell volume (PCV) increased by 34% and50% respectively after 21 days of culture,although most of the cells remained viable.RingkasanTeknologi in vitro tanaman dapat digunakanuntuk memperbanyak tanaman dan memproduksisenyawa sekunder dengan siklus sangat singkatdan berkelanjutan. Biak kalus tanaman kina(Cinchona ledgeriana Moens) pada mediumpadat dan biak sel di medium cair telahdikembangkan. Kalus dengan mudah dapatdiinduksi dari berbagai jenis eksplan tanamankina klon CB5, GA22 dan QRC312. Inisiasi danproliferasi kalus terbaik diperoleh pada mediaWoody Plant (WP) padat dengan pikloram 15µM, BAP 0,5 µM dan floroglusinol 1 µM. Padamedium ini bobot basah kalus meningkat 12-14kali lipat dalam waktu 5-6 minggu. Kalus yangtetap tumbuh cepat dipilih sebagai sumber bahanuntuk biak suspensi sel. Dalam medium cair WPdengan komposisi yang sama, sel tetap tumbuhdengan pesat, volume sel setelah pengendapan(CVS) meningkat hampir empat kali lipat dalamwaktu dua minggu. Namun subkultur berulangmenurunkan laju pertumbuhan sel. Skala biaksuspensi sel kemudian diperbesar dalam bio-reaktor kapasitas 5 L. Medium kultur yangdigunakan sama dengan medium pada labuErlenmeyer. Pertumbuhan sel dalam bioreaktorsangat lambat, bobot basah sel dan packed cellvolume (PCV) hanya bertambah berturut-turutsebesar 34% dan 50% setelah 21 hari dalamkultur, walaupun sebagian besar sel tetap viabel.
Ekspresi dan kloning gen penyandi ADP-Glucose Phyrophosphorylase dari tanaman sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) Expression and cloning of gene encoding ADP-Glucose Phyrophosphorylase from sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) BUDIANI1, Asmini; PUTRANTO, Riza Arief; MINARSIH, Hayati; RIYADI, Imron; SUMARYONO, .; ABBAS, Barahima
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 83, No 2: Desember 2015
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (413.009 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v83i2.4

Abstract

AbstractSago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) is a potential food and energy resources becouse it is the highest starch producing plant.  Breeding of sago palm should be directed to produce elite genotype with superior characters such as high starch content, wider pith diameter, without spine and high starch quality. However, research on sago palm in Indonesia so far is limited espescially in the field of cultivation and breeding, and attempt to produce such elite would take long time. Availability of molecular marker for starch content would be beneficial to shorten the length period of breeding. ADP-Glucose Phyrophosphorylase is one of the important enzymes in starch biosynthesis. Therefore its gene is an interesting subject in order to develope molecular marker of high starch content.  This research was aimed to study the expression of gene encoding AGP in the sago palm with high starch content versus low starch content, and to clone the full cds of the gene. RNA was isolated from leaf and pith of both palms. Exspression analysis and amplify-cation of full cds were conducted by Reverse Transcryptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The results showed that sago palm with higher starch content expressed AGP higher than that of sago palm with lower  starch content. Expression of AGP in the full developing leaf was higher than in the young leaf, and there was no expression detected in the pith. The full cds of AGP was successfully amplified and cloned. Even though the DNA sequence showed high homology with DNA sequence of the same gene that has been deposited in GenBank, there were differences in severall nucleotide including that in the active domain of the enzyme.AbstrakTanaman sagu merupakan sumber pangan dan energi yang sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan karena merupakan tanaman penghasil karbihidrat tertinggi. Pemuliaan tanaman sagu mestinya diarah-kan untuk menghasilkan bibit sagu yang selain memiliki rendemen pati tinggi, juga memiliki diameter empulur besar, tidak berduri dan memiliki cita rasa pati yang enak. Namun, sampai saat ini riset mengenai sagu di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas, sehingga pemuliaan sagu untuk menghasilkan bibit unggul demikian akan memerlukan waktu lama. Ketersediaan penanda rendemen pati akan sangat membantu mempercepat pemuliaan tanaman tersebut. ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase adalah salah satu enzim yang berperan penting dalam biosintesis pati, sehingga gene penyandinya merupakan subjek yang menarik dalam pengembangan marka kandungan pati tinggi.  Sebagai bagian dari upaya untuk mendapat-kan penanda rendemen pati tinggi pada tanaman sagu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari ekspresi gen penyandi AGP. RNA diisolasi dari daun tanaman sagu rendemen pati rendah dan tanaman sagu rendemen pati tinggi. Perbedaan tingkat ekspresi gen penyandi AGP dari tanaman sagu rendemen pati tinggi vs rendemen pati rendah, dianalisis dengan teknik Reverse-Transcryptase PCR menggunakan primer spesifik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman sagu rendemen pati tinggi mengekspresikan AGP lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanaman sagu rendemen pati rendah. Ekspresi gen tersebut pada daun tua (full developing leaf) lebih tinggi di-bandingkan dengan pada daun muda, dan pada empulur tidak dideteksi ekspresi gen tersebut. Daerah penyandi lengkap AGP subunit kecil telah diklon. Meskipun memiliki homologi yang tinggi dengan sekuen DNA gen yang sama yang telah dideposit pada  GenBank,  namun terdapat perbedaan beberapa nukleotida termasuk pada daerah domain aktif dari enzim tersebut. 
Direct somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in tea by temporary liquid immersion Embriogenesis somatik langsung dan regenerasi tanaman teh melalui perendaman sesaat TAHARDI, J S; RAISAWATI, Tatik; RIYADI, Imron; DODD, W A
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 68, No 1: Juni 2000
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (102.117 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v68i1.133

Abstract

Ringkasan Perbanyakan tanaman teh [Camellia sinen­sis (L.) O. Kuntze] melalui stek tunas berdaun tunggal hanya dapat menghasilkan klon unggul dalam jumlah terbatas. Oleh sebab itu diperlukan metode alternatif dengan teknik kultur sel dan jaringan untuk perbanyakan klonal secara cepat. Dalam penelitian ini dikembangkan metode yang lebih efektif untuk regenerasi tanaman teh melalui embriogenesis somatik langsung. Massa pro­embriogenik dari eksplan kotiledon dihasilkan dengan frekuensi 56,7% dalam media MS padat setengah konsentrasi yang mengandung BAP 2 mg1L. Proliferasi, perkembangan, pendewasaan dan perkecambahan embrio somatik diperoleh dengan sistem perendaman sesaat (SPS) yang menggunakan media MS cair setengah konsen­trasi, yang diperkaya dengan zat pengatur tumbuh dengan berbagai konsentrasi. Proliferasi embrio meningkat 4,3 kali dalam media yang diberi BAP 2 mglL; perkembangan dan pendewasaannya meningkat dengan penambahan kinetin dan ABA masing-masing pada konsentrasi 0,1 mg1L yang 30% diantaranya berkecambah dan membentuk planlet tanpa penambahan zat pengatur tumbuh. Protokol SPS tersebut merupakan sistem in vitro yang berpotensi bagi proliferasi dan perkembang­an embrio somatik tanaman teh yang cepat dan sinkron dari kultur kotiledon, serta regenerasinya menjadi planlet tanpa melalui fase kalus.Summary Tea propagation by single-leaf bud cuttings has limited applications for rapid dissemination of planting materials from new elite clones. An alternative method for rapid cloning by cell and tissue culture technique is necessary. In this study we have established an improved method for tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] plant regenera­tion via direct somatic embryogenesis. Clumps of proembryogenic masses were initiated at a fre­quency of 56.7% from cotyledonary slices cul­tured on a half-strength MS agar-gelled medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BAP. Proliferation, development, maturation and germination of so­matic embryos were achieved using the temporary immersion system (TIS) provided with half­strength MS liquid media supplemented with varying concentrations of growth regulators. Em­bryo proliferation increased by 4.3-fold in me­dium provided with 2 mg/L BAP; their develop­ment and maturation were enhanced by the presence of both kinetin and ABA at 0.1 mg/L each. Germination and plant recovery were achieved at a frequency of about 30% without the use of growth regulators. The TIS protocol des­cribed above represents an in vitro system poten­tial for rapid proliferation and synchronized development of tea somatic embryos from cotyledon cultures, and their regeneration into plantlets without an intervening callus phase.
Pembentukan akar in vitro planlet kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) dalam medium cair dengan penambahan auksin In vitro rooting of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets in a liquid medium supplemented with auxins RIYADI, Imron; SUMARYONO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 78, No 1: Juni 2010
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (257.736 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v78i1.76

Abstract

AbstractAuxin affects the growth and development of in vitro plantlets including root induction. An experiment was conducted to determine the combination and concentration of auxin for rooting of oil palm plantlets in liquid medium.Unrooted plantlets of oil palm MK 649 clone with height 6 – 7 cm and 2 – 3 leaves were used as material source. The plantlets were cultured in de Fossard liquid medium. The treatments used were combinations of NAA and IBA at 0, 5,10 and 20 μM. The results show that 10 μM NAA combined with 20 μM IBA gave the highest percentage of rooting of oil palm plantlets (73.3%) in 10 weeks. NAA and IBA concentration influenced significantly rooting percentageand root quality and there was a significant interaction between the two auxins. Root initiation response of oil palm plantlets to NAA was higher than to IBA. The best of oil palm root class which indicates root quality was obtained in a medium with 10 μM NAA + 20 μM IBA. The aerial parts of the plantlets grew well in term of shoot height, leaf number and shoot diameter especially in a medium with 10 μM NAA + 20 μM IBA. AbstrakAuksin berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan planlet in vitro, termasuk terhadap induksi akar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kombinasi dan konsentrasi auksin yang tepat dalam pembentukan akarplanlet kelapa sawit in vitro dalam medium cair. Bahan yang digunakan berupa planlet kelapa sawit klon MK 649 tanpa akar dengan tinggi 6 – 7 cm dan jumlah daun 2 – 3 helai. Planlet dikulturkan dalam medium de Fossard cair. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah kombinasi NAA dan IBA dengan konsentrasi 0, 5, 10 dan 20 μM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan NAA 10 μM dikombinasikan dengan IBA 20 μM menghasilkan persentase pembentukan akar planlet kelapa sawit tertinggi yaitu 73,3% dalam waktu 10 minggu. Konsentrasi NAA dan IBA secara nyata mempengaruhi persentase pembentukan dan kualitas akar serta terdapat interaksi yang nyata antara kedua perlakuan auksin. Respons induksi akar kelapa sawit terhadap NAA lebih tinggi daripada IBA. Kelas akar planlet kelapa sawit terbaik yang menunjukkan kualitas perakaran, juga diperoleh pada NAA 10 μM dan IBA 20 μM. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan organ bagian atas yang meliputi tinggi tunas, jumlah daun dan diameter tunas menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik terutama pada perlakuan NAA 10 μM + IBA 20 μM.
Pembentukan akar in vitro planlet kelapa sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) dalam medium cair dengan penambahan auksin In vitro rooting of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets in a liquid medium supplemented with auxins RIYADI, Imron; SUMARYONO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 78, No 1: Juni 2010
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (257.736 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v78i1.76

Abstract

AbstractAuxin affects the growth and development of in vitro plantlets including root induction. An experiment was conducted to determine the combination and concentration of auxin for rooting of oil palm plantlets in liquid medium.Unrooted plantlets of oil palm MK 649 clone with height 6 – 7 cm and 2 – 3 leaves were used as material source. The plantlets were cultured in de Fossard liquid medium. The treatments used were combinations of NAA and IBA at 0, 5,10 and 20 μM. The results show that 10 μM NAA combined with 20 μM IBA gave the highest percentage of rooting of oil palm plantlets (73.3%) in 10 weeks. NAA and IBA concentration influenced significantly rooting percentageand root quality and there was a significant interaction between the two auxins. Root initiation response of oil palm plantlets to NAA was higher than to IBA. The best of oil palm root class which indicates root quality was obtained in a medium with 10 μM NAA + 20 μM IBA. The aerial parts of the plantlets grew well in term of shoot height, leaf number and shoot diameter especially in a medium with 10 μM NAA + 20 μM IBA. AbstrakAuksin berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan planlet in vitro, termasuk terhadap induksi akar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kombinasi dan konsentrasi auksin yang tepat dalam pembentukan akarplanlet kelapa sawit in vitro dalam medium cair. Bahan yang digunakan berupa planlet kelapa sawit klon MK 649 tanpa akar dengan tinggi 6 – 7 cm dan jumlah daun 2 – 3 helai. Planlet dikulturkan dalam medium de Fossard cair. Perlakuan yang digunakan adalah kombinasi NAA dan IBA dengan konsentrasi 0, 5, 10 dan 20 μM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan NAA 10 μM dikombinasikan dengan IBA 20 μM menghasilkan persentase pembentukan akar planlet kelapa sawit tertinggi yaitu 73,3% dalam waktu 10 minggu. Konsentrasi NAA dan IBA secara nyata mempengaruhi persentase pembentukan dan kualitas akar serta terdapat interaksi yang nyata antara kedua perlakuan auksin. Respons induksi akar kelapa sawit terhadap NAA lebih tinggi daripada IBA. Kelas akar planlet kelapa sawit terbaik yang menunjukkan kualitas perakaran, juga diperoleh pada NAA 10 μM dan IBA 20 μM. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan organ bagian atas yang meliputi tinggi tunas, jumlah daun dan diameter tunas menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik terutama pada perlakuan NAA 10 μM + IBA 20 μM.