Ita Riniatsih
Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H., Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia. 50275

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Bioaktivitas Ekstrak dan Serbuk Lamun Enhalus acoroides dan Thalassia hemprichii pada Vibrio alginolyticus dan Vibrio harveyii

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 14, No 3 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Vibriosis merupakan penyakit bakterial yang menyerang udang antara lain disebabkan oleh Vibrio alginolyticus dan Vibrio harveyii.  Salah satu upaya perlindungan udang terhadap infeksi vibriosis adalah melalui reduksi jumlah bakteri vibrio di media budidaya dan saluran pencernaan udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan justifikasi pemanfaatan ekstrak dan serbuk simplisia lamun Enhalus acoroides dan Thalassia hemprichii sebagai agensia pengendali bakteri vibrio. Beberapa penelitian membuktikan  bahwa lamun mempunyai aktivitas antibakteri. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan pengujian  jenis lamun lain dan terhadap strain strain bakteri vibrio pathogenik pada udang. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental. Sampel E. acoroides dan T. hemprichii diekstraksi dengan air panas. Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan secara  in vitro menggunakan  agar disc diffusion method. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa ekstrak dan serbuk simplisia E. acoroides tidak menunjukan bioaktivitas terhadap V. alginolyticus dan V. harveyii. Ekstrak T. hemprichii menunjukan bioaktivitas terhadap V. alginolyticus dan V. harveyii. Sedangkan serbuk simplisia T. hemprichii menunjukan aktivitas antibakteri terhadap V. alginolyticus dan V. harveyii setelah 48 jam inkubasi Kata kunci : antibakteri, ektrak panas, serbuk, lamun, vibriosis Vibriosis is  a bacterial diseases in prawn which caused by  Vibrio including Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio harveyii. An effort to protect the prawn of vibrio infection is by  reducing the number of vibrio bacteria either in the culture media and/or in the gastrointestinal system of the cultured species. The research aimed to find justification for the use of seagrasess Enhalus acoroides and Thalassis hemprichii as vibrio bacteria control agensia. The research was conducted by experimental method. The initial phase of the study was testing the antibacterial activity in vitro using agar disc diffusion method. The result shows that neither extract nor simplicia of E. acoroides have an effect against the growth of V. alginolyticus and V. Extract of however, significantly shows bioactivity respond against those bacteria and its simplicia powder also showing a similar effect but after 48 hours of incubation. Key words : antibacterial, hot water extract, powder, seagrass, vibriosis

Pengaruh Aplikasi Probiotik Terhadap Laju Sintasan dan Pertumbuhan Tokolan Udang Vanamei (Litopeneus vannamei), Populasi Bakteri Vibrio, serta Kandungan Amoniak dan Bahan Organik Media Budidaya

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 3 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Peningkatan kadar amoniak dan bahan organik pada media budidaya udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei) merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan budidaya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian probiotik pengoksidasi amoniak dan bahan organik terhadap laju sintasan hidup dan pertumbuhan tokolan udang vaname, populasi bakteri vibrio serta kandungan amoniak dan bahan organic media budidaya. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode eksperimental laboratories dengan empat perlakuan yaitu perlakuan pemberian 1 ppm  probiotik A (Nitrosomonas eutorpha MPN-8.2, dan Nitrobacter winogradskyi MPN-2), pemberian 0,1 ppm probiotik B (Paracoccus pantotrophus SB 3056 1,5x109cfu/g dan Bacillus megaterium SB 3112 2,5x109cfu/g), pemberian campuran probiotik A dan probiotik B dengan dosis masing masing 1 ppm  dan 0,1 ppm  serta control (tanpa probiotik). Tiap perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Kandungan amoniak dan bahan organik dalam air diukur  pada hari ke 0, 15 dan 30. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian probiotik A, B dan campuran probiotik A dan B berpengaruh : meningkatkan sintasan hidup tokolan udang vanamei yaitu berturut-turut (96%+3,05), (96,66+2,08)%, dan (97,33+1,25)% sedangkan kontrol (90,66 +3,30)%. (2) menurunkan populasi bakteri pathogen Vibrio, serta (3)menurunkan kadar amoniak dan bahan organik.Kata kunci: Litopenaeus vannamei, probiotik, amoniak, total bahan organic, sintasan The enhancement of ammonia and total organic matter level in water medium of vannamei’s (Litopenaeus vannamei) grow out  is one of the major problem.The aims of this research is to find out the effect of survival rate and growth in  vaneme’s juveniles by probiotic addition  This research was done by experimental laboratory with four treatments i.e.  A = juveniles + 1 ppm (Nitrosomonas eutorpha MPN-8.2, and  Nitrobacter  winogradskyi MPN-2 ), B = juveniles + 0,1 ppm (Paracoccus pantotrophus SB 3056 1.5x109cfu/g and Bacillus megaterium SB 3112 2.5x109cfu/g), C = juveniles + 1 ppm (Nitrosomonas eutorpha and Nitrobacter  winogradskyi) + 0,1 ppm (Paracoccus pantotrophus and Bacillus megaterium) and K= juveniles without probiotic addition, respectively. These treatments were replicated in three times. The measurements was regularly done by considering the culture condition. The result shows that those probiotic treatments give the better survival rate i.e. A(96%+3.05), B=(96,66+2.08)%,  C=(97,33+1.25)%  when  caompared  to  the  controle (90.66+3.30)%.  Furthermore,  the pathogenic Vibrio population of probiotic treatments were low when compared to the control. The level of total ammonia and organic matter in control was higher than the probiotic treatments. Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, probiotics, ammonia, total organic matter

KAJIAN HUBUNGAN FOSFAT AIR DAN FOSFAT SEDIMEN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LAMUN Thalassia hemprichii DI PERAIRAN TELUK AWUR DAN PULAU PANJANG JEPARA

Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 2 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

Seagrass growth is limited by the supply of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate particulates that serve as energy for photosynthesis. The magnitude of the role of phosphate in the metabolism and growth of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii important to serve as a study to determine the relationship of nutrients to the growing rate of seagrass in Teluk Awur and Pulau Panjang Jepara. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of phosphate in the water and sediment in the waters of the Teluk Awur and Pulau Panjang and its relation to seagrass leaf growth rate of T. hemprichii. The study was conducted in April - July 2012 includes literature studies, site surveys, field data collection and analysis of samples. Analysis of the relationship phosphate concentration on the rate of growth of seagrass T. hemprichii using bivariate correlation analysis. The results showed that the average growth rate - the average seagrass highest type T. hemprichii found in Teluk Awur on 8 week (0.81 cm/day). Meanwhile, the lowest growth rate found in Teluk Awur at week 2 (0.14 cm/day). The content of phosphate concentration of water in the Teluk Awur ranged from 0.009 to 0.028 mg/L and in Pulau Panjang ranged from 0.012 to 0.025 mg/L. The concentration of phosphate sediments in the Teluk Awur ranged from 20.870 to 23.250 mg/kg and Pulau Panjang 25.650 to 27.190 mg/kg. Relations water phosphate concentration and phosphate sediments to seagrass leaf growth in Teluk Awur are not considered closely related ,instead phosphate water to the growing rate of seagrass in Pulau Panjang is low and phosphate sediments to seagrass growth as very closely.

Studi Hubungan Kerapatan Vegetasi Lamun dengan Laju Sedimentasi di Perairan Teluk Awur dan Bandengan Jepara Pada Periode Juni – Juli 2012

Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 3 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Teluk Awur and Bandengan waters are located in Jepara which have different conditions and also the waters are still good for seagrass growth. Seagrass has one physical function as a sediment catcher in coastal waters. The sedimentation rate in the Teluk Awur and Bandengan waters affected by seagrass density, flow velocity, and sediment composition. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship of seagrass vegetation density with the rate of sedimentation in the Teluk Awur and Bandengan waters, Jepara. This reaserch was conducted in June-July 2012. in the Teluk Awur waters discovered 6 genus such as Enhalus, Thalassia, Thalassodendron, Cymodocea, Halodule, and Syringodium, with an average value of density 198.03 individu/m2. While Bandengan waters was found 7 genus such as Enhalus, Thalassia, Thalassodendron, Cymodocea, Halodule, Syringodium and Halophila, with average value of density 457.1 individu/m2. The results showed that the average value of sedimentation rate in the Teluk Awur waters 438.74 g/m2/week, while the Bandengan waters 667.42 g/m2/week. The R2 value of relationship between Seagrass density with the sedimentation rate in the Teluk Awur waters 0.566. While the R2 of Bandengan waters 0.073. The Teluk Awur waters contain a little lanau sediment so it has a little sedimenation. Bandengan waters contain higher lanau sediment so it has more sedimentation.

TRANSPLANTASI LAMUN Thalassia hemprichii DENGAN METODE JANGKAR DI PERAIRAN TELUK AWUR DAN BANDENGAN, JEPARA

Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 2 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Abstract

The seagrass bed is a coastal ecosystem which have an important role for the coastal environment. The seagrass beds are vulnerable with changes of water environmental conditions. The decrease of seagrass beds area in the world are the result from environmental stresses both of natural and impact of human activities. Transplantation is one way of to rehabilitate the condition of seagrass beds were damaged. The purpose of this research was to determine the survival rate and the rate of growth of transplanted seagrass Thalassia hemprichii with anchor method at Teluk Awur and Bandengan Waters Jepara. The method used in this research was field experimental method. Determination of sites using purposive random sampling method. The research was conducted at two stations are Teluk Awur Water as Station I and Bandengan Water as Station II. Each station divided into 3 plots of observation. The environmental parameters were taken are: salinity, temperature, current velocity, depth, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, organic matter, composition and grain size of the substrate. The results showed that the survival rate of seagrass transplants at Teluk Awur water was higher when compared to the survival rate of seagrass transplants at Bandengan water. The survival rate of seagrass transplants at Teluk Awur water have a range of of 38,89% to 41,67%, while the survival rate of seagrass transplants at Bandengan water have a range of 20,97% to 23,15%. The average range growth rate of seagrass transplants at Teluk Awur water was 0,13 cm/day to 0,16 cm/day, while the average range growth rate of seagrass transplants at Bandengan water was 0.16 cm/day up to 0.17 cm/day.

Struktur Komunitas Fitoplankton Di Ekosistem Padang Lamun Alami dan Buatan Di Perairan Teluk Awur Jepara

Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 4 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Phytoplankton is an autotrophic microorganism lived on water as primer producer. Its existence is important for the other marine organisms. This research aims to now the abundance, diversity, uniformity, dominant and community similarity of phytoplankton area at natural and artificial seagrass bed ecosystem, Teluk Awur Jepara Waters. This research was carried aut every 2 weeks started from July 7th till September 2th 2012 at natural and artificial seagrass bed of Teluk Awur Jepara waters. Phytoplankton sample was collected from Teluk Awur Jepara seagrass bed whereas the method used is explorative with case study approach. Data was collected using sample survey method while location is determined by purposive method. The research found 3 classes of phytoplankton, consisted of 31 genera. Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Dinophyceae. ). The most abundance of phytoplankton was found in the 4th sampling at station IV (195,17 cell/l) and the lowest abundance was found in 2nd sampling at station IV (63,49 cell/l). Diversity index ranged at 1,74 – 3,25 or medium category. Uniformity index ranged at 0,49 – 0,71 or medium category. Dominant index ranged at 0,07 – 0,51 or low category. Community similarity index ranged at 57,14 -100,00% or high category.

Struktur Komunitas Zooplankton di Ekosistem Lamun Alami dan Berbagai Lamun Buatan Perairan Teluk Awur, Jepara

Journal of Marine Research Vol 2, No 4 (2013) : Journal of Marine Research
Publisher : Journal of Marine Research

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Zooplankton are one component in the food chain as measured in relation to the productivity value of an ecosystem. This is because the zooplankton is a major connecting link between plankton and nekton. Teluk Awur Waters are shallow waters with depths less than 10 meters. These waters are also under pressure from various human activities. The aim of this research were to find out the community structure of Zooplankton on native and artificial seagrass ecosystems in Teluk Awur waters, Jepara. The method of this research was a case study method with the exploratory nature of data collection used Sample Survey Method. The location was set as a research Station was the Station 1, as the native seagrass, and Station 2, 3, and 4 as the artificial seagrass. Sampling was conducted every 2 weeks for 4 times of sampling of each 3 times making use planktonnet with mesh size 45 μm. Sampling was carried out horizontally in the morning on July 2012 to September 2012. The results obtained 37 genera on native seagrass, while on the third of artificial seagrass was obtained 51 genera. Abundance obtained on the native seagrass was an average of 3845,482 specs/L and on the artificial seagrass was an average of 3146,303 specs/L. Diversity of zooplankton showed the medium diversity, an average of 2,08 obtained on the native seagrass and an average of 2,15 obtained on the artificial seagrass. Homogenity obtained average of 0,48 on the native seagrass and 0,50 on the artificial seagrass which is showed that the level of homogeneity is in medium range. The index of domination on the native seagrass was obtained an average 0,51 which is showed that the level of dominance is in medium range and on the artificial was obtained an average 0,49 which is showed that the level of dominance is in low range.

REKAYASA TEKNOLOGI TRANSPLANTASI LAMUN (Enhalus acoroides)DI KAWASAN PADANG LAMUN PERAIRAN PRAWEAN BANDENGAN JEPARA

BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Buletin Oseanografi Marina
Publisher : BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA

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Abstract

Lamun adalah sumber makanan bagi beberapa jenis herbivora seperti penyu, dugong dan beberapa jenis invertebrata. Fungsi lamun tidak banyak dipahami, banyak padang lamun yang rusak oleh berbagai aktivitas manusia.Lamun berkurang secara cepat di berbagai belahan dunia akibat dari kegiatan manusia seperti kerusakan secara mekanis (pengerukan dan jangkar), eutrofikasi, budidaya perikanan, pengendapan, pengaruh pembangunan konstruksi pesisir, dan perubahan jaring makanan.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan transplantasi lamun berdasar laju pertumbuhan dan tingkat keberlangsungan hidup (SR) dengan dengan penerapan metode Frame tabung bambu, Plugs, Fastening waring di perairan Prawean Bandengan Jepara agar lamun dapat dikembangkan dengan teknologi ramah lingkungan yaitu menggunakan bambu dan keberadaanya masih tetap lestariPenelitian dilakukan dengan observasi lapangan selama 6 Minggu pada tanggal 17 September – 1 November 2012 . Metode yang digunakan untuk analisis  adalah metode eksperimental yang dilakukan di lapangan. Berdasarkan hasil One-way ANOVA, diketahui bahwa laju pertumbuhan transplantasi lamun dari ketiga metode tersebut tidak berbeda nyata. Tingkat keberhasilan unit transplantasi lamun untuk metode Frame Tabung Bambu sebesar 95%, metode Plugs sebesar 100%dan metode Fastening Waring sebesar 100%. Laju pertumbuhan unit transplantasi lamun di Perairan Prawean Bandengan Jepara dengan metode Frame Tabung Bambu memliki rata-rata sebesar (0,70 cm/hari ± 0.06), sedangkan untuk metode Plugs sebesar (0,78 cm/hari ± 0.09) dan metode Fastening Waring sebesar (0,71 cm/hari ± 0.05). Kata Kunci : Perairan Prawean Bandengan Jepara, Transplantasi lamun, metode Frame Tabung Bambu, metode Plugs, metode Fastening Waring.

Kadar Total Lipid Mikroalga Nannochloropsis oculata yang dikultur dengan suhu yang berbeda.

BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Buletin Oseanografi Marina
Publisher : BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA

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Abstract

Sebagai pakan alami N. oculata memiliki kandungan lipid cukup tinggi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai alternatif bahan biodiesel sesuai dengan perkembangan kebutuhan energi. Pertumbuhan N. oculata sangat tergantung pada suhu, salinitas, pH, dan intensitas cahaya. Tingkat suhu yang berbeda diduga berpengaruh terhadap kadar total lipid yang dihasilkan oleh Nannochloropsis oculata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu terhadap produksi biomassa dan kadar total lipid pada kultur mikroalaga Nannochloropsis oculata. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah eksperimental dengan empat perlakuan suhu yaitu 18 oC, 23 oC, 28 oC, dan 33 oC. Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi kepadatan sel, produksi biomassa serta analisa kadar total lipid.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi rata-rata biomassa tertinggi pada suhu 28 oC (81,9 ± 1,67 mg), sementara rata-rata kadar total lipid terbesar pada suhu 33 oC (52,62 ± 4,86dw-%). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa peningkatan kepadatan sel akan diikuti peningkatan produksi biomassa. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan suhu yang baik untuk mendapatkan produksi biomassa dan kadar total lipid optimum pada suhu 18-33 oC.   Kata kunci:     Nannochloropsis oculata, Suhu, Kadar Total Lipid

Pertumbuhan Lamun Hasil Transplantasi Jenis Cymodocea rotundata di Padang Lamun Teluk Awur Jepara

BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA Vol 2, No 1 (2013): Buletin Oseanografi Marina
Publisher : BULETIN OSEANOGRAFI MARINA

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Abstract

Padang lamun merupakan ekosistem yang memiliki peranan penting  bagi lingkungan  pesisir. Padang lamun rentan terhadap perubahan kondisi lingkungan perairan. Penurunan  luas padang lamun di dunia merupakan akibat  dari tekanan lingkungan baik alami maupun hasil aktivitas manusia. Transplantasi merupakan salah satu cara untuk merehabilitasi kondisi padang lamun yang mengalami kerusakan.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk megetahui tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan laju pertumbuhan transplantasi lamun  Cymodecea rotundata dengan metoda jangkar di perairan Teluk Awur Jepara. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juni 2010 di perairan Teluk Awur, Jepara. Metoda penelitian yang dipergunakan adalah dengan ekperimental lapangan dengan penentuan lokasi secara purposive random sampling. Penelitian dilakukan di Teluk Awur yang terbagi menjadi 3 stasiun pengamatan yang masing-masing stasiun terbagi menjadi 6 plot pengamatan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan daun lamun tertinggi untuk lamun transplantasi terdapat pada stasiun 2 sebesar 1,86-2,61 mm/hari. Tingkat kelangsungan hidup menunjukkan 100% untuk semua lokasi. Hasil uji ANOVA Satu Arah menunukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara laju pertumbuhan lamun alami dan lamun hasil transplantasi. Kata kunci:  pertumuhan lamun , transplantasi, Cymodocea rotundata