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Pemanfaatan Limbah Pretreatment Dalam Produksi Bioetanol Dari Lignoselulosa Untuk Me-Recovery Fine Chemicals Dengan Proses Pirolisa Mansur, Dieni; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Rinaldi, Nino
REAKTOR Volume 16 No.1 Maret 2016
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.16.1.17-23

Abstract

UTILIZATION OF PRETREATMENT WASTE DURING PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIALS FOR RECOVERY FINE CHEMICALS BY PYROLYSIS. In production of second generation bioethanol by utilizing lignocelluloses as raw material, black liquor was produced from its pretreatment process. As waste of pretreatment process, the black liquor was rich in lignin. Therefore, the black liquor has potential to be proceeded to produce fine chemicals. In this study, black liquor powder was pyrolyzed at 450-600°C for 15 minutes using a fixed bed type reactor. Pyrolysis process produced four types of products thal called as liquid tar, heavy tar, char and gas. Liquid tar was condensable volatile product in condenser and uncondensable ones was called gas. Heavy tar was heavier volatile product that stick to reactor wall on bed of feed and unable to enter a condenser. Whereas, char was deposited carbon left in the pyrolizer. The liquid tar consisted of several chemical compounds that classified into groups of chemicals based on similar functional groups. In a range of temperatures process, higher yield of liquid tar was produced after treated at 550°C compared to other conditions. The main chemical compounds in the liquid tar were phenol, alcohols and alkyl phenols that mainly predicted derived from decomposition of lignin and represented as the fine chemicals from black liquor powder.  Keywords: bioethanol; black liquor powder; fine chemicals; lignocelluloses; pyrolysis Abstrak Dalam produksi bioetanol generasi kedua dengan memanfaatkan lignocellulosa sebagai bahan baku, akan menghasilkan black liquor pada saat proses pretreatment. Sebagai limbah proses pretreatment, black liquor ini kaya akan lignin. Oleh karena itu, black liquor berpotensi diolah untuk menghasilkan fine chemicals. Pada penelitian ini, bubuk black liquor diproses secara pirolisa pada suhu 450-600°C selama 15 menit menggunakan reaktor jenis fixed bed. Proses pirolisa menghasilkan produk yang dapat digolongkan menjadi empat jenis yaitu liquid tar, heavy tar, char dan gas. Liquid tar merupakan volatile product yang terkondensasi di kondensor dan yang tidak dapat terkondensasi disebut sebagai gas. Heavy tar adalah volatile product yang lebih berat dan terlebih dahulu menempel di dinding reaktor pirolisa di atas bed umpan dan tidak sampai masuk ke kondensor. Sementara char adalah deposit karbon yang tertinggal di dalam reaktor pirolisa. Liquid tar tersusun oleh berbagai macam senyawa kimia yang bisa dikelompokkan menjadi grup-grup berdasarkan kesamaan gugus fungsi. Dari rentang suhu proses tersebut, liquid tar paling banyak dihasilkan pada suhu 550°C. Liquid tar tersebut banyak mengandung fenol, alkohol dan alkil fenol yang diprediksi umumnya berasal dari dekomposisi lignin dan menjadi fine chemicals yang dapat di-recovery dari bubuk black liquor Kata kunci: bioetanol; bubuk black liquor; fine chemicals; lignoselulosa; pirolisa.
EVALUATION OF Co-Mo/Al2O3 CATALYSTS FOR HYDRODESULFURIZATION PREPARED BY THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE AND CITRIC ACID ADDITION Rinaldi, Nino
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2011): Oktober 2011
Publisher : BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (41.825 KB)

Abstract

Sulfided Co-Mo or Ni-Mo based catalysts still have been extensively used in refinery for Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction, which is so-called Co-Mo-S phase as active sites. It is proposed that to obtain near zero sulfur content of fuels in the future is by improving the performance of Co-Mo catalysts. It could be approached with enhancing the amounts of active sites, Co-Mo-S phases, for instance with a sophisticated HDS catalysts preparation such as by a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique using Co(CO)3NO as a precursor of Co and by the citric acid addition. It is demonstrated that if MoS2/Al2O3 is exposed to Co(CO)3NO vapor and subsequently sulfided, Co-Mo-S phases form selectively when the Mo content exceeds monolayer loading. The maximum potential HDS activity of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts also can be obtained by the CVD technique. With the conventional Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts, the edges of MoS2 particles are completely occupied by Co atoms around of 4 wt% Co, thus more addition of Co caused blocking of the active sites by overlayers of Co sulfide clusters. However, with the citric acid addition, not only the amount coverage of Co atoms is increased, but also a high content of Mo could be also well dispersed (Mo > 20 wt%) on the surface support forms monolayer. In addition, the amount of Co forming Co-Mo-S phases was estimated from the correlation between NO/Mo and Co/Mo ratio by the CVD technique.Keywords: Hydrodesulfurization, Preparation, Co-Mo catalysts, Chemical Vapor Deposition, Citric acid.
PREPARATION OF NI-MO CATALYSTS USING THE PILLARED CLAY AS A SUPPORT FOR HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF COKER NAPHTHA Rinaldi, Nino
Widyariset Vol 14, No 3 (2011): Widyariset
Publisher : LIPI-Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (453.114 KB)

Abstract

On the preparation of the Ni-Mo catalysts, a high of surface area of the support was needed in order to achieve the well dispersion of Mo on the support. One of the promising ways is the use of pillared clays as the support. Therefore, the preparation of pillared clay for a support of Ni-Mo catalyst and its effect on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction for sulfur removal of Coker naphtha were studied. The effects of pH of the Mo impregnation solutions were also studied. The results show that the pillarization process on clay using Al-pillared is signifi  cantly increased the surface area. Moreover, with the pH of the impregnation solution of 10, Mo is higher dispersed on the pillared clay support compared to pH-1, and thus the HDS activity of NiMo pillared clay catalyst of pH-10 is also more active. However, the HDS activity of the present catalysts is still not good enough compared to the commercial NiMo catalyst.
SIMULASI PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL DAN EQUIVALENCE RATIO DALAM PROSES GASIFIKASI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Rinaldi, Nino
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 17, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (660.815 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v17i2.26

Abstract

In this study, a simulation for gasification process of oil palm empty fruit bunches waste (OPEFB) using a fixed bed gasifier (throat downdraft) by varying the particle size of OPEFB and equivalence ratio (ER) was investigated. The rate of fuel consumption was 10 kg/h with air as the oxidizing medium and 1 hour process time for 1 batch. Simulation was performed with two-dimensional approach (2D) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ANSYS FLUENT 14 software. Simulation results show that ideal amount of equivalence ratio (ER) for gasification process of OPEFB pellets with diameter (φ) of 6 mm and 8 mm is 0.1 ≤ ER ≤ 0.2. ER variation affects the higher heating value of syngas (HHV), the carbon efficiency (ηC), gasification efficiency and temperature distribution in the gasification reactor. Variations in particle size did not have a significant effect in the gasification process.Keywords: CFD, OPEFB gasification, particle size, equivalence ratio
Preparasi dan Karakterisasi Katalis Asam Padat Berbasis Niobia untuk Produksi Senyawa Glukosa Dwiatmoko, Adid Adep; Rinaldi, Nino
Jurnal Riset Teknologi Pencegahan Pencemaran Industri Vol 8, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Kementerian Perindustrian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2209.286 KB) | DOI: 10.21771/jrtppi.2017.v8.no2.p76-80

Abstract

Katalis asam padat berbasis niobia telah dibuat dan diuji coba untuk reaksi hidrolisis selobiosa membentuk senyawa glukosa. Untuk meningkatkan aktivitasnya, permukaan katalis dimodifikasi dengan menggunakan asam fosfat. Karakterisasi katalis dilakukan dengan menggunakan X-ray photoelectron sprectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dan ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3–TPD). Modifikasi pada permukaan katalis telah meningkatkan selektivitas katalis untuk membentuk glukosa dari reaksi hidrolisis selobiosa. Berdasarkan karakterisasi yang dilakukan, telah dipercaya bahwa kontribusi utama yang menyebabkan peningkatan selektivitas katalis adalah terbentuknya spesies dihidrogen fosfat pada permukaan katalis yang telah dimodifikasi, yang merupakan bentukan hasil reaksi antara asam fosfat dan niobic acid. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa modifikasi permukaan katalis niobic acid mendorong terbentuknya produk penting dari selobiosa, yang nantinya dapat dipergunakan juga untuk selulosa dari biomassa.
EVALUATION OF Co-Mo/Al2O3 CATALYSTS FOR HYDRODESULFURIZATION PREPARED BY THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE AND CITRIC ACID ADDITION Rinaldi, Nino
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia VOL 13, NO 1: OKTOBER 2011
Publisher : Center for Science & Technology of Advanced Material - National Nuclear Energy Agency of

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (797.166 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jusami.2011.13.1.5393

Abstract

EVALUATION OF Co-Mo/Al2O3 CATALYSTS FOR HYDRODESULFURIZATION PREPARED BY THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION TECHNIQUE AND CITRIC ACID ADDITION. Sulfided Co-Mo or Ni-Mo based catalysts still have been extensively used in refinery for Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction, which is so-called Co-Mo-S phase as active sites. It is proposed that to obtain near zero sulfur content of fuels in the future is by improving the performance of Co-Mo catalysts. It could be approached with enhancing the amounts of active sites, Co-Mo-S phases, for instance with a sophisticated HDS catalysts preparation such as by a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique using Co(CO)3NO as a precursor of Co and by the citric acid addition. It is demonstrated that if MoS2/Al2O3 is exposed to Co(CO)NO3 vapor and subsequently sulfided, Co-Mo-S phases form selectively when the Mo content exceeds monolayer loading. The maximum potential HDS activity of Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts also can be obtained by the CVD technique. With the conventional Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts, the edges of MoS2 particles are completely occupied by Co atoms around of 4 wt% Co, thus more addition of Co caused blocking of the active sites by over layers of Co sulfide clusters. However, with the citric acid addition, not only the amount coverage of Co atoms is increased, but also a high content of Mo could be also well dispersed (Mo > 20 wt%) on the surface support forms monolayer. In addition, the amount of Co forming Co-Mo-S phases was estimated from the correlation between NO/Mo and Co/Mo ratio by the CVD technique.
Konversi Gondorukem menjadi Fine Chemicals melalui Reaksi Hydrocracking Menggunakan Katalis Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Jayanti, Yeni Fitriana; Savitri, Savitri; Rinaldi, Nino; Priatmoko, Sigit; Jumaeri, Jumaeri
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 6 No 3 (2017)
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science

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Abstract

A preliminary study of the conversion of rosin oil to fine chemicals through hydrocracking reactions using Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalysts has been studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of temperature, initial pressure of hydrogen gas, and reaction time to the reaction of hydrocracking of rosin oil to produce fine chemicals. Hydrocracking of rosin oil is performed on a batch autoclave reactor by varying the reaction temperature (300-350 °C), hydrogen gas pressure (10-40 bar), and reaction time (60-240 min). The amount of Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst used is 1% w/w of rosin oil. The results showed that the compounds contained in rosin oil experienced hydrocracking reaction with the use of high reaction temperature. The use of low hydrogen gas pressure is able to split of rosin oil into fine chemicals, whereas the long reaction time results in the rosin oil being crushed producing more products. The hydrocracking reaction of rosin oil using Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst produces the optimum product if high temperatures used with low hydrogen gas usage and reaction time are used relatively long.
STUDI AWAL PADA PREPARASI KATALIS BERBASIS LEMPUNG BERPILAR UNTUK REAKSI ETANOL MENJADI GASOLINE (ETG) Rinaldi, Nino; Adep Dwiatmoko, Adid
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 13, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (5789.37 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v13i2.155

Abstract

Research on catalytic reaction of ethanol to gasoline (ETG) was investigated in this study. The catalyst with a high acidity is required for the ETG reaction. Therefore, this study focused on the catalyst preparation of ETG reaction by using natural clays which prepared by the pillarization techniquewithseveral metal oxides, such as:AI, Zr, Fe and Cr as the pillared. The prepared of pillared clay were characterized by x-ray diffraction, specific surface area and pore distribution (BET) measurements and catalytic activity testing on the ETG reaction. It is observed that after the pillarization; the surface area and basal spacing (d001) of the natural clays were significantly increased. thus the ptllarization process was successfully prepared on natural clay. However,the acidity of theprepared ofpillared clay is still lower,probably due to the cations between layers of the natural clay were not homogeneous, thus although the pillarization process was happen but still not completely. Moreover, IR measurement showed only the acid type of Lewis is increased after the pillarization. Thistype is not favorable for the ETG reaction, and thus only the lower hydrocarbon products (<Cl2) were observed after the ETG reaction, even aromatics and cyclic hydrocarboncompounds wereobtainedKeyword : preparation, pillared clay, catalyst, ETG reaction.
CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED BENTONITE USING ALUMINUM POLYCATION Haerudin, Hery; Rinaldi, Nino; Fisli, Adel
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 2, No 3 (2002)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (53.827 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21913

Abstract

The modification of bentonite by pillarization using aluminum polycation type Keggin [Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ has been carried out, by exchange of cation from interlayer with aluminum polycation. The amount of aluminum polycation, which was used for the pillaring of bentonite was varied, i.e. 5 mmol/gram, 10 mmol/gram, and 20 mmol/gram of bentonite. After drying, the pillared bentonite was calcined at 400 oC for 6 hour with temperature rate of 5 oC/min. The cationic exchange capacity (CEC) of starting bentonite was 98.3 meq/100 gram. The concentration ratio of Al/Si increased from 0.27 to 0.34 for pillared bentonite and of Ca/Si was decreased from 0.06 to 0.006 for pillared bentonite. The basal space for pillared bentonit increased significantly from 7.30 Å to about 18 Å . The measured specific surface area (by BET) of pillared bentonite was also increased significantly from 46 m2/g to about 162 m2/g. It was concluded that bentonite has been pillared by aluminum polication successfully.   Keywords: aluminum polycation, bentonite
Performance of Modified Natural Zeolites by Sodium Hydroxide Treatments in The Esterification of Glycerol and Oleic Acid Fauzi, Rizky Achmad; Tursiloadi, Silvester; Dwiatmoko, Adid Adep; Sukandar, Dede; Aulia, Fauzan; Rinaldi, Nino; Sudiyarmanto, Sudiyarmanto
Jurnal Kimia Valensi Jurnal Kimia VALENSI Volume 5, No. 2, November 2019
Publisher : Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic Uni

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.15408/jkv.v5i2.9976

Abstract

Esterification is the reaction of the formation of an ester compound by reacting an alcohol compound and carboxylic acid. In this study, the performance of zeolite-based catalysts has been studied for esterification reactions. Modification of zeolite pore size was done to be hierarchical zeolite, with the aim of increasing the catalytic properties of zeolite. The modification was carried out by desilication by sodium hydroxide treatment with a variation of 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 M. The resulting catalyst was then characterized using BET and XRD. Furthermore, the catalyst was tested for activity for esterification of fatty acids and glycerol and the product was analyzed using GC-MS. Zeolite modification with sodium hydroxide has been proven to improve catalyst performance, without changing their crystal structure. The best catalytic activity was obtained on the catalyst with sodium hydroxide treatment of 0.3 M, resulting glycerol conversion of 92% and selectivity to monoglycerides of 74%.