Forest as a natural resource in Indonesia involves high biological diversity. In South Sulawesi, ebony wood is one of endemic and typical natural resources and its existence have placed Indonesia as the producer for the wood with highest economic value. The high economic potency of ebony wood has caused an intensive exploitation of ebony from its natural habitat.. One of factors causing the degradation was the existence of uncontrolled harvesting activities which were not accompanied by rehabilitation efforts. One effort, which can be carried out to anticipate the progressive destructive condition of the ebony in its natural habitat, is by developing and implementing tree breeding as well as genetic conservation systems. This research was addressed to identify the ecological conditions of various habitats or provenances of ebony. Ecological characteristics observed in the current study were the potencies of volume, regeneration or density, and environmental conditions covering four different provenances (Maros, Barru, Sidrap, and Malili). Data were collected by applying random sampling method in plots and field measurement.Research results indicate that the standing stock of different provenances varied from 2.25 – 6.86 m3/ha in volume with the density of 0.8 – 2.16 trees/plot, 2.54 – 6.3 poles/plot, 4.79 – 9.72 saplings/plot, and 90.54 – 139.86 seedlings/plot. The research results show that the existing volume and density of ebony belong to the low category compared to the natural condition.
Keywords: eboni, ecologycal characteristis, provenance
The study is aimed to study the structure and genetic variations and to describe its ecological characteristics according to soil conditions, altitude, and geographical position of four sub populations at its natural population of provenance Amaro in Barru Regency.The study was conducted from July to August 2005 in the area of Protected Forest of Amaro, Tuwung Village, Barru Sub district, Barru Regency, South Sulawesi. Further analyses were carried out in the Laboratory of Forest Breeding, Gajah Mada University in Jogyakarta.The method used in this study was isoenzyme analysis of genetic variation. The variables of genetic variation analyzed, were genetic structure (allele and heterozygotes) and genetic distance variable. The result of the study showed that Deppanae sub population was high in genetic variation rather than other sub populations. According to the expected heterozygosity value, the ebony species in Amaro was low in genetic variation.
Keywords : genetic variation, provenances, ebony
The study was conducted to determine growth variability of ebony within the provenances using provenance test. The results of this study were expected to show growth variability of ebony in different provenances. For the purpose of the study, five provenances of ebony (Maros, Barru, Sidrap, Malili, and Mamuju) were prepared. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using multivariate analysis with SPSS version 10. the results showed that the Sidrap provenances had higher growth compared to the other provenances at seedling stage.
Keywords : growth variation, provenances, and ebony
Rehabilitate forest and farm critical must special attention and need of the new method that more practical, quick, and cheap. Method of seed ball is its alternative method. with consideration referred, then this research bent on for (1) know seed amount every seed ball that give percentage grows and plants growth sengon the best (2) know size of seed ball diameter the best to percentage grow and plants growth sengon; (3) know appropriate type of farm closing to percentage grow and plants growth sengon; (4) know interaction influence between seed amount every ball, level of seed ball, type of the best farm closing to percentage grow and plants growth sengon at the site. This research is executed start month September 2012 up to final December 2012 in district Tinggimoncong Gowa Regency. this research uses random design complete pattern factorial that consisted of 3 factor that is seed amounts every seed ball as first factor with 4 levels that is 5 seeds, 7 seeds, 9 seeds, and 11 seeds every seed ball, second that is large size factor its diameter of seed ball that consisted of 4 levels that is 2.5 cm, 4 cm, 5.5 cm, and 7 cm, third factor that is farm closing that consisted of 4 levels that is opened (grass), coppice, beams, and cleaned (disc with diameter 20 cm). The three of this treatment factor are combined until got counted 4 x 4 x 4 = 64 treatment units. Every treatment unit consisted of 3 seed balls and repeated 3 times until required 64 x 3 x 3 = 576 seed balls. Variable that perceived is time starts germinate and percentage germinates every week during a month first, plants growth (high and leaf amount) every month after second month for 2 month. Research result indicates that treatment of land cover has an effect on reality to germination percentage, leaf amount, and high plants as for seedball diameter, seed amount and interaction between land cover and seedball diameter have an effect on reality to percentage of germination and leaf amount. Treatment of grass land cover gives influence is done well by germination percentage, leaf amount, and high plants. Seedball diameter 7,0 cm and seed amount 11 seeds give influence is done well by germination percentage. Combination of grass land cover treatment and diameter of seed ball 7,0 cm give best influence.Â Key words: Formulation, biological control agent, Aspergillus sp., and tablet.
This study aimsÂ to investigate genetic diversity of identified pine stands at Unhas Extention Forest based on morphological markers.Â The methods used are observation and measurement of the variables leaves, stems and plant height.Â An analysis of data used the NTSYSpc program (Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate System) version 2.0.The results showed that there are some morphological similarities such asÂ the shape of the leaves (needles), the shape of the curve of the leaf tip (tapered), the shape of the curve of the leaf base(tapering), the shape of the leaf margins (flat), the color of top surface of the leaf (dark green), the color of lower surface of leaf (dark green), the state of the upper surface of the leaf (smooth), the state of the lower leaf surface (rough), bark texture (grooved), rod shape (square), and the shape of the canopy (cones) while the other variables showed a difference. The genetic diversity of individual spine based on morphological observations is low. Â KeywordsÂ :Â Morfological, Genetics,Â Diversity, Pine
The aims of Genetic study of pinus identified stand in Unhas Experimental Forest is to analyses of genetic characteristicsof stand, based on RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) marker. The study was conducted in Biotechnology andTree Breeding Laboratory, Forestry Faculty, Hasanuddin University. The method are DNA isolation, Primers selection andRAPD analyses. DNA analyses of Pine with ten RAPD marker showed number of alel varietied and polymorphic. Coefficientof similarity in population have number of 0.15-0.73.Highest genetic distance is 0.9630 and lowest genetic distance is 0.2698.Number of genetic diversity of Pine in Experimental Forest Hasanuddin University is 0,489 and categorized highly.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been used to detect the polymorphism in plants. The utilization of molecular markers plays essential role in germplasm characterization and plant breeding since the information of DNA marker technology can be exchanged between laboratories and should have standard method to be reproducible. The molecular aspect has been commonly linked to DNA isolation protocol and polymorphic molecular marker, thus can be used for molecular research recommendation purposes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of microsatellite marker of Ebenaceae Family for amplifying Ebony DNA, and to determine the appropriate PCR annealing temperatures. The DNA isolation of Ebony leaves from Experimental Forest of Hasanuddin University Provenance was carried out using Genomic DNA Mini Kit (Plant) Geneaid protocol. Nine of seventeen selected primers from the Genus Diospyros were able to amplify Ebony DNA. Amplification products produced polymorphic bands with different annealing temperatures (ranged from 53 to 56°C). These nine polymorphic primers will be recommended to use for future studies in genetic diversity as well as pollen dispersal pattern analyses.
The successful of genomic DNA amplification using RAPD technique was determined by the sequence of primer’s base and primer compound in each reaction. The aim of research was finding the best primer for genetic diversity analyses of Bitti (Vitex coffassus). The results of amplification showed that number of band between one to five bands (110-600 bp). The primer of OPK-10, OPA-17, OPQ-07 and OPP-08 can be used for genetic diversity analyses of Bitti. The best primer used for genetic diversity analyses of Bitti was OPP-08 because it had the highest number of bands (5 bands).
Key words: OPP-08, Primer Selection, Vitex coffassus
This research aimed to know the effect of some doses of natural inoculants on the growth of Shorea pinanga seedling. The research was carried out with several steps including seed provision, inoculation of ectomycorrhyza, planting and maintenance in the nursery. The result of the research showed that height and number of branches were different at the significant level of 5 %, while diameter and number of leaves were not significantly different. The natural inoculants dose of 15 g showed the best growth in response to the increment of height, diameter, and number of leaves, while that of 20 g showed the best in the number of branches increment.
Key words: Shorea pinanga, ectomycorrhyza, seedling, natural inoculantstor, Local Government Revenue, regional autonomy
The productivity of forest natural resources is now decreasing and therefore rehabilitation efforts is urgently needed. Breeding of forest plant is the best solution to increase forest productivity in both quantity and quality. The biological reproduction can be conducted through seed production with fertilization. This research was aimed at determining the effect of fertilizing treatments on pod and seed production of different Glirisidia sepium provenances to find out the best provenance and best fertilizer dosage. Fertilization treatments showed a significant effect on the pod and seed production. On the other hand, the provenance and its interaction with fertilizing did not show any significant effects on the pod and seed production. The best performance was found on the fertilization treatment of 500 g resulting in the average production of 1,288 pods and 27,621 seeds/tree.
Keywords: Fertilizing, Seed Production, Provenance, Glirisidia sepium