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Interaksi Genetik x Lingkungan dan Stabilitas Komponen Hasil Berbagai Genotipe Kedelai di Provinsi Riau

Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Genotype by environment (GE) interaction and stability of a trait in any crop plant such as soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) are very important for plant breeders to develop and evaluate the new cultivars as well as for farmers to plant suitable cultivars for commercial purpose. Crop performances including harvesting date, yield components and grain yield of nine genotypes of soybean were evaluated at three locations with distinct environments in Riau. The data were used to determine GE interaction variance components of the traits and yield stability.  There was significant effect of location on all characters except on grain yield per plot.  The genotypes differed significantly in all yield components and grain yield.  Genotype x environment interaction significantly affected several crop performances such as harvesting date, all yield components and grain yield.  The magnitude of GE interaction variance component was greater than that of location for all traits except the number of seed per plant indicating that most genotypes performed differently across the locations and were not stable with respect to the locations.  Among the nine genotypes, line 19BE and Malabar are classified as stable genotypes and could be grown in wide area of Riau Province, while line 13ED and Kipas Putih produced high grain yield in specific area and could be only grown in Pekanbaru.   Keywords: genotype x environment interaction, yield components, stability, soybean 

Kandungan Logam Berat pada Jagung yang Dipupuk dengan Kompos IPAL Pabrik Pulp dan Kertas serta Kelayakannya untuk Konsumsi

Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan Vol 2, No 01 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan

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Abstract

Sludge as the solid waste produced by pulp and paper industry shows appreciable amounts of essentialelements for plant nutrients, but the use in agriculture is sometime restricted by its heavy metal content. Thisstudy was intended to determine the content of heavy metals in corn plant fertilized by several rates of compostIPAL which was made of sludge obtained from pulp and paper industry. Three levels of compost ie; 10, 20, 30t.ha-1, and NPK fertilizer were applied to corn as well as control in a randomized block design with fourreplications. At around 55 days after planting (DAP), two very young husks (baby corn) and at 90 DAP, 50mature seeds were sampled from each plot. Heavy metals content including Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were mesuredfrom these samples by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometer Type NOV-AA 300. It was imperative to note fromthis study that Pb and Cd contents were not detectable both in baby corn and mature corn seed obtained fromplants applied by any level of compost. Copper and Zinc contents were significantly increased in baby corn andmature seed of plants applied by compost compared to that applied by NPK fertilizer or control. However, ifthe heavy metal contents observed from this study were converted to daily tolerable intake for human, thevalues were lower than the maximum tolerable standard, thus both baby corn and mature seed harvested fromcorn fertilized by compost IPAL were save for human consumption.

Efektivitas Sistem Penyerbukan Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) pada Berbagai Pola Kemringan Lahan

Jurnal Teknobiologi Vol 3, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Jurnal Teknobiologi

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Abstract

Slope and the direction of the slope have great impact on light interception mainlyin the morning and the afternoon. The light interception by the plant grown in thesloping area may effect growth and yield of certain crops. The objective of thisresearch is to asses the impact of pollination, slope and slope direction on oil palmproduction and to determine the effectivity of natural pollination on fruit set anddevelopment. The field experimental were arranged in a split plot design, wherefive patterns of slope such as 0-4%, 12-24% east-west, 12-24% west-east, 24-38%east-west, and 24-38% west-east were assigned as the main plot and two types ofpollination such as assisted pollination and natural pollination as sub plot. Plantingmaterial from varietas Marihat with year of planting 1996, there were 3 replicationevery combination in 3 slope direction (0-4%, 12-24% TB, 12-24%BT, 24-38%TBand 24-38% BT) with 2 method of pollination that`sway there are 30 palms assample. Polen used for assisted pollination were obtained from the plant grownaccording the slope. Data collected were the number of normal fruit per bunch,number of partenocarphy fruit, fruit weight, kernel weight, fresh bunch weight andthe ratio of fruit to bunch. For natural pollination, the number of fruit set andpartenocarpic fruits were higher in the flat land (slope of 0-4%) while for controlledassisted pollination, the highest number of fruit set and partenocarpic fruits werefound in the slope of 24-345. Fruit and kernel weight increased on the slope of 12-24% compared to those in the flate land. Natural pollination were more effective inthe area with the slope less than 24%, while controlled assisted pollination resultedhigher fruit and kernel weight than that produced through natural pollination.Lower fruit weight in the slope of 24-38% west east produced by plants throughnatural pollination was due to greater number of normal fruits resulted the lesserassimilate partition to the individual fruit.

Variabilitas Genetik Populasi Kedelai Kuning dan Hitam pada Tiga Konsentrasi Pupuk Pelengkap Cair

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 6 (2019): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2019
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

      The objectives of this study were to determine the components of variances, heritability and selections responce of several traits in a soybean population applied by liquid foliar fertilizer (LFF). A field  experiment was conducted  in the Faculty of Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Riau from February to May 2018 using a split plot design with three replications. Three rates of LFF concentrations applied to plant leaves; ie, no LFF, 2 g.l-1 and 4 g.l-1 were a signed as main plot and eight varieties were assigned as subplot. Seed of every cultivar was panted in a plot of 3 m long and 2 m wide with planting space of 40 cm x 20 cm on February 2018. In the control treatment, inorganic fertilizer was applied according to recommended rate; ie, 25 kg N, 30 kg P2O5, and 30 kg K2O per ha, respectively while for plots applied by LFF, the fertilizer was only applied by one half of recommended rate. Characters observed were plant height, flowering date, number of primary branches, harvest date, number of filled pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, seed filling rate, effective seed filling periods, grain yield and hervest index. Data were analyzed by analysis of varians and further tested by least significant different at 5% level. The component of variance and heritability were estimated by the procedure of Hallauer et al. (2004). The result indicated wide variability among varieties for all characters while LFF affected only on  number of primary brunches, plant high, flowering date, grain yield and harvest index. The value of genetic variance was significant for all traits and heritability value was different from zero for all characters. Predicted response to selection was quite high for  number of filled pods per plant and  number of seeds per plant but quite low for other characters. The result indicated that all characters could be used as selection criteria in a plant breeding program. However, number of seeds per plant  and number of filled pods per plant as selection criteria were potential to speed up in reaching plant breeding objective.  Keywords : varians component, heritability, black soybean, selection response

KARAKTERISASI PADI LOKAL ASAL KECAMATAN BANGKINANG BARAT DAN KECAMATAN TAMBANG KABUPATEN KAMPAR

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 6 (2019): Edisi 1 Januari s/d Juni 2019
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the variability an to identify local rice genotipe collected from West Bangkinang and Tambang, Kampar District. The seventeen accessions were grow in Agricultural Experiment Station University of Riau Pekanbaru from September 2017 to March 2018. This research uses descriptive analysis method which includes characterization activities in 17 local rice accessions.Local rice from the West Bangkinang District and Tambang Subdistrict showed uniform and varied performances. The character of the leaf midrib and panicle shaft shows a uniform performance value. The character of leaf tongue shape, leaf color, leaf length, flag leaf angle, root stem diameter, number of children, color of rootstock section, panicle type and color of grain tip showed varying performance values. The results of the analysis of the diversity of morphological characters in 17 local rice accessions ranged from (0 – 4,971). The leaf midrib color character has a uniform diversity and the panicle type character has a very high diversity.Keywords: local rice, diversity, morphology.

Pengaruh Beberapa Dosis Pupuk Fosfor (P) Terhadap Mutu Benih Berbagai Kultivar Kedelai (Glycine max L. Merril) Selama Pengisian dan Pemasakan Biji

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

An experiment has been designed to investigate the impact of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer on seed quaaliti during seed development of several Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars. The field experiment was carried at University of Riau Agriculture Experiment Station using a complete randomized block design with three replicates. Soybean cultivars such as Willis, Malabar, Kipas Putih and line KM-19-BE were planted in three rates of P fertilizer; ie P0 = 0 kg P2O5 as a control, P1 = 25 kg P2O5, and P2 = 50 kg P2O5 per hektare. Seed quality including seed viability and seed vigor was observed at 10 days interval from 20 to 50 days after anthesis (DAA). It was found that seed quality was very low at early stage of seed development and tent to reach its maximum value as seed matured. Addition of P fertilizer to the plant increased some components of seed quality at early stage of seed development until 40 DAA. The values of seed viability and seed vigor were higher in seed harvested from plant fertilized by P than control, mainly for seed obtained at early seed development. This results indicated that P fertilizer application would improve seed quality especially of seed harvested at early seed development of some soybean cultivars. Keyword : seed viability, seed vigor, seed development, P fertilizer, soybean

Pengaruh Pemberian Pupuk Organik Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merril)

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

This research was intended to determine the possibility of manure application to replace inorganig fertilizer on crop growth and seed yield of soybean. A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Riau, Pekanbaru in 2013. The experiment was arranged in randomized block designwith seven treatments and three replications. The treatments were recommended rate of inorganic fertilizers (Urea 55 kg/hectare, TSP 55 kg/hectare and KCl 73 kg/hectare), chicken manure at rates of 2 tons, 3 tons and 4 tons per hectare; cow manure at rates of 10 tons, 12 tons and 14 tones per hectare. Seed of G19BE genotype was planted in a plot of 3m x 2 m with the planting space of 40 cm x 20 cm. All rates of animal manure were apllied 10 days before planting while fertilizer was applied at planting date. The results showed that inorganic fertilizer and any kinds of manure affected vegetative growth of soybean at the same manners. Application of cow and chiken  manure, in general, yielded more filled pods, more number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield m -2 than inorganic fertilizer application. Chicken manure ate of 4 ton hectare yielded greater seed weight per m² compared to cow manure or artificial fertilizer. This result suggests that organic manure may be utilized to replace inorganic fertilizer in soybean cultivation.           Keywords: Chicken  manure, cow manure, soybean

Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Kangkung Darat(Ipomeareptans Poir) Diberi Trichokompos Jerami Padi

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

Kang kong (Ipomeareptans Poir) is popular and tasty vegetable mainly grown in tropical asia. In this experiment, we tried to apply rice hay trichocompost to look at if the trichocompost could be utilized for fertilizer in cultivating kang kong.  The research was conducted at the Agriculture Experiment Station, University of Riau from June to July 2013. Five rates of trichocompost was applied and arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Two seed of kang kong were planted each planting hill with planting space of 20 cm x 30 cm in. Plot size was 1,0 m in length and 1,5 m wide.Observations were made for plant height, shoot-root ratio, number of leaves per plant, leaf canopy area, and fresh weight per plant. The results showed that rice hay trichokompost improved plant growth, mainly in plant height, number of leaves and increased production as represented by vegetable fresh weight. However,leaf canopy area and shoot-root ratio showed no significant differences among the rate of trichokompost. The research suggested that rice hay trichocompost may be applied to the rate of 12 tons / ha in order to obtain better growth and higher fresh vegetable yield. Keyword : vegetable, kang kong, trichocompost

Pendugaan Parameter Genetik Populasi Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) Melalui Pengujian F1 Hasil Persilangan Secara Diallel

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Wisuda Februari Tahun 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

The objective of this research were to estimate genetic parameters such as variability, heritability, general combining ability (GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA),  of various agronomic traits in chili population through diallel cross. The research was arranged in a randomized complete block design in which 15 hybrids genotypes created by half diallel cross were evaluated with three replications. Seedlings of twenty eight days old was transplanted to a plot of 1 m x 5 m with planting space of 50 x 50 cm. Ten samples were chosen from each plot to obtain  plant height, height of stem dichotomous, weight per fruit, fruit length, fruit rind thickness, fruit diameter and fruit weight per plant. Data analyses were performed by analyses of variance and then translated to genetic parameters following the Griffing’s methods model IV. The results indicated that the value of GCA and SCA were significant for several characters but not for others. Due to its suitable GCA value, one genotype such as C5 may be selected as one parent to improve agronomic characters such as hastening days to flower and harvest,  increased stem diameter,  thick fruit pulp, fruit diameter, weight per fruit, and fruit weight per plant. Genotypes C120xC5 and C111xC19 may be utilized to improve stem diameter, thick fruit pulp, fruit diameter, weight per fruit, and fruit weight per plant. Heritability were significant for stem height,  dichotomous, stem diameter, fruit length, fruit flesh thickness, fruit diameter, total number of fruits per plant, and fruit weight per plant. Fruit rind thickness, fruit diameter, weight per fruit, and total number of fruits per plant was positively correlated to total fruit weight per plant.   Keywords  : Chili breeding, variability, heritability, combining ability

Pengaruh Pemberian Urin Sapi Yang Difermentasi Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Sawi Hijau (Brassica rafa)

Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian Vol 1, No 2 (2014): Wisuda Oktober 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Online Mahasiswa (JOM) Bidang Pertanian

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Abstract

Green mustard is its broadleaf vegetable crops that is economically potential because of its high demand . Increased production have tended to use inorganic fertilizers and pesticides excessive. In the now widely circulated one organic fertilizer is cow urine. Giving cow urine on the ground to improve the nature of the soil chemistry, soil physics and biological properties of soil. This research was conducted at the Experiment Unit of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau from April to May 2013. Field levels of experimental was arrangenina completely randomized design consisting of 5 fermented cow urine lei U0 : no cow urine, U1 : cow urine 100 ml/l of water, U2 : cow urine 200 ml/l of water, U3 : cow urine 300 ml/l of water, U4 : cow urine 400 ml/l of water. Observations were plant height, leaf number, leaf area, root volume, fresh weight per plant and fresh weight of plant per plot. Application of fermented cow urine to the plant improve palnt growth and all yield components except root volume. Increasing the concentration of fermented cow urine teut to increas crop production. Giving fermented cow urine at concentration of 20% - 40% gives the growth and yield of mustard plant better.  Keyword : Mustar green, Cow urine