Mohammad Zen Rahfiludin
FKM UNDIP Semarang

Published : 5 Documents

Found 5 Documents

Tidak ada perbedaan respon imun perokok berat dan perokok ringan karena asupan mikronutrien Rahfiludin, Mohammad Zen; Ginandjar, Praba

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Background: Smoking may affect cytokine levels, including IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the difference in levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10) based on the degree of smoking, and how the daily intake of nutrient influence the relationship of smoking with cytokines level. Method: This was a cross sectional study. Study subject consisted of 23 adult, healthy, smoker men. Ethical clearance was issued by Commission of Ethics of Medical and Public Health Research, Faculty of Public Health Diponegoro University. Smoking variabel was obtained from questions. Level of cytokines examined consists of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 was measured using ELISA (pg/dl). Nutritional intake was measured by method of 2x24-hour recall. The difference of level of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and daily nutrient intake based on smoking degree was analyzed with Mann Whitney (α 0,05). Result: The result showed no difference in level of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10 found between group of light and heavy smokers. In the group of heavy smokers, daily nutrient intake was higher compare to light smokers. However, the significant difference only found in vitamin C (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Immune response, as measured by level of interferon gamma, interleukin 6 and interleukin 10, do not differ betwen light and heavy smokers due to micronutrient intake Keywords: heavy smoker, light smoker, interferon gamma, interleukin 6, interleukin 10
Pengaruh Suplementasi Seng terhadap CD 4+ Pengidap Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rahfiludin, Mohammad Zen; Pradigdo, Siti Fatimah
Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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ABSTRACT Optimal immune response is needed to viral elimination, but in HIV infection the immune cell is the main target. Zinc has proved to increase immune response to various infection. However, its role in HIV infection has not understood. This study aimed to analyze the effect of zinc supplementation to increase CD4+ in HIV-infected patients. This was an experimental study with pre test post test with control group design. Twenty HIV-infected persons were devided into 2 groups: control group which received Anti Retroviral Therapy (AZT) and the Zn+ART group received 5 mg zinc/d orally for one month and AZT. Field workers visited patients for checking compliance. Venous blood was taken from all of the subjects, the CD4+ cell count was measured and daily nutrient intake was analyzed. CD4+ cell count was determined by flowcytometri method. Daily food intake was determined by two 24 hour recall periods during 2 non consecutive days. Differential test between the two groups was performed using independent t-test or Mann Whitney test, when the distribution was not normal. Analysis of CD4+ differences before and after treatment in each group by paired t-test. The mean of CD4+ before zinc supplementation was 371.3 ± 126.8 cell/μL and increase to 415.2 ± 194.1 cell/μL after supplementation. However the increase 43.9 ± 83.5 cell/μL was not significantly different (p= 0.131). There was not a significant change CD4+ (p= 0.112) between both groups, possibly because the dose and duration of zinc supplementation. Moreover, only one type of micronutrient given (zinc), also led to an increase CD4+ in our study did not significantly. Zinc supplementation in complement with AZT therapy was not significantly increase CD4+ in HIV patients. Keywords: zinc supplementation, CD4+, HIV, AZT.   ABSTRAK Respon imun yang optimal diperlukan untuk pemusnahan virus, namun dalam infeksi HIV justru sel sistem imun yang diserang. Seng telah terbukti dapat meningkatkan respon imun terhadap berbagai infeksi, namun belum banyak diketahui perannya terhadap infeksi HIV. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis efek suplementasi seng terhadap CD4+ pengidap HIV. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimen dengan pre test post test control group design. Dua puluh orang pengidap HIV ikut dalam penelitian ini, dibagi menjadi dua kelompok. Sepuluh orang menerima azidothymidine (AZT) ditambah suplementasi seng dengan dosis 5 mg seng/hari selama satu bulan, sepuluh orang memperoleh AZT saja. Kepatuhan mengkonsumsi AZT dan suplementasi seng dicatat dan disupervisi oleh petugas lapangan. Semua sampel diambil darah venanya, diperiksa CD4+ dan dianalisis masukan zat gizi hariannya. Pengukuran CD4+ dilakukan dengan metode flowcytometri. Data asupan makanan harian dikumpulkan dengan metode recall 2 X 24 jam tidak berturutan harinya. Uji beda antara kedua kelompok
Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan Vol 12, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Food and Nutrition Society of Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (315.953 KB) | DOI: 10.25182/jgp.2017.12.1.41-48


The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors of  Low Birth Weight (LBW) in agricultural area (Breses district) with high pesticide exposure. The research was an observational study with case control design. Study subject were post partum-productive age (20-35 years) women, consisting of 60 cases (LBW) and 60 controls (non-LBW). The independent variables were maternal weight gain during pregnancy, MUAC in early pregnancy, hemoglobin levels in the third trimester body mass index before pregancy and level of pesticides exposure. Nutrient intake data was obtained by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), maternal and child health (KIA) book and data on level of pesticide exposure was obtained through a structured interview. Data were analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio (OR) using logistic regression. There was no differences in  age between cases and controls. Median length, mother’s education level, BMI and MUAC among the cases was lower than the control group. Low protein adequacy level (OR= 8.9; 95%CI:1.6-227.7); less weight gain (OR=9.1; 95%CI:2.9-28,); High pesticides exposure (OR=7.4;  95%CI:1.3-40.9); low MUAC <23.5 cm (OR=4.6; 95%CI:1.3-15.5) were LBW risk factors in Brebes. Inadequacy of nutritients and high pesticides exposure during pregnancy was LBW risk factors. Women are advised to increase nutrients intake and avoid  pesticides exposure during pregnant.
Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Rahfiludin, Mohammad Zen; Dharmawan, Yudhy
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Volume 13, Issue 2, November 2018
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (843.238 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v13i2.1719


Neonatal deaths are associated with preterm birth complications. The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors associated with LBW. This was a crosssectional study held in Bulu Primary Health Care, Temanggung, Central Java, Indonesia. The sample size required for this study was 69 based on the Slovin formula. Data were collected using questionnaires and semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire forms. Data on infant birth weight was taken from midwives’ delivery cohort records. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin level, blood pressure, maternal age, parity, nutritional intake, and serum transferrin receptor data were taken from the infant’s mother using a MUAC tape, automatic blood pressure monitor and blood laboratory analysis by Prodia. Data analysis procedures were carried out with quantitative methods. Descriptive statistics were analyzed as means and standard deviations. Inferential statistics used the chi-square test for bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The results of this study showed thatmean infant birth weight was 2917.68 ± 374.673 kg. Inferential analysis showed that MUAC and pregnancy at a risky age were significant risk factors associated with LBW, while serum transferrin receptor levels, anemia, parity, energy and protein consumption levels, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were nonsignificant risk factors. The probability of LBW in pregnant women with LILA under 23.5 cm and pregnancy at a risky age was 68.9%.
TEKNOLOGI MEDIS DAN JURNAL KESEHATAN UMUM Vol 2 No 2 (2018): Medical Technology and Public Health Journal September 2018
Publisher : UNUSA Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (913.822 KB) | DOI: 10.33086/mtphj.v2i2.566


Physical fitness is one of the most important things especially for teens due to their highactivities. Factors that affect physical fitness such as physical activity and BMI/Age. This study aimsto find out the relationship between body mass index based on age (BMI/Age) and physical activitywith physical fitness of SMKN Jawa Tengah Semarang students. This study use quantitative approachwith cross sectional research method. Population used in this study are 118 tenth graders and thesampel are 55 students. Statistic analysis in this study use Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Rank Spearmantest. The result shows that most of 16-year-olds participants are 39 students (70,9%) and 45 studentsare male. Fourty nine students (81,8%) have normal BMI/Age which 28 participants have kind ofheavy activities and the physical fitness of 31 participants count as good categoy. This study showthere is no relationship between IMT/U with physical fitness (p = 0,252 and r = 0,160) and there isa relationship between physical activity with physical fitness (p = 0,003 and r = 0,391).