Retno Pudji Rahayu
Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia,

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The Prevalence of Human Immunodefiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) Subtypes and Transmission Method among HIV/AIDS Infection Patient in Tulungagung, East Java Indonesia Ardianto, Achmad; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Qushay, M.; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Utomo, Budi; Lusida, Maria Inge; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 5 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs). The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype) HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35%) were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77%) were heterosexual transmission.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Indrawati, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Lukito, Bimo Dwi; Ferdiansyah, Ferdiansyah; Khairunisa, Siti Qomariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

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Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondaryinfections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
The potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen as scaffold on bone defect regeneration process in Rattus norvegicus Rahmitasari, Fitria; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Munadziroh, Elly
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 49, No 1 (2016): (March 2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v49.i1.p22-26

Abstract

Background: In the field of dentistry, alveolar bone damage can be caused by periodontal disease, traumatic injury due to tooth extraction, cyst enucleation, and tumor surgery. One of the ways to regenerate the bone defect is using graft scaffold. Thus, combination of chitosan and collagen can stimulate osteogenesis. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the potential of chitosan combined with chicken shank collagen on bone defect regeneration process. Method: Twelve Rattus norvegicus were prepared as animal models in this research. A bone defect was intentionally created at both of the right and left femoral bones of the models. Next, 24 samples were divided into four groups, namely Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50), Group 2 using chitosan collagen-scaffold (80:20), Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only, and Control Group using 3% CMC-Na. On 14th day, those animals were sacrificed, and histopathological anatomy examination was conducted to observe osteoclast cells. In addition, immunohistochemistry examination was also performed to observe RANKL expressions. Result: There was a significant difference in RANKL expressions among the groups, except between Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only and control group (p value > 0.05). The highest expression of RANKL was found in Group 1 with chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50), followed by Group 2 with chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20). Moreover, there was also a significant difference in osteoclast generation, except between Group 1 using chitosan – collagen scaffold (50:50) and Group 2 using chitosan-collagen scaffold (80:20), p value < 0.05; and between Group 3 using chitosan scaffold only and control group, p value > 0.05. Less osteoclast was found in the groups using chitosan – collagen scaffold (Group 1 and Group 2). Conclusion: Combination of chitosan and chicken shank collagen scaffold can improve regeneration process of bone defect in Rattus novergicus animals through increasing of RANKL expressions, and decreasing of osteoclast.
Analisis heteroplasmy DNA mitokondria pulpa gigi pada identifikasi personal forensik (Heteroplasmy analysis of dental pulp mitochondrial DNA in forensic personal identification) K, Ardyni Febri; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Sosiawan, Agung
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 3 (2013): (September 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i3.p130-134

Abstract

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis of the hypervariable control region has been shown to be an effective tool for personal identification. The high copy and maternal mode of inheritance make mtDNA analysis particularly useful when old samples or degradation of biological samples prohibits the detection of nuclear DNA analysis. Dental pulp is covered with hard tissue such as dentin and enamel. It is highly capable of protecting the DNA and thus is extremely useful. One of the diasadvantages of mitochondrial DNA is heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy is the presence of a mixture of more than one type of an organellar genome within a cell or individual. It can lead to ambiguity in forensic personal identification. Due to that, the evidence of heteroplasmy in dental pulp is needed. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the heteroplasmy occurance of mitocondrial DNA in dental pulp. Methods: Blood and teeth samples were taken from 6 persons, each samples was extracted with DNAzol. DNA samples were amplified with PCR and sequencing to analyze the nucleotide sequences polymorphism of the hypervariable region 1 in mtDNA and compared with revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). results: The dental pulp and blood nucleotide sequence of hypervariable region 1 mitochondrial DNA showed polymorphism when compared with rCRS and heteroplasmy when compared between dental pulp with blood. Conclusion: The study showed that heteroplasmy was found in mithocondrial DNA from dental pulp.latar belakang: Analisis sekuens DNA mitokondria (mtDNA) regio kontrol hypervariable telah terbukti menjadi alat efektif untuk identifikasi personal. Kopi DNA yang banyak dan pewarisan maternal membuat analisis mtDNA sangat berguna ketika sampel lama atau sampel biologis yang terdegradasi menghambat deteksi analisis DNA inti. Pulpa gigi terlindung jaringan keras seperti dentin dan enamel. Hal ini membuat pulpa mampu melindungi DNA dan dengan demikian sangat berguna untuk identifikasi. Salah satu kekurangan DNA mitokondria adalah heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy adalah adanya campuran lebih dari satu jenis genom dalam sel atau individua. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan ambiguitas pada identifikasi pribadi forensik. Oleh sebab itu, identifikasi personal menggunakan pulpa gigi harus memperhatikan kejadian heteroplasmy. tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kejadian heteroplamy DNA mitokondria pada pulpa gigi. Metode: Sampel darah dan gigi diambil dari 6 orang, masing-masing sampel diekstraksi dengan metode DNAzol. Sampel DNA diamplifikasi dengan PCR dan sequencing untuk menganalisis polimorfisme urutan nukleotida di hypervariable region 1 mtDNA dan dibandingkan dengan revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS). hasil: Sekuens nukleotida pulpa gigi dan darah daerah pada hypervariable region 1 DNA mitokondria menunjukkan polimorfisme bila dibandingkan dengan rCRS dan heteroplasmy bila dibandingkan antara pulpa gigi dengan darah. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa heteroplasmy dapat ditemukan pada DNA mitokrondia pulpa gigi.
Combination of Aloe vera and xenograft induction on decreasing of NF-kb of tooth extraction socket preservation in Cavia cobaya Kresnoadi, Utari; Rahayu, Retno Pudji
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 47, No 1 (2014): (March 2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v47.i1.p1-6

Abstract

Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb). As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan pembuatan gigitiruan. Diperlukan preservasi soket pencabutan gigi asli pada penderita untuk mencegah terjadinya resorpsi tulang alveolar. Aloe vera mempunyai komponen anthraquinon yaitu aloin, Aloe emodin, barbaloin yang merupakan anti inflamasi yang dapat secara cepat menyembuhkan luka, sehingga berpotensi untuk digunakan pada preservasi soket. Didalam mengatasi keradangan peran NF-kb sangat berarti, sebab penurunan NF-kb akan mengurangi terjadinya inflamasi. tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji apakah induksi kombinasi lidah buaya dan XCB ke soket pencabutan gigi dapat mengurangi peradangan dengan mengurangi ekspresi NF - kb , osteoklas dan osteoblast. Metode: Empat puluh delapan ekor Cavia cabaya yang terdiri dari 8 kelompok, tiap kelompok 6 ekor, kelompok pengisian PEG (kontrol), kelompok pengisian XCB, kelompok pengisian aloe vera dan kelompok pengisian kombinasi aloe vera dan XCB, kelompok ini terdiri dari kelompok 7 dan 30 hari, kemudian diperiksa dengan imunohistokimia ekspresi NF-kb dan pemeriksaan histologi untuk osteoblas dan osteoklas. Hasil: Kelompok yang diisi kombinasi Alo vera dan xenograft concelous bovine pada soket pencabutan gigi, menunjukan nilai tertinggi dalam pertumbuhan osteoblas dan penurunan pada ekspresi NF-kb dan osteoklas. Simpulan: Induksi kombinasi Aloe vera dan xenograft concelous bovine pada preservasi soket pencabutan gigi dapat menurunkan ekspresi NF-kB dan osteoklas, menurunkan resiko resorpsi tulang alveolar dan meningkatkan osteoblas.
THE PREVALENCE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFIENCY VIRUS-1 (HIV-1) SUBTYPES AND TRANSMISSION METHOD AMONG HIV/AIDS INFECTION PATIENT IN TULUNGAGUNG, EAST JAVA INDONESIA Ardianto, Achmad; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Witaningrum, Adiana Mutamsari; Qushay, M.; Juniastuti, Juniastuti; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Utomo, Budi; Lusida, Maria Inge; Nasronudin, Nasronudin
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 5 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (244.969 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i5.305

Abstract

The rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. There are some factors which have influenced the spreading of this epidemic in Indonesia, such as the poor awareness to avoid unsafe free sex attitude and the sharing of needles and syringes among intravenous drug users (IDUs). The sexual transmission of HIV has also apparently increased in Tulungagung. Commercial sex workers play a significant role in the spread of HIV in Tulungagung. People in Tulungagung have worked at other countries as Indonesian migrants. This condition can cause the increase number of HIV-1 case and the possibility of genetic variation (subtype) HIV-1 in Tulungagung. This research is aimed to analyze the subtype and to determine estimation of transmission mode on infected patient of HIV-1 and AIDS who came to Seruni clinic Dr. Iskak hospital in Tulungagung. 40 HIV?AIDSpatients were interviewed to determine the subtype and the transmission mode. The results showed that 14 of 40 plasma samples (35%) were successfully to amplified and sequenced. OverallCRF01-AE wereidentified as predominant subtype among HIV/AIDS patients in Tulungagung. Based on individual information, 31 of 40 subjects (77%) were heterosexual transmission.
ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Nasronudin, Nasronudin; Indrawati, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Lukito, Bimo Dwi; Ferdiansyah, Ferdiansyah; Khairunisa, Siti Qomariyah; Mutamsari, Adiana; Kotaki, Tomohiro
Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease Vol 5, No 4 (2015)
Publisher : Institute of Topical Disease

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (262.927 KB) | DOI: 10.20473/ijtid.v5i4.2016

Abstract

HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection). Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondary infections were toxoplasm (96.77%), hepatitis C (22.58%), tuberculosis (19.35%), and hepatitis B (3.22%). Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%), and Enterovirus (3.22%). Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals) target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.
The effect of musa acuminata stem in increasing macrophage and neovascular cells of healing process Apriasari, Maharani Laillyza; Puspitasari, Dewi; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Ernawati, Diah Savitri
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (838.226 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol30no2.18324

Abstract

Introduction: Musa acuminata stem has both of imunostimulatory and imunosuppressant effects that are influenced by their concentrations. The study aimed to analyze the effect of Mauli banana stem extract (EMBS) to increase the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing. Methods: Rattus norvegicus of male Wistar strain  were used  as model of traumatic ulcer. The left buccal mucous was biopsied, then used the histopathology method to find the number of macrophage and neovascular cells. Results: EMBS gel was effected when administered at a concentration of 37.5% because it significantly increased the number of macrophage and neovascular cells in traumatic ulcer healing on the 3rd day to 5th days. Conclusion:  It can be concluded that EMBS within concentration of 37.5% can accelerate ulcer healing through the increasing  number of macrophage and neovascular cells.
The effects of Anadara granosa shell-Stichopus hermanni on bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts in the bone defect healing process of Wistar rats Sari, Rima Parwati; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Prananingrum, Widyasri; Revianti, Syamsulina; Kurniawan, Hansen; Bachmid, Aisah Faiz
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 50, No 4 (2017): (December 2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v50.i4.p194-198

Abstract

Background: Bone damage can be caused by various factors with treatment usually involving graft materials being applied to the defective area. Moreover, in the bone defect healing process, blood vessels are also considered to be an important energy source for cell proliferation. One of the angiogenic factors playing an important role in blood vessel formation is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Furthermore, synthesized hydroxyapatite derived from Anadara granosa (AG) shells constitutes one of the potential materials for use in bone graft. The gold sea cucumber genus Stichopus hermanni (SH) possesses the ability to stimulate endothelial progenitor cells inducing bFGF. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effects of AG shells and SH on bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts within the bone healing process. Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: a control group (C), a treatment group was administered with blood cockle shell (AG), and a treatment group with blood cockle shell and golden sea cucumber (AG+SH). Defects were made on their femurs measuring half the diameter of a circular, no. 018. bur These rats were subsequently sacrificed on day 7 after surgery. The expressions of bFGF were measured by means of IHC technique, while the number of blood vessels was quantified using HE technique. The resulting data was subjected to statistical analysis using an Anova test followed by an LSD test (p < 0.05). Results: The one-way Anova test results combined with those of an LSD test showed there to be significant differences in bFGF expressions and blood vessel counts between the control group (K) and the treatment group (AG) as well as between the treatment group (AG) and the treatment group (AG+SH). Conclusions: A combination of Anadara granosa shell and Stichopus hermanni can increase the expression of bFGF and the number of blood vessels on day 7 during the bone healing process in Wistar rats.
Efek ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L) terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster Hernawati, Sri; Rantam, Fedik Abdul; Sudiana, I Ketut; Rahayu, Retno Pudji
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 3 (2013): (September 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20473/j.djmkg.v46.i3.p148-151

Abstract

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer in the oral cavity. DNA tests showed that almost 90% of cases revealed wild p53 gene mutations. Wild p53 gene mutations cause p53 inactivation so the cell cycle does not stop in G1 phase but continues to S phase and G2 and M, it makes the mutated DNA remains multiplied and apoptosis does not occur. One candidate of the cancer treatment alternatives is pomegranate extract (Punica granatum L – PGL). Purpose: The purpose of study was to examine the effect of PGL on wild p53 expression in oral cavity malignant cell of swiss webster strain mice. Methods: Thirty- two swiss webster strain mice (Balb/c) 5 months old were randomly divided into four groups. Two control groups (K0: no benzopirene exposed and untreated; K1: benzopirene exposed and untreated); and 2 treatment groups (P1: benzopirene exposed and given EA; P2: benzopirene exposed and given PGL extract). The expression of wild p53 was determined by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: The results showed that administration of PGL could increase the expression of wild p53 in malignant epithelial cells in the oral mucosa of mice, and the expression was higher than EA. Conclusion: This study suggested that the PGL extract could express wild p53 in the oral cavity malignant cells of swiss Webster strains mice.Latar belakang: Karsinoma sel skuamosa merupakan kanker yang sering terjadi pada rongga mulut. Pemeriksaan DNA menunjukkan hampir 90% kasus dijumpai adanya mutasi gen wild p53. Mutasi gen wild p53 menyebabkan inaktivasi wild p53 sehingga siklus sel tidak berhenti pada fase G1 tetapi berlanjut ke fase S dan G2 dan M, sehingga DNA yang mengalami mutasi tetap dilipatgandakan dan apoptosis tidak terjadi. Salah satu kandidat obat kanker adalah ekstrak buah delima (Punica Granatum L - PGL). Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek ekstrak PGL terhadap ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster. Metode: Tiga puluh dua ekor mencit (Balb/c) strain swiss webster jantan berumur 5 bulan dibagi secara random menjadi 4 kelompok, yaitu 2 kelompok kontrol (K0: tidak dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan; K1: dipapar benzopirene dan tidak diberi perlakuan); serta 2 kelompok perlakuan (P1: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi EA; P2: dipapar benzopirene dan diberi ekstrak PGL). Pemeriksaan ekspresi wild p53 dilakukan dengan teknik  imunohistokimia. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak PGL dapat meningkatkan ekspresi wild p53 pada sel epitel ganas pada mukosa rongga mulut mencit, dan lebih tinggi dibanding dengan pemberian EA. Simpulan: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak PGL dapat meningkatkan ekspresi wild p53 pada sel ganas rongga mulut mencit strain swiss webster