Setyo Sri Raharjo
Pharmacology Laboratory, School of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

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PENGGUNAAN SALEP MINYAK ATSIRI KULIT BUAH JERUK NIPIS (Citrus aurantifolia L.) SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI INFEKSI KULIT OLEH Staphylococcus aureus PADA TIKUS PUTIH (Rattus norvegicus) The antibacterial effect of Lime peel (Citrus aurantifolia L.) essential oil o Raharjo, Setyo Sri; Maryani, Maryani; Kisrini, Kisrini
Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia Vol 3, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (287.003 KB) | DOI: 10.22435/jtoi.v3i1.7868.24-32

Abstract

ABSTRACTThe peel of Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) contains essential oil which might be consisting of various components suchas limonena, linalool, and mirsen. Those chemical compound have been used as antibacterial properties. Thisresearch aimed to find out the antibacterial effect of the essential oil ointment of lime peel against Staphylococcusaureus by in vivo technique. A total of 30 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) aged 2-3 months, weight 150 to 200 gwere randomly divided into 5 groups. After being adapted all rats were assigned burn injury 2 cm in diameter.Staphylococcus aureus isolate 0,1 ml were inoculated with a concentration of 10-3. On day 4 after inoculation,group I (negative control) was lubricated by vaselin album on the wound infection. Group II (positive control) waslubricated by chloramphenicol ointment. Essential oils ointment of lime pell at concentration 20%, 40%, and 80%respectively. All the treatments were given daily for up to 21 days. Administration of 100 mg ointments was givenby using plastic solet. Wound size was observed on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The data were analyzed using ANAVAtest followed by post hoc test. Result on day 3, 7, 14 and 21 showed significant differences among five groups p=0.00 (p <0.005), p= 0.007 (p <0.05), p= 0.007 (p <0.05), and p= 0.007 (p<0.05), respectively. Ointment of essentialoil of lime peel has antibacterial effect on skin infection in rats.Key words: the peel of Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), essential oil, burn injury. ABSTRAKKulit buah jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) mengandung minyak atsiri dengan berbagai komponen sepertilimonena, linalool, dan mirsen yang diduga bermanfaat sebagai antibakteri. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahmengetahui efek antibakteri salep minyak atsiri kulit buah jeruk nipis terhadap Staphylococcus aureus in vivo.Sebanyak 30 ekor tikus putih jantan (Rattus norvegicus) dengan usia 2-3 bulan, berat badan 150-200 g dibagi5 kelompok secara random. Setelah adaptasi lingkungan semua tikus diberi perlukaan dengan cara punggungtikus dicukur bulunya kemudian disemprot dengan chloretyl spray, selanjutnya luka dibuat dengan membuatluka bakar diameter 2 cm. Inokulasi bakteri S. aureus isolate klinik dengan konsentrasi 10-3 sebanyak 0,1mL. Pada hari ke 4 setelah inokulasi, kelompok I (kontrol negatif) diberi vaselin pada luka infeksi. KelompokII (kontrol positif) diolesi salep kloramfenikol. Kelompok III, IV, dan V berturut-turut diolesi salep minyakatsiri kulit buah jeruk nipis konsentrasi 20%, 40%, 80%. Semua perlakuan dilakukan setiap hari selama 21hari. Pemberian salep masing-masing sebanyak 100 mg sekali pemberian dengan menggunakan solet plastik.Setelah disalep luka ditutup dengan kassa steril. Pengamatan luas luka dilakukan pada hari ke1, 3, 7, 14 dan21. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji ANAVA dilanjutkan dengan Post Hoc test. Hasil penelitianpada hari 3, 7, 14 dan 21 menunjukkan ada perbedaan bermakna pada kelima kelompok perlakuan masingmasingdidapat p=0,00 (p<0,005), p=0,007 (p<0,05), p=0,007 (p<0,05), dan p=0,007 (p<0,05). Salep minyakatsiri kulit buah jeruk nipis berpengaruh sebagai antibakteri infeksi kulit oleh S. aureus pada tikus putih.
Path Analysis on the Determinants of Adherence to Anti Tuberculosis Drug Treatment in Kaur District, Bengkulu, Indonesia Hamidi, Surahman; Raharjo, Setyo Sri; Wijaya, Mahendra
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Drug treatment compliance was the behavior of patients to take medication and undergo treatment according to the rules determined by professional health personnels. Many factors influenced the compliance with treatment for tuberculosis patients. This study aimed to examine determinants of drug treatment compliance among tuberculosis patients.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted at 16 community health centers in Kaur Regency, Bengkulu, Indonesia, from January to February 2019. A sample of 206 study subjects was selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was drug treatment adherence. The indepen­dent variables were age, gender, education, income, knowledge, role of drug taking supervisor, side effect of drug treatment, distance to health service, drug availability, family support, and tenure. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by path analysis.Results: Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment was directly and positively affected by age (b= 2.96; CI 95%= 1.12 to 4.79; p= 0.002), gender (b= 1.48; CI 95%= 0.02 to 2.95; p= 0.047), education (b= 2.18; CI 95%= 0.24 to 4.11; p= 0.027), income (b= 0.85; CI 95%= 0.76 to 2.45; p= 0.031), knowledge (b= 2.27; CI 95%= 0.32 to 4.22; p= 0.023), the role of drug taking supervisor (b= 3.46; CI 95%= 1.57 to 5.36; p<0.001), drug availability (b= 0.04; CI 95%= -6.07 to 6.16; p= 0.989), and family support (b= 2.97; CI 95%= 1.30 to 4.64; p<0.001). It was negatively affected by the side effects of the drug (b= -3.07; CI 95%= -4.90 to -1.24; p= 0.001), distance to health service (b= -1.86; CI 95%= -3.61 to -0.11; p= 0.037), and tenure (b= -2.16; CI 95%= -3.95 to -0.38; p= 0.017). Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment was indirectly affected by income, knowledge, and role of drug treatment supervisor.Conclusion: Adherence to anti tuberculosis treatment is directly and positively affected by age, gender, education, income, knowledge, the role of drug taking supervisor, drug availability, and family support. It is negatively affected by the side effects of the drug, distance to health service, and tenure.Keywords : treatment adherence, tuberculosis, determinants, path analysisCorrespondence: Surahman Hamidi. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: surahmanhamidi@student.uns.ac.id. Mobile: 085267­456713.Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(3): 205-214https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.08
The Effects of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Contextual Factor of Village on Stunting in Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia Sugiyanto, Joko; Raharjo, Setyo Sri; Dewi, Yulia Lanti Retno
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health Vol 4, No 3 (2019)
Publisher : Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia

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Abstract

Background: Basic Health Research Results of 2018 stated that 30.8% of Indonesian children experienced Stunting. Stunting problems describe the existence of chronic nutritional problems, which can be influenced by a variety of interrelated factors. This study aimed to examine the determinants of stunting Bontang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia.Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study with a case control design. It was conducted at 15 sub-districts in Bontang, East Kalimantan, from February to April 2019. A sample of 225 children was selected by purposive sampling. The dependent variable was stunting. The independent variables were exclusive breastfeeding, history of infection, low birth weight (LBW), economic status, maternal education, maternal height, basic sanitation, and Community Based Total Sanitation (CBTS) urban village status. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multilevel multiple logistic regression.Results: The risk of stunting decreased with maternal height ≥150 cm (b = -1.37; 95% CI= -2.41 to -0.32; p = 0.010), maternal education ≥senior high school (b = -1.83; 95 % CI= -2.79 to -0.87; p<0.001), exclusive breastfeeding (b= -1.67; 95% CI= -3.28 to -0.06; p= 0.042), and high economic status (b= -1.33; 95% CI= -2.23 to -0.41; p= 0.004). It was increased with number of family members >4 (b= 1.32; 95% CI= 0.41 to 2.22; p= 0.004), history of infectious disease (b= 2.23; 95% CI= 1.32 to 3.14; p<0.001), poor environmental sanitation (b= 1.83; 95% CI= 0.64 to 3.02; p= 0.003), and LBW (b= 1.30; 95% CI= 0.04 to 2.56; p= 0.043). Subdistricts had neglected contextual effect on the incidence of stunting with ICC <1%.Conclusion: The risk of stunting decreases with maternal height ≥150 cm, maternal education ≥senior high school, exclusive breastfeeding, and high economic status. It is increased with number of family members >4, history of infectious disease, poor environmental sanitation, and LBW. Subdistricts has neglected contextual effect on the incidence of stunting.Keywords: stunting,exclusive breastfeeding, multilevel analysisCorrespondence: Joko Sugiyanto. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta, Indonesia. Email: jksgnt@gmail.com.Mobile: 081254261020Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health (2019), 4(3): 222-233 https://doi.org/10.26911/jepublichealth.2019.04.03.10