Eko Rahardjo
Center for Information and Communication Research (CICER), Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

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VALIDASI PEMERIKSAAN INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL SECARA PENDEKATAN SINDROM PADA KELOMPOK WANITA BERPERILAKU RISIKO TINGGI

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 28, No 3&4 Des (2000)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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Abstract

Accurate and adequate treatment of STIs is a critical component of STI-control activities to reduce transmission and sequelaes. On the other hand, chronic shortage in skilled staff and laboratory equipment in many countries necessitate the use of clinical skills more in order to diagnose and differentiate STIs. For these places, the WHO has recommended and produced a protocol of it syndromic approach management of STIs in place of treatment by -etiology. Since 1997 the Indonesia Ministry of Health has been conducting national training on this method. However, the syndromic approach for vaginal discharge is known to be problematic since differentiation among cervicitis, vaginitis, and even normal condition is difficult. The main objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the syndromic approach management of women with signs and/or symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge. The sample population were women with high risk sexual behaviors in East Java and North Sulawesi provinces. The laboratory tests using DNA hybridization probe technique (the PACE 2 test, Gen-Probe, San Diego, Calif.) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were used as gold standard. In addition, we also compared the clinical approach widely used by clinicians (mainly at hospitals) with laboratory results. A total of 439 participants was recruited purposively (230 from E. Java and 209 from N.Sulawesi). In E.Java, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the syndromic management for vaginal discharge are 31%, 83%, and 59%, respectively, and in N.Sulawesi 49%, 56%, and 40%,respectively. The clinical approach did not show better results. In E.Java the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value are 13%, 89%, and 50%, res­pectively, while in N.Sulawesi they are 42%, 61%, and 39%, respectively. As a conclusion, the current form of syndromic management has little use for STI screening among high risk women. Further studies by adding more criteria to the syndromes are needed to improve this method.

RICKETTSIAL DISEASES: RISK FOR INDONESIA

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 23, No 3 Sept (1995)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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Abstract

Penyakit Rickettsia bersifat endemik hampir di seluruh bagian dunia, dan begitu juga di Indonesia. Termasuk dalam penyakit-penyakit rickettsia adalah tifus epidemik, tifus murine, "scrub typhus," dan "spotted fever." Tifus epidemik, yang ditularkan kepada manusia melalui tuma pada tubuh manusia, dan dapat menyebabkan sakit berat dan kematian.   Tifus murine (tifus endemik), bersumber pada pinjal hewan, merupakan penyakit yang mirip tifus epidemik, tetapi dengan gejala-gejala yang lebih ringan dan jarang menyebabkan kematian. "Scrub typhus", merupakan penyakit yang dapat ringan sampai berat dan dapat membahayakan hidup, ditularkan kepada manusia melalui gigitan tungau yang belum dewasa yang dikenal sebagai "chigger". "Spotted fever: (demam yang disertai dengan bintik-bentik pada kulit), disebabkan karena terinfeksi oleh salah satu dari berbagai spesies rickettsia dari kelompok "spotted fever", dan ditularkan kepada manusia oleh pejamu (hospes) vertebrata melalui gigitan caplak (tick) yang terinfeksi. Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh organisma yang menyerupai rickettsia (rickettsia-like organism) adalah: "Q fever", yaitu penyakit yang akut atau kronis yang diduga ditularkan secara alamiah akibat terhirup oleh partikel udara yang terinfeksi Coxiella burnetti sejenis bakteri yang sangat resisten terhadap upaya menonaktifkannya secara kimiawi dan fisik. Bartonellosis atau penyakit Carrion, ditemukan pada daerah dengan ketinggian sedang di Andes, Amerika Selatan. Penyakit ini ditularkan oleh lalat pasir (sand flies). "Trench fever", mirip dengan tifus epidemik, ditularkan kepada manusia oleh tuma; penyakit ini sembuh sendiri. Penyakit garutan kucing (Cat-scratch disease), disebabkan oleh infeksi Bartonella henselae di tempat gigitan atau garutan kucing rumah yang merupakan hospes. Demam sennetsu, merupakan penyakit yang dapat sembuh sendiri dan hanya ditemukan di Jepang dan Malaysia. Pengobatan dengan tetrasiklin atau kloramfenikol untuk penyakit Rickettsia dan penyakit yang menyerupai Rickettsia, serta monositik dan granulositik ehrlichiosis pada manusia, menunjukkan hasil yang baik. Ehrlichiosis pada manusia merupakan penyakit baru yang tidak diketahui penyebarannya di seluruh dunia, sangat mungkin ditularkan oleh "tick". Walaupun umumnya dapat sembuh sendiri, angka kematian ehrlichiosis dilaporkan mencapai 2-10%. Sebagian besar penyakit rickettsia dan penyakit yang menyerupai rickettsia tersebut di atas belum dikaji secara intensif di Asia Tenggara. Walaupun masih terbatas, di Indonesia sudah dilakukan penelitian-penelitian tentang "scrub typhus" dan "murine typhus." Sedangkan penyakit-penyakit yang ada hubungan dengan kutu penyebar Rickettsia seperti "tick typhus" atau "spottedfever", "trench fever", bartonellosis, "Q fever", dan ehrlichiosis masih terabaikan di Indonesia. Tinjauan ini bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan hasil-hasil penelitian tentang penyakit-penyakit rickettsia di Indonesia, dan memperlihatkan berberapa penyakit yang penyebarannya sekarang telah diketahui disebabkan oleh arthropoda.

Design of Generating Dual Frequency Operation for Triangular Microstrip Antenna Using Electromagnetic Coupling

Makara Journal of Technology Vol 9, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

A new design is proposed in this paper by applying a pair of slits using a microstrip feed line. Therefore the microstrip line feeding system is electromagnetically coupled to the patch. The antenna works at two different frequencies in the range from 2 GHz to 4 GHz (S band frequency). The results of the simulation shows that the dual frequency operation can be created when the slit width is 1 mm and the height of the slits ranges from 10 mm to 14 mm with inter slit distance of 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm as well.

Two Element Microstrip Antenna Array with Defected Ground Structure

Makara Journal of Technology Vol 12, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

This paper presents a two element microstrip antenna array using trapezium shape defected ground structure (DGS). The DGS is inserted in the ground plane between two elements of antenna array. Insertion of the DGS is intended to suppress the mutual coupling effect produced by antenna array. Simulation and measurement results were taken and compared between antenna array with and without DGS. Measurement results show that the antenna with DGS compared to antenna without DGS can suppress mutual coupling effect to 7.9 dB, improve the return loss to 33.29% from -30.188 dB to -40.24 dB and axial ratio bandwidth enhancement to 10 MHz. This bandwidth enhancement is achieved from frequency 2.63 GHz – 2.67 GHz for antenna without DGS and from frequency 2.63 GHz – 2.68 GHz for antenna with DGS. In addition, the DGS antenna also improved the antenna gain to 0.6 dB. The results show that the implementation of the trapezium DGS can improve the radiation properties of the antenna without DGS.

Circularly Polarized Microstrip Array Antenna for Ground Segment in Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

Makara Journal of Technology Vol 16, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

In satellite communication system, antenna plays an important role. Therefore, the antenna must meet some requirements, such as high gain, circular polarization, and good directivity. In this paper, a four element linear array triangular patch microstrip antenna with cross slot is designed to be used for Quasi-Zenith satellite system. A simulation study as well as experimental study was carried out. The simulation showed that the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 87 MHz (2.569-2.656 GHz) is achieved while the measured results showed 96 MHz (2.556-2.652 GHz). The linear array of 4 element antenna has a gain of 13.73 dB and maximum radiation pattern at 40° and -40°. Simulation and experiment results show that this antenna has met the characteristic requirements of Quasi-Zenith satellite.