Ekowati Rahajeng
Peneliti Pusat Teknologi Intervensi Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Determinants in Indonesia Rahajeng, Ekowati; Tuminah, Sulistyowati
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 59 No. 12 December 2009
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

In developing countries, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and depression will immediately substitute communicable diseases and malnutrition as cause of early mortality as well as disability. The result of Basic Health Research 2007 conducted in Indonesia showed that non-communicable disease which caused the highest proportion of mortality was cardiovascular disease (31.9%) included hypertension (6.8%) and stroke (15.4%). The aims of this study were to evaluate: (1) hypertension prevalence in Indonesia based on blood pressure measurements and interview about of the history of diseases; (2) characteristics and determinants of hypertension in Indonesia; (3) the risk factors of hypertension. This valuable information could guide evidence based plans on prevention and control program of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in Indonesia. This study used cross sectional design for prevalence analysis and case control design for risk factor analysis. For case control analysis, the cases were respondents who had systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and/or diastolic >90 mmHg (new hypertension case). While controls were the respondents who had systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg and diastolic <90 mmHg and they never have been diagnosed by health officer. The analysis was done using multivariate regression logistic complex samples analysis. The hypertension prevalence in Indonesia based on measurements and diseases history was 32.2%. The significant risk factors were elderly (OR 11.5), male gender (OR 1.3), low education (OR 1.6), obesity (OR 2.8), and abdominal obesity (OR 1.4). However, prevention programs and control of NCD and its risk factors will be needed to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia.Keywords: hypertension, prevalence, determinants
Dyspeptic Syndrome in Urban Population of Jakarta Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Santi, Aan; Rahajeng, Ekowati
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2, August 2010
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Background:  Dyspeptic syndrome is experienced by many patients who visit general practitioners and gastroenterologist. In Indonesia, a small number of epidemiological data about dyspeptic syndrome are available. The aim of this study was to obtain data on prevalence, characteristics and factors/lifestyle associated with dyspeptic syndrome in urban population of Jakarta. Method: The study was conducted by interview to 1,645 respondents representing the population of Jakarta in the year 2007 using the Steps WHO version 1.4 instruments. The selection of respondents was performed by multistage cluster random sampling, i.e. each municipality is represented by one district and each was represented by a number of villages and respondents interviewed at random. Dyspeptic syndrome is defined whenever there is one or more complaints of nausea, vomiting, belching, epigastric pain, no appetite, early satiety, bloating. Scoring was performed for each category of questions using wstep1 method prior to the analysis. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test or t-test. Results: Of the 1,645 respondents, the prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome was 58.1%. The most apparent clinical complaint ranges consecutively, i.e. nausea 30.1%, epigastric pain 28.7%, bloating 23.8%, etc. Dyspeptic syndrome is significantly more often experienced by female respondents (p < 0.001). Dyspeptic syndrome were more common in respondents who have less/no fruit (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.049) intake. Dyspeptic syndrome is more common in respondents with anxiety and depression (p < 0.001) also in respondents who consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome in Jakarta urban population is 58.1%. Dyspeptic syndrome was more common in female, respondents who have less / no fruit and vegetables intake, in respondents who experienced anxiety and depression and respondents who consume NSAIDs. Keywords: dyspeptic syndrome, Jakarta, urban population, prevalence
PENGARUH PENERAPAN KAWASAN TANPA ROKOK TERHADAP PENURUNAN PROPORSI PEROKOK DI PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA, DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA DAN BALI Rahajeng, Ekowati
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan Vol 14, No 3 Sep (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Upaya Kesehatan Masyarakat

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This study aimed to find out the effect of the implementation of the Smoke-Free Area policy on reducing smokers’ proportion. This research was an  ecological studies design, which compares 2007 to 2013 smoker proportion by implementation of the local Smoke-Free Area policy in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Bali and West Sulawesi. This study was done by analytical conceptual approach, as well as the comparative approach. The result showed that the implementation of the local Smoke-Free Area policy tend to have influence on reducing the proportion of daily smokers. Factors that contributing were commitment of the local government; consistency of law enforcement; regular supervision; stakeholder compliance; positive support from education and tourism sector; and active participation of civil society organizations.
PENGARUH KONSUMSI KOPI TERHADAP KEJADIAN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 (Studi Follow up Gangguan Toleransi Glukosa di Depok Jawa Barat Tahun 2001-2008) Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 33, No 2 (2010): September 2010
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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EFFECT OF COFFEE CONSUMPTION FOR THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS(Follow up Study for Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Depok, West Java 2001-2008)Coffee consumption is known to increase the risk of the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Effect of coffee consumption on the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes has been investigated in 289 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) through prospective cohort studies since 2001 in Depok City, West Java. Coffee drinking habits was collected through measure of caffeine content were consumed. Caffeine content was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) using the method High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Diagnosis of IGT determined based on examination results of fasting blood glucose levels ie lower 126 mg / dL and 2 hours after 75 g glucose load blood glucose levels ie 140-199 mg / dL. Diagnosis of diabetes melitus determined by the basis of the results of clinical examination and results of fasting blood glucose levels, ie ≥ 126 mg / dL and/or results of blood glucose 2 hours after glucose load, ie ≥ 200mg/dl. The follow-up study, to confirm these effects was conducted in 2008. Multinomial logistic multivariate analysis of coffee consumption habits and all variables equally harmful risk of incident type 2 diabetes suggests that coffee consumption with caffein content of 240-359,9 mgcaffein had high risk of type 2 diabetes with RR value 3.88 (95% CI 1.20, 8.75), and RR for coffee consumption with caffein content >= 360 mg caffein daily was 5.46 (95% CI 1.57, 11.86). Another factors was contribut to the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is high fat consumption with RR 4.64 (95% CI 1.90, 10.28), obesity with RR 4.04 (95% CI 1.31, 8.27 ), and hypertriglyceride with RR 4.99 (95% CI 1.55, 10.19). High fiber consumption, and high physical activity was found to prevent Type 2 diabetes with RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.10, 0.70) and RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.18, 0.68).Keywords: coffee consumption, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE Rahajeng, Ekowati; Riyadina, Woro
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day) on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up) in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.
SURVIVAL RATE PENYANDANG HIPERTENSI DENGAN KONSUMSI NATRIUM RENDAH TERHADAP KEJADIAN STROKE Rahajeng, Ekowati; Riyadina, Woro
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 39, No 2 (2016): September 2016
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability in the world. Several studies have shown that stroke can be prevented through modifiable risk factors. The adequate treatment of hypertension may reduce the risk of stroke. Lifestyle modification such as reducing salt intake in hypertension management have demonstrated lowering blood pressure, enhancing the effectiveness of antihypertension drugs and also reducing stroke risk. This study aims to verify the survival rate of hypertension with lower sodium intake (<2000 mg per day) on the incidence of stroke. The study was conducted through a prospective cohort study (4 years of follow-up) in 1082 people with confirmed hypertension. Stroke were confirmed by neurologist. The consumption of sodium, sugar and fat were collected through 24-hour dietary recall. Hypertension survival rate was calculated using Life Table Survival analysis. This study has demonstrated evidence of the higher survival rate of hypertension with low sodium intake on the incidence of stroke, with the difference 2-year survival rate is 3 percent higher and 4-year survival rate is 5 percent higher. Sodium consumption of <2000 mg per day in people with hypertension has prevented a 78 percent incidence of stroke. Therefore, the intervention programs to reduce of the consumption of salt or sodium in Indonesia should be prioritized.
Dyspeptic Syndrome in Urban Population of Jakarta Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Santi, Aan; Rahajeng, Ekowati
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2, August 2010
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (0.036 KB) | DOI: 10.24871/112201066-70

Abstract

Background:  Dyspeptic syndrome is experienced by many patients who visit general practitioners and gastroenterologist. In Indonesia, a small number of epidemiological data about dyspeptic syndrome are available. The aim of this study was to obtain data on prevalence, characteristics and factors/lifestyle associated with dyspeptic syndrome in urban population of Jakarta. Method: The study was conducted by interview to 1,645 respondents representing the population of Jakarta in the year 2007 using the Steps WHO version 1.4 instruments. The selection of respondents was performed by multistage cluster random sampling, i.e. each municipality is represented by one district and each was represented by a number of villages and respondents interviewed at random. Dyspeptic syndrome is defined whenever there is one or more complaints of nausea, vomiting, belching, epigastric pain, no appetite, early satiety, bloating. Scoring was performed for each category of questions using wstep1 method prior to the analysis. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square test or t-test. Results: Of the 1,645 respondents, the prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome was 58.1%. The most apparent clinical complaint ranges consecutively, i.e. nausea 30.1%, epigastric pain 28.7%, bloating 23.8%, etc. Dyspeptic syndrome is significantly more often experienced by female respondents (p < 0.001). Dyspeptic syndrome were more common in respondents who have less/no fruit (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.049) intake. Dyspeptic syndrome is more common in respondents with anxiety and depression (p < 0.001) also in respondents who consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of dyspeptic syndrome in Jakarta urban population is 58.1%. Dyspeptic syndrome was more common in female, respondents who have less / no fruit and vegetables intake, in respondents who experienced anxiety and depression and respondents who consume NSAIDs. Keywords: dyspeptic syndrome, Jakarta, urban population, prevalence
Trigliserida sebagai Faktor Prognosis untuk Hipertensi Tidak Terkendali pada Wanita Pasca Menopause di Kota Bogor, Tahun 2014 Riyadina, Woro; Kodim, Nasrin; Bantas, Krisnawati; Trihandini, Indang; Sartika, Ratu Ayu Dewi; Martha, Evi; Madanijah, Siti; Turana, Yuda; Rahajeng, Ekowati
Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 45, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22435/bpk.v45i2.6273.89-96

Abstract

AbstractFurther analysis aimed to determine the new cut-off correlation between blood triglyceride levels withuncontrolled hypertension among 888 postmenopausal women from two-year follow up of the cohort studyin Bogor. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as the average of systolic and diastolic are &gt;140mmHgand &gt;90mmHg consecutively with no underlying diseases and systolic is &gt;130mmHg with co-morbidityat the end of 2-year follow up. The covariate variables included demography, behavior and biologicalfactors. The new triglyceride’s cut off was determined by ROC curve with 65% sensitivity and 68%specificity. Data were analyzed with multiple logistic regression. Blood triglyceride level significantlycorrelated with uncontrolled hypertension (p=0.007) after adjusted with LDL, postprandial blood sugarand sodium intake. Triglyceride levels of 108-149mg/dl resulted in OR of 1.54 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.48),150-199mg/dl showed OR of 2.04 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.93) and level of &gt;200 indicated an OR 2.1 (95% CI1.02 to 4.30) compared to normal level (&lt;108mg/dl). Triglyceride level of 108mg/dl is a new cut-off todetermine uncontrolled hypertension in postmenopausal women in the study area. Blood triglyceride’slevel can be used as a prognostic factor for hypertensive patients to monitor blood pressure increment.Key words: triglycerides, uncontrolled hypertension, postmenopause.  AbstrakAnalisis lanjut bertujuan untuk menentukan cut off baru kadar trigliserida dan hubungan trigliserida denganhipertensi tidak terkendali pada wanita paska menopause di 5 Kelurahan Kota Bogor tahun 2014. Analisislanjut data wanita pasca menopause dengan hipertensi 888 orang, merupakan bagian dari data penelitian“Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular” selama periode pengamatan 2 tahun (2011-2013dan 2012-2014). Data dikumpulkan dengan metode wawancara, pengukuran dan pemeriksaan. Hipertensitidak terkendali jika rata-rata tekanan darah sistolik &gt; 140 mmHg dan diastolik &gt; 90 mmHg tanpa penyakitlain dan sistolik &lt; 130 mmHg dengan komorbiditas penyakit pada akhir follow up 2 tahun. Trigliseridadarah merupakan hasil pemeriksaan laboratorium. Variabel kovariat meliputi faktor demografi, perilakudan biologis. Penentuan cut off trigliserida baru dengan kurva ROC dengan sensitifitas 65% dan spesifitas68%. Data dianalisis dengan uji regresi logistik ganda. Kadar trigliserida dalam darah berhubunganbermakna dengan hipertensi tidak terkendali pada p=0,007 setelah mengendalikan faktor kolesterol LDL,gula darah postpandrial dan asupan natrium. Kadar trigliserida 108-149 mg/dl menunjukkan OR 1,54(95% CI 0,95 – 2,48), kadar 150-199 mg/dl memperlihatkan OR 2,04 (95% CI 1,06 – 3,93) dan kadar≥200 menunjukkan OR 2,1 (95% CI 1,02 – 4,30) dibandingkan dengan kadar normal (&lt;108 mg/dl).Kadar trigliserida 108 mg/dl merupakan cut off baru untuk menentukan hipertensi tidak terkendali padawanita paska menopause. Kadar trigliserida dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai faktor prognosis bagi penderitahipertensi untuk pemantauan peningkatan tekanan darah.Kata kunci: trigliserida, hipertensi tidak terkendali, paska menopause
PENGARUH KONSUMSI KOPI TERHADAP KEJADIAN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 (Studi Follow up Gangguan Toleransi Glukosa di Depok Jawa Barat Tahun 2001-2008) Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 33, No 2 (2010): September 2010
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Abstract

EFFECT OF COFFEE CONSUMPTION FOR THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS(Follow up Study for Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Depok, West Java 2001-2008)Coffee consumption is known to increase the risk of the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Effect of coffee consumption on the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes has been investigated in 289 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) through prospective cohort studies since 2001 in Depok City, West Java. Coffee drinking habits was collected through measure of caffeine content were consumed. Caffeine content was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) using the method High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Diagnosis of IGT determined based on examination results of fasting blood glucose levels ie lower 126 mg / dL and 2 hours after 75 g glucose load blood glucose levels ie 140-199 mg / dL. Diagnosis of diabetes melitus determined by the basis of the results of clinical examination and results of fasting blood glucose levels, ie ≥ 126 mg / dL and/or results of blood glucose 2 hours after glucose load, ie ≥ 200mg/dl. The follow-up study, to confirm these effects was conducted in 2008. Multinomial logistic multivariate analysis of coffee consumption habits and all variables equally harmful risk of incident type 2 diabetes suggests that coffee consumption with caffein content of 240-359,9 mgcaffein had high risk of type 2 diabetes with RR value 3.88 (95% CI 1.20, 8.75), and RR for coffee consumption with caffein content >= 360 mg caffein daily was 5.46 (95% CI 1.57, 11.86). Another factors was contribut to the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is high fat consumption with RR 4.64 (95% CI 1.90, 10.28), obesity with RR 4.04 (95% CI 1.31, 8.27 ), and hypertriglyceride with RR 4.99 (95% CI 1.55, 10.19). High fiber consumption, and high physical activity was found to prevent Type 2 diabetes with RR 0.37 (95% CI 0.10, 0.70) and RR 0.42 (95% CI 0.18, 0.68).Keywords: coffee consumption, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
OBESITAS SENTRAL PADA ORANG DEWASA: STUDI KOHOR PROSPEKTIF DI KOTA BOGOR Sudikno, Sudikno; Riyadina, Woro; Rahajeng, Ekowati
GIZI INDONESIA Vol 41, No 2 (2018): September 2018
Publisher : PERSATUAN AHLI GIZI INDONESIA

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Central obesity is one of the public health problems in developing countries. This study aims to analyze the dynamic risk factors for central obesity in adults. This study used secondary data "Cohort Study of Non-Communicable Diseases Risk Factors" observing period for six years. The study design was a prospective cohort. The subjects were all household members aged 25 years and above with the criteria remaining in the study area, healthy, non-physically disabled, non-pregnant, having normal abdominal circumference (male ≤ 90 cm and female ≤80 cm) on baseline study, not suffering from non-communicable diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) at the baseline of the study, and completeness of the data. The number of subjects at the baseline of the study were 1510, consisting of 613 men and 897 women. The results showed that a cumulative incidence of central obesity during the 6-year observation period of 837 (55.4%). Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that the risk factors for central obesity in adults were gender, age group, marital status, and physical activity. This study concluded that female subjects with physical inactivity had more central obesity compared to male subjects with physical inactivity.ABSTRAK Obesitas sentral merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat di negara berkembang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor risiko dinamis terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder “Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko Penyakit Tidak Menular (FRPTM)” periode pemantauan selama enam tahun. Desain penelitian adalah kohor prospektif. Subjek adalah semua anggota rumah tangga yang berumur 25 tahun ke atas dengan kriteria tetap tinggal di wilayah penelitian, sehat, tidak cacat fisik, subjek perempuan tidak hamil, memiliki lingkar perut normal (laki-laki ≤ 90 cm dan perempuan ≤80 cm) pada awal studi, tidak menderita penyakit tidak menular (hipertensi, diabetes mellitus, kanker, strok, PPOK) pada awal studi, dan kelengkapan data. Jumlah subjek pada awal penelitian 1510 orang, yang terdiri dari 613 laki-laki dan 897 perempuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kumulatif insiden obesitas sentral selama 6 tahun periode pengamatan sejumlah 837 orang (55,4%). Hasil analisis multivariat cox regression menunjukkan bahwa faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas sentral pada orang dewasa adalah jenis kelamin, kelompok umur, status kawin, dan aktivitas fisik. Penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa subjek perempuan dengan aktivitas fisik kurang lebih cepat mengalami obesitas sentral dibandingkan subjek laki-laki dengan aktivitas fisik kurang. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, obesitas sentral, dewasa