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Nitrogen Resorption and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Cacao Agroforestry Systems Managed Differently in Central Sulawesi TRIADIATI, TRIADIATI; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN; GUHARDJA, EDI; SUDARSONO, SUDARSONO; QAYIM, IBNUL; LEUSCHNER, CHRISTOPH
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 14, No 4 (2007): December 2007
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

Cacao agroforestry is a traditional form of agriculture practiced by the people of Central Sulawesi. These agroforestry systems vary from a simple system following selective cutting of forest trees, to a more sophisticated planting design. The cacao was planted under remaining forest covers (CF1), under planted trees (CF2), and between shade trees Gliricidia sepium (CP). The objectives of this study were to quantify nitrogen use efficiency (N NUE) and nitrogen resorption in cacao agroforestry systems. The N NUE at the ecosystem scale (N NUEES) for the cacao agroforestry systems were compared with the natural forest. The results showed that CP produced the highest litterfall and cacao foliar nitrogen. CP and CF1 produced litterfall and the nitrogen resorption that not were significantly different. In contrast, CF2 produced the lowest litterfall, hence required lower nitrogen supply. The nitrogen resorption of CF2 was less than that of CF1 and CP. However, N NUE in cacao plant (N NUEC) of CF2 was higher than that of the CP. The N NUEES of either CF1 or CF2 were similar to that of the natural forest, but higher than that of the CP. Using shade trees in cacao plantations increased foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen resorption, N NUEC and N NUEES; thus, might be one reason for a higher productivity of cacao in unshaded systems. Key words: cacao agroforestry system, cacao foliar nitrogen, nitrogen resorption, N NUE
Kandungan, Resorpsi N dan P serta Specifi c Leaf Area Daun Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) pada Cekaman Kekeringan Prihastanti, Erma; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Sopandie, Didy; Qayim, Ibnul; Leuschner, Christoph
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Plant nutrient absorptions depend on their environment and plants’ stage of development. Beside from soil, nutrient absorption also proceed through resorption in leaves. The resorption efficiency varies based on types of habitat. Drought stress also influences the efficiency of nutrient resorption, growth rate, and plant development. The purpose of this research was to study the change of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content and leaf resorption value of N and P, and specifi  c leaf area of 6-years old cacao  grown under drought stress. Research was carried out in a cacao plantation with 7-years old Gliricidia sepium Jacq. as shading trees. The results showed that drought stress with Troughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) system did not affect the content and resorption level of N and P of cacao leaves. However, N resorption of cacao leaves tended to increase while P resorption decreased. Cacao plants experienced drought stress have the ability to resorp leaf N for 46.64-50.63%, leaf P  for 47.98-58.40%, whereas, the control plants had the leaf N resorption of 45.05-52.97%, and leaf P resorption of 36.64-44.10%. Drought stress for 13 months on 6-years old cacao did not affect  specific  c leaf area.   Keywords: drought stress, N and P resorption, specifi  c leaf area, Theobroma cacao L.
Struktur dan Komposisi Mangrove di Pulau Kaledupa Taman Nasional Wakatobi, Sulawesi Tenggara Jamili, Jamili; Setiadi, Dede; Qayim, Ibnul; Guhardja, Edi
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 14, No 4 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis, menguraikan struktur, dominasi vegetasi mangrove, zonasi, dan permudaan alami di Pulau Kaledupa Taman Nasional Wakatobi. Sampling vegetasi menggunakan metode transek garis dan metode plot. Data vegetasi mangrove diperoleh melalui pengamatan dari setiap plot. Untuk strata pohon, tiang dan sapihan, parameter yang diamati meliputi nama spesies, jumlah individu masing-masing spesies, dan ukuran diameter batang setinggi dada. Sedangkan untuk strata semai dihitung jumlah cacah individu masingmasing spesies. Data periode dan tinggi penggenangan pada saat air pasang, diukur pada  plot pengamatan setiap hari selama 30 hari. Dominasi vegetasi mangrove ditentukan dengan parameter nilai penting, zonasi dengan parameter kerapatan relatif, dan permudaan alami vegetasi  mangrove dianalisis  dengan menggunakan nilai kerapatan total semai setiap plot pengamatan. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa komunitas mangrove di Pulau Kaledupa pada strata pohon didominasi oleh spesies Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, strata tiang didominasi oleh spesies Rhizophora mucronata, dan pada strata sapihan dan semai didominasi oleh spesies Ceriops tagal. Zonasi  mangrove di Pulau Kaledupa terdiri atas empat  zona, yaitu Zona R. mucronata, R. apiculata, Ceriops tagal, dan C.decandra. Tinggi penggenangan air laut merupakan faktor pengendali terjadinya zonasi mangrove di Pulau Kaledupa. Spesies C.tagal dan C.decandra memiliki tingkat permudaan alami baik, sedangkan spesies R. mucronata, R.apiculata, B.gymnorrhiza, Xylocarpus granatum, Sonneratia alba, dan Avicennia marina memiliki permudaan secara alami rendah. Kata kunci: Vegetasi mangrove, zonasi, struktur, komposisi  This research was aimed to describe the structure, dominance of mangrove vegetation, zonation,  and natural regeneration at Kaledupa Island of Wakatobi National Park. Sampling of vegetation used line transect and plot methods.  Data of mangrove vegetation was obtained through observation of each plot at all growth phases (trees, poles, sapling and seedling) covering species name, number of individual of each species, and size of the breast height diameter of stem. Data of water inundation at high tide was measured at each observation plot. Observation was conducted for 30 days. Dominance of mangrove vegetation was determined by importance value parameter, zonation by relative density parameter and natural regeneration by seedling density. Results of this research found that mangrove community at Kaledupa Island at trees stratum were dominated by species Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, poles stratum was dominated by species Rhizophora mucronata, and at sapling and seedling stratum were dominated by species Ceriops tagal. Mangrove zonation at Kaledupa Island consisted of four zones, that are R. mucronata, R. apiculata, C. taga, and C. decandra zone. Height of seawater inundation is controlling factor of formation of mangrove zonation at Kaledupa Island. Species C. tagal  and C. decandra had high level of natural regeneration, while species R.mucronata, R. apiculata, B. gymnorrhiza, Xylocarpus granatum, Sonneratia alba, and Avicennia marina had low natural regeneration. Key words : mangrove, zonation, structure, composition
Nutrient Content of Seagrasss Enhalus acoroides Leaves in Barranglompo and Bonebatang Islands: Implication to Increased Antrhropogenic Pressure Amri, Khairul; Setiadi, Dede; Qayim, Ibnul; Djokosetianto, D
ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 16, No 4 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Seiring dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk di daerah pesisir, tekanan terhadap ekosistem pantai semakin meningkat pula.  Untuk mengetahui dampak dari aktifitas anthropogenik terhadap status hara (karbon, nitrogen dan fosfor) pada lamun telah dilaksanakan penelitian pada dua pulau di Kepulauan Spermonde yakni Pulau Barranglompo dan Bonebatang.  Kedua pulau ini mendapat tekanan anthropogenik berbeda. Sampel diambil dari daun lamun Enhalus acoroides pada tiga stasiun dengan jarak berbeda dari garis pantai pada masing-masing pulau.  Hasil pengukuran hara menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi nitrogen di Pulau Barranglompo jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan Pulau Bonebatang.  Nilai rasio C:N yang lebih rendah dan nilai rasio N:P yang lebih tinggi di Pulau Barranglompo memperkuat hal ini. Perbedaan ini mengindikasikan pengaruh dari pengayaan hara akibat aktifitas anthropogenik yang semakin meningkat. Hal ini didukung oleh nilai Total Padatan tersuspensi yang jauh lebih tinggi di Pulau Barranglompo dibandingkan Pulau Bonebatang. Aktifitas anthropogenik yang paling potensial mempengaruhi komposisi hara di Pulau Barranglompo adalah pembuangan sampah rumah tangga dan aliran limbah cair dari rumah penduduk di sekitar pantai. Kata kunci: lamun, hara, rasio C:N:P, aktifitas anthropogenik, Barranglompo, Bonebatang As human population increase in coastal areas, significant pressure to the coastal ecosystem increase as well.  In order to reveal possible impacts of anthropogenic activities to the nutrient status of seagrasses, a study has been done in two small islands within Spermonde Archipelago i.e. Barranglompo and Bonebatang Islands. Currently, these two islands are facing different anthropogenic pressure.  Samples of seagrass Enhalus acoroides were collected from three stations based on their different distances from the shoreline.  Results of the nutrient measurements showed that nitrogen concentrations in Barranglompo Island were significantly higher than those in Bonebatang Island.  This was supported by lower C:N ratios and higher N:P ratios in Barranglompo Island.  This difference indicated influence of nutrient enrichment due to increased anthropogenic activities.  Significantly higher Total Suspended Solid (TSS) values were also a strong evidence of this process.  Potential anthropogenic activities affecting nutrient composition in Barranglompo Island are domestic sewage disposal and drainage of liquid household sewage. Key words: seagrass, nutrient, C:N:P ratio, anthropogenic activities, Barranglompo,  Bonebatang
Habitat Characteristic of Sago Palm (Metroxylon spp.) at the Seram Island, Maluku Botanri, Samin; Setiadi, Dede; Guhardja, Edi; Qayim, Ibnul; Prasetyo, Lilik B.
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 34, No 1 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) is a tropical plant adapted to marginal land such as fresh water swamp, peat swamp or brackish water.  The objective of the researche is to identify physical and chemical habitat characteristics of sago palm in the Seram island, Maluku.  The research was conducted in nine months from March to November 2009.  The observation was conducted at three samples area, namely Luhu (West Seram District), Sawai (Central Maluku District), and Werinama (East Seram  District).  Soil and water samples were taken at samples area and analyzed at Soil Research Center Laboratory, Bogor.  Result showed that sago palm at the Seram island can be found at four different habitat types, namely: 1) upland habitat/dry land, 2) temporary inundated fresh water swamp, 3) temporary inundated brackish water, and 4) permanent inundated fresh water swamp.  Soil texture of these habitats characterized by clay-loam and silty-clay with average bulk density of about 1.20.  The soil has acidic reaction that consists of medium soil organic and having medium cation exchange capacity (CEC).  Except for Fe and Al which were high, the nutrient content of the soil was very low. Salinity of water was less than 1.0 ppt (part per thousand).  Nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-) and other cation such us NH4+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were found relatively high in water.  Micro climate condition under sago stands (clump of Sago) such us temperature, relative humidity, and sun radiation intensity are low with very narrow fluctuation.  Micro-climate conditions were characterized by temperature ranging from 22,69oC to 23,94oC, meanwhile relative humidity ranging from 87,97 to 91,60%.  In case of  sun light intensity at near clump of sago palm reached of about 206,53 lux (12,40%).   Keywords: habitat type, Metroxylon spp., land, micro climate, Seram Island
Keanekaragaman dan struktur komunitas semut pada perkebunan lada di Lampung Yudiyanto, Yudiyanto; Qayim, Ibnul; Munif, Abdul; Setiadi, Dede; Rizali, Akhmad
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 11, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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Abstract

The occurrence of ants in agricultural habitat is related to the availability of food resources as well as environmental condition for its nesting site. As predator, ants play an important role on controlling pest population in agricultural habitat. The objective of this research was to study the diversity of ants in pepper plantation. The research outcome can be used as basic information for cultivation management of pepper. Ecological observation was conducted in four regencies in Lampung Province with two selected plots on each regency. On each plot, ants were sampled using pitfall traps. In total, 28 ant species were recorded from pepper field in four regencies. Two species i.e. Anoplolepis gracilipes and Solenopsis geminataare well-known as tramp and invasive species. There is significantly different of ant species composition among regencies. The occurrence of ants in pepper plantationis probably affected by habitat condition surrounding pepper plantation and precipitation.
FENOLOGI DAN DINAMIKA KANDUNGAN KLOROFIL PADA PEMBUNGAAN DUA SPESIES BELIMBING HUTAN (Averrhoa dolichocarpa DAN Averrhoa leucopetala) Mangunah, Mangunah; Qayim, Ibnul; Astuti, Inggit Puji
Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Buletin Kebun Raya Vol. 16 (2) Juli 2013
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

Averrhoa dolichocarpa is a wild starfruit from Papua and Averrhoa leucopetala is a wild starfruit from Gorontalo. Both starfruits have unique characters of the leaves, inflorescence, flowers, and fruits. The study was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012 by observing the wild starfruits collections of Bogor Botanical Garden. Innitiation of Averrhoa dolichocarpa inflorescence takes 8-14 days, the small bud growing in 11-15 days, after one day the large bud will open and the anthesis last after 3 days. The fruit will develop and mature after 40-45 days. The flower and fruit drop rate is quite high, mostly caused by strong wind. The chlorophyll content of the leaves are very dynamic and influence by the environment and the wide of the canopy. Whereas initiation of Averrhoa leucopetala inflorescence needs 30-34 days, the small bud growing in 12-15 days, the large flower bud will open after 1 day, anthesis last after 5 days, and the fruit development needs 40-42 days to mature. Anthesis of the flowers occurred at 4:00 to 6:00 a.m. The flower and fruit drop rate is also quite high. The chlorophyll content is more static and tends to increase when the fruit developed.
PERUBAHAN STRUKTUR DAN KEPADATAN TRIKOMATA NON GLANDULER SERTA LUAS DAUN KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L.) PADA PERLAKUAN STRES KEKURANGAN AIR Prihastanti, Erma; T, Soekisman; Soepandi, Didie; Qayim, Ibnul
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 17 Issue 1 Year 2009
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

ABSTRACT--Cacao  is the one  important  crop in Indonesia. Water  stress  is perhaps  the major factor  limiting  crop growth. Plant responses to water stress  include morphological of biochemical changes. This reserch was aimed studying  strtructure and density of non glanduler  trichomes, and leaf area on cacao leaves on drought experiment.  The drought studies used throughfall displacment experiment  (TDE). The result show that cacao leaves have non glanduler trichomes type stellat. Non Glanduler trichomes were distributed throughtout the vein of leaves with distribution in abaxial parts of the leaves. TDE give non significant effect to trichomes density and Ieaf area. The highest trichomes  happened  on March 2008  6.9861/cm2. Leaf area on shade Ieaves  (273,56 cm2) more higher than sun leaves  (235,50 cm2). Keyword : Trichomes  non  glanduler, cacao leaves, leaf area
FENOLOGI DAN DINAMIKA KANDUNGAN KLOROFIL PADA PEMBUNGAAN DUA SPESIES BELIMBING HUTAN (Averrhoa dolichocarpa DAN Averrhoa leucopetala) Mangunah, Mangunah; Qayim, Ibnul; Astuti, Inggit Puji
Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 16, No 2 (2013): Buletin Kebun Raya Vol. 16 (2) July 2013
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

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Abstract

Averrhoa dolichocarpa is a wild starfruit from Papua and Averrhoa leucopetala is a wild starfruit from Gorontalo. Both starfruits have unique characters of the leaves, inflorescence, flowers, and fruits. The study was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012 by observing the wild starfruits collections of Bogor Botanical Garden. Innitiation of Averrhoa dolichocarpa inflorescence takes 8-14 days, the small bud growing in 11-15 days, after one day the large bud will open and the anthesis last after 3 days. The fruit will develop and mature after 40-45 days. The flower and fruit drop rate is quite high, mostly caused by strong wind. The chlorophyll content of the leaves are very dynamic and influence by the environment and the wide of the canopy. Whereas initiation of Averrhoa leucopetala inflorescence needs 30-34 days, the small bud growing in 12-15 days, the large flower bud will open after 1 day, anthesis last after 5 days, and the fruit development needs 40-42 days to mature. Anthesis of the flowers occurred at 4:00 to 6:00 a.m. The flower and fruit drop rate is also quite high. The chlorophyll content is more static and tends to increase when the fruit developed.
STUDI EKOLOGI TUMBUHAN SAGU (Metroxylon spp) DALAM KOMUNITAS ALAMI DI PULAU SERAM, MALUKU Botanri, Samin; Setiadi, Dede; Guhardja, Edi; Qayim, Ibnul; Prasetyo, Lilik B.
Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman Vol 8, No 3 (2011): JURNAL PENELITIAN HUTAN TANAMAN
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan

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Abstract

Sagu (Metroxylon spp) merupakan tumbuhan palem tropika basah, memiliki adaptasi kuat untuk tumbuh pada lahan marjinal seperti lahan tergenang air tawar, lahan gambut, dan air payau. Penelitian bertujuan :(1) melakukan analisis untuk menjelaskan sifat pertumbuhan sagu dalam komunitas alami, (2) mengungkapkan preferensi habitat tumbuhan sagu, (3) melakukan analisis interaksi tumbuhan sagu dengan faktor lingkungan, dan (4) mengungkapkan potensi tegakan dan produksi pati sagu. Penelitian berlangsung di tiga wilayah di pulau Seram, Maluku secara keseluruhan, tentu dengan menggunakan sampling, bukan menggunakan metode sensus pada bulan Maret-Nopember 2009. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa struktur populasi sagu dalam komunitas alami mengikuti pola pertumbuhan muda dengan tingkat kematian pada fase semai sekitar 85. Di Pulau Seram terdapat lima jenis sagu yaitu tuni, makanaro, sylvestre, rotang, dan molat. Sagu tuni merupakan spesies dominan dengan penguasaan habitat mencapai 43,3%. Serta memiliki daya adaptasi yang tinggi pada berbagai tipe habitat. Dalam beradaptasi dengan kondisi habitat tergenang, perakaran sagu mengalami modifikasi arah pertumbuhan menuju permukaan air dengan jumlah yang lebih banyak. Dalam komunitas sagu terjadi asosiasi antarspesifik secara negatif dengan Jaccard indeks < 0,2. Variabel iklim, tanah, dan kualitas air rawa yang memiliki peran kuat dalam pertumbuhan sagu masing-masing adalah intensitas cahaya surya mikro, kapasistas tukar kation (KTK), dan kandungan kalsium air. Di Pulau Seram terdapat potensi populasi rumpun sagu sekitar 3,2 juta rumpun dengan jumlah tegakan fase pohon mencapai 1,5 juta batang. Jenis sagu tuni dan sylvestre merupakan jenis sagu potensial dengan kapasitas produksi masing-masing 566,04 kg dan 560,68 kg/batang.