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Keefektifan ekstrak daun kecubung (Datura metel L.) dalam menghambat penetasan dan siklus hidup Aedes aegypti L. Martini, Martini; Astriana, Novi; Yuliawati, Sri; Hestiningsih, Retno; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 15, No 1 (2018): March
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (309.865 KB) | DOI: 10.5994/jei.15.1.50

Abstract

Kecubung (Datura metel L.) merupakan jenis tanaman perdu yang mempunyai batang kayu, keras, dan tebal. Daun kecubung mengandung senyawa kimia alkaloid, saponin, flavonoida, dan fenol. Dilihat dari kandungan kimianya daun kecubung memiliki potensi sebagai insektisida nabati yang dapat menggantikan penggunaan insektisida sintetik. Penggunaan insektisida sintetik dalam mengendalikan populasi Aedes aegypti L. telah menimbulkan dampak negatif, diantaranya adalah polusi lingkungan, masalah kesehatan masyarakat, dan resistensi vektor. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan ekstrak daun kecubung dalam menghambat penetasan telur dan  siklus hidup Ae. aegypti. Jenis penelitian ini adalah true experiment dengan 4 kali pengulangan dan perlakuan 6 konsentrasi, yaitu 125, 250, 500, 750, 1.000, dan 1.250 ppm. Subyek penelitian adalah telur Ae. aegypti fertil. Setiap unit perlakuan ditempatkan 25 telur sehingga jumlah total telur yang dibutuhkan adalah 800 butir telur nyamuk. Metode yang digunakan untuk ekstraksi adalah maserasi. Hasil analisis probit menunjukkan aktivitas insektisida ekstrak daun kecubung dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 199,340 ppm dan nilai LC90 sebesar 749,080 ppm. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan rata-rata jumlah telur yang tidak menetas akibat paparan ekstrak daun kecubung (P = 0,001). Persentase kegagalan penetasan telur Ae. aegypti paling rendah pada konsentrasi 125 ppm, yaitu sebesar 41% dan yang paling tinggi pada konsentrasi 1250 ppm, yaitu sebesar 98%. Daya hidup larva, pupa, dan nyamuk paling tinggi pada konsentrasi 125 ppm, yaitu masing-masing sebesar 49,18%; 55,17%, dan 43,75%. Sebagai kesimpulan, ekstrak daun kecubung memiliki potensi sebagai insektisida nabati terhadap telur Ae. aegypti.
Kemampuan Antagonisme Pseudomonas sp. dan Penicillium sp. Terhadap Cercospora nicotianae In Vitro Iskandar putra, Muhammad Bismar; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 7 No.3 Juli 2018
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Antagonisme merupakan mekanisme suatu mikroorganisme dalam melakukan penghambatan terhadap organisme lainnya. Mekanisme penghambatan ini dapat dilakukan dengan adanya produksi senyawa antibiotik untuk menghambat pertumbuhan organisme lainnya. Pada penelitian ini, pengujian kemampuan antagonisme memanfaatkan Pseudomonas sp. dan Penicillium sp. yang diujikan pada jamur patogen Cercospora nicotianae. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan antagonisme dari Pseudomonas sp. dan Penicillium sp. dalam mekanisme penghambatannya terhadap jamur patik Cercospora nicotianae. Parameter yang diamati dalam penelitian ini yaitu pengamatan mikroskopis bentuk morfologi hasil isolasi Cercospora nicotianae, pengamatan mikroskopis bentuk morfologi hasil isolasi Penicillium sp., inokulasi bakteri Pseudomonas sp., dan pengujian antagonisme Pseudomonas sp., Penicillium sp. terhadap Cercospora nicotianae. Hasil pengamatan secara mikroskopis pada isolasi Cercospora nicotianae memiliki morfologi konidia bersekat dan tidak berwarna, konidiofor meruncing pada bagian ujungnya. Pengamatan mikroskopis pada isolasi Penicillium sp. menunjukkan kenampakan mikroskopis seperti sapu, terdapat konidia, phialid, dan konidiofor, konidiumnya berbentuk rantai. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, pertumbuhan miselium Cercospora nicotianae mulai terlihat pada masa inkubasi hari ke-3, sedangkan pada Penicillium sp. optimal pertumbuhannya terlihat pada masa inkubasi hari ke-7. Hasil pengujian antagonisme Pseudomonas sp. dan Penicillium sp. setelah diinkubasikan selama 4 hari pada media yang berisi jamur patogen Cercospora nicotianae menunjukkan pada Pseudomonas 1, persentase daya hambatnya 43,4% dan pada Pseudomonas 2, persentase daya hambatnya 43,4%. Pengujian pada Penicillium sp. 1 menunjukkan persentase daya hambat sebesar 58,6% dan Penicillium sp. 2 persentase daya hambatnya 60,8%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Penicillium sp. memiliki kemampuan antagonisme yang lebih kuat dibandingkan Pseudomonas sp.    
PRODUKSI ENZIM INULINASE Pichia manshurica DUCC-Y015 DENGAN PENAMBAHAN SUBSTRAT TEPUNG BENGKOANG (Paschyrhizus erosus) Rofiqoh, Adzar; Wijanarka, W; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Akademika Biologi Vol. 6 No. 4 Oktober 2017
Publisher : Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika Undip

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Abstract

Bengkoang (Pachyrhizus erosus) tubers has a high inulin content. Inulin bengkoang flour can be used as substrate to produce inulinase enzyme. The inulinase enzyme can be produced by Pichia manshurica DUCC-Y015. This research aims to determine the ability of Pichia mansurica DUCC-Y015 in producing inulinase enzyme with the addition of several variations of substrate concentration of bengkoang flour in its production medium. Determination of inulinase activity was done by DNS method. This research used a Completely Randomized Design (RAL) with 4 treatments: B0 (control), B1 (1 g bengkoang flour), B2 (3 g bengkoang flour) and B3 (5 g bengkoang flour). Each treatment was repeated 3 times. The inulinase activity of each treatment was 0.029 IU/mL, 0.033 IU/mL, 0.053 IU/mL and 0.015 IU/mL. The addition of variation substrate concentration bengkoang flour in the production medium did not affect the inulinase activity of Pichia manshurica DUCC-Y015Kata Kunci: Pachyrhizus erosus, inulinase, Pichia manshurica DUCC-Y015.
Aplikasi Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma viride Terhadap Pengurangan Intensitas Serangan Penyakit Hawar Daun Serta Hasil Tanaman Kentang Purwantisari, Susiana
Prosiding KPSDA Vol 1, No 1 (2015): Prosiding KPSDA 2015
Publisher : Prosiding KPSDA

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Abstract

The  objective  of  this  research was  to  studi  ability  of Trichoderma sp. fungal antagonist on reduction leaf blight intensity disease and potato yield. The in vivo experiment was carried  out  at  potato  land  area  located  at  BALITSA in Cikole Sub District, Lembang  District and Bandung Regency. Completely  Randomized  Design  was  used  with  six treatment and five replicates. The treatment tested consist of control  (without pathogen fungal and antagonists fungus application too), control (with  pathogen fungal application and without antagonist fungal application), chemical fungicide application, antagonist fungal application 2 weeks before planting, application 1 week after planting and both application 2 weeks before and 1 week after planting. Result of  the  research  showed  that  application of antagonists fungal could decrease disease intensity and tended to improve crop potato yield. Research repeatment with more quantity pouring the antagonist was needed. These antagonist could be used as biological agents initials to control leaf blight disease.
Isolation and Identification of Mold Contaminants on Mushroom Growing Medium (Bag Log) and Their Cellulolytic Performance Test Handayani, Tatik; Purwantisari, Susiana
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 23 Issue 2 Year 2015
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Mushrooms naturally grows on logs that have experienced weathering. Raw materials of mushroom growth media containing plenty of wild microbes, especially wild mold on sawdust media. Sterilization conducted did not prevent the occurrence of contamination. This study aim was to determine the types of contaminant molds in cultivated mushroom growth media (bag logs), as well as determine their cellulolytic performance. Mushroom growth media (bag log) samples were taken from three mushroom cultivation locations. Mold isolates obtained were identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Test the mold cellulolytic performance was conducted by measuring the ratio of hydrolysis zone with the diameter of mold on CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellullose) media. The isolation and identification results of contaminant molds consisted of mold isolates which could be grouped into 7 genus which were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecillomyces, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Fusarium and Syncephalastrum. The cellulolytic performances of mold on CMC media showed that Aspergillus flavus has the greatest cellulolytic ability.
The Potential Test of Fungal Antagonist Trichoderma viride to inhibit the Growth of Pathogenic Fungi Fusarium moniliforme and Alternaria solani In-Vitro Purwantisari, Susiana; Evendi, Agus
JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA Volume 23 Issue 3 Year 2015
Publisher : JURNAL SAINS DAN MATEMATIKA

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Abstract

Fusarium moniliforme and Alternaria solani are two types of mold which often cause the diseases of cultivated plants. Fusarium moniliforme causes the ear rot disease on corn and the wilt disease of Solanaceae family. Whereas the pathogenic fungus Alternaria solani causes an early bright disease on the onion and potato. This aim of this study was to determine the ability of fungal antagonist Trichoderma viride in inhibiting the growth of Fusarium moniliforme and Alternaria solani in vitro. The growth inhibition ability test were conducted on dual cultures by growing the fungal antagonists with pathogenic fungi in Petri dish containing potato dextrose agar media face-to-face in a distance of 3 cm. Percentages of the growth inhibiting were observed every day in 7 days incubation. The results showed that the fungal antagonist T. viride exhibited the highest inhibition on F. moniliforme in 3 days incubation period which was 63.07 %. Yet the highest inhibition against A. solani was in 2 days incubation period which was 57.35 %. T. viride growth continued to increase since the first day until the seventh day incubation period but contrarily the growth of both pathogenic fungi underwent inhibition. This suggested that T. viride was potential as a biological control agent of F. moniliforme and A. solani growth and have a potency as an active bio fungicide ingredient. Keywords: Dual culture; percentage inhibiting; Trichoderma viride; Alternaria solani; Fusarium moniliforme
Status Resistensi Larva Aedes Aegypti Terhadap Temephos Di Wilayah Perimeter dan Buffer Pelabuhan Tanjung EmasKota Semarang Handayani, Nur; Santoso, Ludfi; Martini, Martini; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 1 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Port Health Office Clas II Semarang has conducted control of Ae. aegypti larvae using larvadisa Temephos 1%. Temephos (Abate 1SG) has been used since 1980 for the eradication program of Ae. aegypti larvae. The purpose of this study is to determine the resistance status of Ae. aegypti larvae against temephos in perimeter and buffer area of Tanjung Emas Port Semarang. This research was conducted using experimental research design, posttest only with control group. Population of the research were larvae of Ae. aegypti collected from the study area and samples test larvae were used of Ae. aegypti third and early fourth instars larvae  which were maintenance of the first generation of Ae. aegypti. The advance test used concentration 0,625 mg/l; 0,31 mg/l; 0,15 mg/l; 0,078 mg/l; 0,038 mg/l. Based on mortality percentage of Ae. aegypti larvae in perimeter area (96%) indicates on tolerant criteria. While the mortality percentage of Ae. aegypti larvae in buffer area (68%) indicates on resistant criteria. Statistic test using Kruskall-Wallis test showed that there is a significant difference in the average of mortality Ae. aegypti from perimeter and buffer area with p value 0,001. Post-hoc test using Mann-Whitney test showed that there is a significant difference in the average of Ae. aegypti against temephos at concentration 0,31 mg/l; 0,15 mg/l; 0,078 mg/l; 0,038 mg/l, while there is no significant difference of mortality Ae. aegypti against temephos in concentration 0,625 mg/l. The use of temephos still possible in perimeter area, but larvasida rotation is necessary in buffer area.
GAMBARAN SANITASI TEMPAT BERDAGANG WARUNG PENYET DI KECAMATAN TEMBALANG Wasisto, Barkah Haryo; Martini, Martini; Yuliawati, Sri; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 4 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

District Tembalang is one of the sub-district in the city of Semarang with many colleges so that there are many penyet restaurant. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the contamination of Salmonella sp on a vegetables penyet in District Tembalang, Semarang City. This study is observational analytical survey method using cross sectional design. These samples included 40 penyet restaurant observed water and vegetables fresh vegetables supplied to consumers. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and bivariate with chi square test. The results showed the storage of vegetables vegetables using plastic bags (50%); the basket (27.5%) and sacks (22.5%). Sanitation trade places category is good (57.5%). There is a statistically significant relationship between sanitation trade places (p = 0.006) with Salmonella sp contamination in fresh vegetables. Traders are paying less attention sanitation and personal hygiene as well as a sanitation vegetables can contaminate vegetables in the vegetable vegetables Salmonella sp. Penyet restaurant traders should begin to attention about hygiene and sanitation where trade, personal hygiene when to trade, and improve the way the vegetable washing vegetables to reduce the risk of contamination of Salmonella sp.
HUBUNGAN SANITASI DENGAN STATUS BAKTERIOLOGI (STATUS Koliform DAN KEBERADAAN Salmonella sp) PADA JAJANAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR WILAYAH KECAMATAN TEMBALANG, SEMARANG Kumalasari, Ririh Citra; Martini, Martini; Purwantisari, Susiana
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal) Vol 4, No 3 (2016): Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat (e-Journal)
Publisher : Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat

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Abstract

Foodborne disease adalah suatu penyakit yang disebabkan oleh adanya mikroorganisme patogen yang masuk bersama makanan. Produk pangan yang tidak memenuhi persyaratan mutu, keamanan dan cemaran bakteri patogen dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya foodborne disease. Anak sekolah merupakan usia yang rentan terhadap infeksi bakteri dan membutuhkan makanan yang cukup secara kuantitas serta kualitas sehingga memiliki keadaan atau status gizi yang baik dan dapat memperkuat sistem imun dalam tubuhnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan sanitasi dengan kontaminasi bakteri pada makanan jajanan  di kantin sekolah dasar yang berada Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang. Jenis penelitian analitik observasional dan pendekatan cross sectional. Sampel penelitian sejumlah 48 jajanan yang dijual di sekolah dasar. Pemeriksaan kontaminasi bakteri didasarkan angka koliform dan Salmonella sp. Data dianalisis dengan Chi-squre test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jajanan di kantin sekolah dasar yang tidak memenuhi syarat kesehatan sebesar 82,2% dengan status koliform tidak memenuhi syarat sebanyak 67,8% dan terkontaminasi Salmonella sp sebanyak 37,8%. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan kontaminasi bakteri dan status bakteriologi jajanan di sekolah dasar diantaranya adalah pengetahuan penjual, praktik sanitasi penjual, serta sanitasi tempat berjualan. Pendidikan kesehatan tentang pengelolaan makanan perlu diberikan pada penjual makanan di sekolah dasar.
Masa Inkubasi Gejala Penyakit Hawar Daun Tanaman Kentang yang Diinduksi Ketahanannya oleh Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma viride Purwantisari, Susiana; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Sancayaningsih, Retno Peni; Kasiamdari, Rina Sri
Bioma Vol. 18, No.1, Tahun 2016
Publisher : Bioma

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/bioma, 18, 2, 41-47

Abstract

Late blight disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, is probably the single most important disease of potatoes worldwide. Infected plants were quickly killed and were difficult for replanting, causing significant losses for the growers. Various control methods were examined including the use of biocontrol agents of Trichoderma spp.  The biocontrol potential of Trichoderma viride against potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, were studied  under greenhouse conditions. The research objective was to determine the ability of biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride to delay late blight disease incidence on potato plants in the field. The in vivo experiment was carried out at potato land area located at BALITSA in Cikole Sub District, Lembang District and Bandung Regency. Completely Randomized Design was used with six treatment and five replicates. The treatment tested consist of control (without pathogen fungal and antagonists fungus application too), control (with pathogen fungal application and without antagonist fungal application), chemical fungicide application, antagonist fungal application 2 weeks before planting, application 1 week after planting and both application 2 weeks before and 1 week after planting. Result of the research showed that application of antagonists fungal could delay disease intensity until 14 days. These antagonist could be used as biological agents initials to control leaf blight disease. Key words: Biological control, Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, Trichoderma viride