Candra Purnawan
Department of Chemistry, University of Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta 57126

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KAJIAN ANALISIS TERMAL KITIN-KITOSAN CANGKANG UDANG MENGGUNAKAN THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS DAN DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS (TGA-DTA) Purnawan, Candra; Apriliata, Nurul Hidayat; Kartini, Indriana; Sugiharto, Eko
Jurnal Sains dan Terapan Kimia Vol 2, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Sains dan Terapan Kimia

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Telah dilakukan kajian analisis termal pada kitin-kitosan cangkang udangmenggunakan thermogravimetric analysis dan differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA).Kitosan dengan derajat deasetilasi (DD) bervariasi diperoleh dari proses deastilasi kitindengan kondisi percobaan yang berbeda. Kitin dan kitosan dengan variasi DD tersebutdianalisis menggunakan TGA-DTA.Berdasarkan perbedaan termogram TGA-DTA kitin dan kitosan, menunjukkanbahwa kitosan lebih higroskopis daripada kitin dan memiliki gugus asetil yang lebihsedikit. Pada proses deasetilasi, kitin dimungkinkan terjadi degradasi rantai polimer danpembentukan rantai polimer yang lebih panjang secara acak sehingga heterogenitaspolimer kitosan lebih besar daripada kitin.Kata kunci: kitin-kitosan, analisis termal, termogram TGA/DTA
PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CHITOSAN VANILINE AS ELECTROLYTE POLYMER MEMBRANE Pramono, Edi; Asiska Prabowo, Pandu Satrio; Purnawan, Candra; Wulansari, Jati
Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 8, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia

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The research of chitosan modification with vanilin and its characterization as polymer electrolyte membranes was carried out. Chitosan-based shciff base compounds was synthesized  from chitosan and vanilin with pyperidine as catalyst. The polymers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and its cationic exchange capacity, while membranes were characterized by cationic exchange capacity, swelling degree and its thermal stability. The existence of imine vibration peak provides that the chitosan vaniline was succesfully synthesized. The addition of vanillin increases the cationic exchange capasity of membrane, however it decreases the swelling degree. Thermal data indicate the polymer membrane degraded above 250oC with three step degradation. Based on the cationic exchange capacity and its thermal stability, the membrane has a good potential for application in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, but modifications are still needed to reduce the swelling degree of membrane.
THE EFFECT OF CHLORO ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE REACTION OF CARBOXYMETHYL CHITOSAN FORMATION ON CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND THERMAL STABILITY Purnawan, Candra; Pramono, Edi; Purwanto, Purwanto; Martini, Tri; Haryati, Thita
Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 10, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia

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The research on the effect of chloro acetic concentration and temperature reaction of carboxymethyl chitosan formation on cation exchange capacity and thermal stability of polymer have been done. Carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized by reaction of chitosan and chloro acetic acid with NaOH as catalyst. Polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrofotometer, cation exchange capacity test, and thermal analysis with thermogravimetric method. Carboxymethyl chitosan has strong FTIR adsorption of carboxyl group (-COO-) in 1606,70 cm-1 and 1444,68 cm-1. The increasing of chloro acetic acid concentration and reaction temperature decreased cation exchage capacity and changed thermal stability of polymer.
COMPOSITE OF CHITOSAN VANILIN / SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE AS POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES : CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY, SWELLING DEGREE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES Pramono, Edi; Purnawan, Candra; Hidayat, Yuniawan; Wulansari, Jati; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti
Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 10, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia

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Research on the preparation and characterization of sulfonated polystyrene (PST) /chitosan vanillin (KV) composite as electrolyte membranes has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of PST and KV composition  to its chemical and physical properties. Polystyrene was modified by sulfonation reaction to produces PST, meanwhile chitosan was modified by schift base reaction to produces KV. The composite membranes were prepared by casting method and were characterized in order to identify the functional groups contained in the composite, the cation exchange capacity (CEC), the Swelling Degree (SD), the thermal properties and the morphology. The peak of imine vibration in the FTIR spectrum indicates that the chitosan vanilin was succesfully synthesized. Meanwhile, the peak of sulfonate vibration indicates the product of sulfonation on polystyrene. The result of CEC analysis shows that the addition of sulfonate groups on polystyrene and the addition of phenolic groups on chitosan increase the CEC value. The increasing of PST and KV concentration in membrane enhance the CEC value. However, the increasing of PST concentration in membrane composition even decrease the Swelling Degree of membranes. Meanwhile, the increasing of KV concentration increase the swelling degree of membranes. Thermal analysis shows that the thermal decomposition of membranes occurs in three stages i.e. the dehydration of water molecules, the degradation of the subtituen groups and the plasticizer and the degradation of the back bone of chitosan and polystyrene.
AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI KAIN KASA TERLAPISI TiO¬2/Ag AMORF, Ag, DAN KITOSAN/Ag TERHADAP BAKTERI GRAM NEGATIF DAN POSITIF Purnawan, Candra; Martini, Tri; Rawiningtyas, Sotya; Zidny, Zidny Z.S.R.A.
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Pelapisan kain kasa dengan komposit TiO2/Ag amorf, kitosan/Ag, dan Ag telah dilakukan menggunakan metode dip coating dengan variasi urutan pelapisan. Komposit TiO2/Ag amorf disintesis dengan metode sol gel dalam pelarut etanol. Hasil sintesis dikarakterisasi menggunakan FTIR dan XRD. Kain kasa hasil pelapisan dikarakterisasi menggunakan XRD dan dilakukan uji antibakteri menggunakan metode optical density pada λ 600nm terhadap aktivitas bakteri Eschericia coli dan Stapylococcus aureus. Kain kasa dengan urutan pelapisan kitosan/Ag, komposit TiO2/Ag amorf, dan Ag memiliki daya antibakteri optimum. Daya antibakteri kain kasa terhadap E. coli sebesar 98, 66% setelah jam ke-24. Daya antibakteri tersebut lebih besar dibandingkan dengan daya antibakteri terhadap S. aureus yaitu 71,47% setelah jam ke-24.
PENURUNAN KADAR PROTEIN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KARBON BAGASSE TERAKTIVASI Purnawan, Candra; Martini, Tri; Afidah, Shofiatul
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Penurunan kadar protein limbah tahu telah dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan karbon Bagasse teraktivasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari karbon teraktivasi NaOH dan H2SO4 dalam menurunkan kadar protein limbah cair tahu dan mengetahui jenis isoterm adsorpsi dari karbon aktif yang digunakan untuk menyerap protein limbah cair tahu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi NaOH yang optimum untuk aktivasi karbon aktif 15%, massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH adalah 2 g dan penurunan kadar proteinnya 71,95%, sedangkan massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 adalah 1 g dengan penurunan kadar protein sebesar 38,19%. Waktu kontak optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi  NaOH dan H2SO4 adalah 12 jam. Adsorpsi protein oleh karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH mengikuti isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich sedangkan karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 dominan mengikuti isoterm Freundlich. 
THE EFFECT OF CHLORO ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE REACTION OF CARBOXYMETHYL CHITOSAN FORMATION ON CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND THERMAL STABILITY Purnawan, Candra; Pramono, Edi; Purwanto, Purwanto
ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 10, No 1 (2014): Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/alchemy.10.1.7.31-39

Abstract

The research on the effect of chloro acetic concentration and temperature reaction of carboxymethyl chitosan formation on cation exchange capacity and thermal stability of polymer have been done. Carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized by reaction of chitosan and chloro acetic acid with NaOH as catalyst. Polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrofotometer, cation exchange capacity test, and thermal analysis with thermogravimetric method. Carboxymethyl chitosan has strong FTIR adsorption of carboxyl group (-COO-) in 1606,70 cm-1 and 1444,68 cm-1. The increasing of chloro acetic acid concentration and reaction temperature decreased cation exchage capacity and changed thermal stability of polymer.
SINTESIS KITOSAN-ARGININ DENGAN KATALIS PIRIDIN DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP Escherichia coli Purnawan, Candra; Purwanto, Purwanto; Martini, Tri; Kusumaningtyas, Triana; Ambarrukmi, Asnani Ratna
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science Vol 3 No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science

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Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis kitosan-arginin dengan katalis piridin dan uji aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari pengaruh penambahan massa arginin pada kitosan dan variasi suhu reaksi dalam sintesis kitosan-arginin terhadap aktivitas antibakteri Escherichia coli serta membandingkan kitosan dan kitosan-arginin terhadap aktivitas antibakteri Escherichia coli. Sintesis kitosan-arginin dilakukan dengan perbandingan massa (b/b) kitosan:arginin 1:0,5; 1:1; 1:1,25; 1:1,5; 1:2 dan variasi suhu reaksi 60 °C, 80 °C, 100 °C menggunakan katalis piridin untuk mengaktifkan gugus karbonil arginin. Karakterisasi kitosan-arginin meliputi Spektroskopi Sinar Merah (FT-IR), Analisis Termal (TGA-DTA) dan % Nitrogen dengan metode Kjeldahl. Uji aktivitas antibakteri menggunakan metode Optical Density (OD) λmaks 600 nm pada jam ke-0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 dan 48. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan massa arginin dan variasi suhu reaksi sintesis kitosan-arginin tidak menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan terhadap daya hambat bakteri. Namun ketika aktivitas antibakteri kitosan jam ke-48 menurun, aktivitas antibakteri kitosan:arginin 1:1,5 pada 80 ᵒC masih meningkat.
COMPOSITE OF CHITOSAN VANILIN / SULFONATED POLYSTYRENE AS POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANES : CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY, SWELLING DEGREE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES Pramono, Edi; Purnawan, Candra; Hidayat, Yuniawan; Wulansari, Jati; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti
ALCHEMY Jurnal Penelitian Kimia Vol 10, No 2 (2014): Alchemy Jurnal Penelitian Kimia
Publisher : UNIVERSITAS SEBELAS MARET (UNS)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20961/alchemy.10.2.55.116-129

Abstract

Research on the preparation and characterization of sulfonated polystyrene (PST) /chitosan vanillin (KV) composite as electrolyte membranes has been conducted in order to investigate the effect of PST and KV composition  to its chemical and physical properties. Polystyrene was modified by sulfonation reaction to produces PST, meanwhile chitosan was modified by schift base reaction to produces KV. The composite membranes were prepared by casting method and were characterized in order to identify the functional groups contained in the composite, the cation exchange capacity (CEC), the Swelling Degree (SD), the thermal properties and the morphology. The peak of imine vibration in the FTIR spectrum indicates that the chitosan vanilin was succesfully synthesized. Meanwhile, the peak of sulfonate vibration indicates the product of sulfonation on polystyrene. The result of CEC analysis shows that the addition of sulfonate groups on polystyrene and the addition of phenolic groups on chitosan increase the CEC value. The increasing of PST and KV concentration in membrane enhance the CEC value. However, the increasing of PST concentration in membrane composition even decrease the Swelling Degree of membranes. Meanwhile, the increasing of KV concentration increase the swelling degree of membranes. Thermal analysis shows that the thermal decomposition of membranes occurs in three stages i.e. the dehydration of water molecules, the degradation of the subtituen groups and the plasticizer and the degradation of the back bone of chitosan and polystyrene.
Synthesis and Thermal-Stability Study of Polybutylene Itaconate Modified with Divinyl Benzene and Glycerol Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Makhnunah, Ninis; Irawati, Deny; Purnawan, Candra; Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Storz, Henning
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 14, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (449.802 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21240

Abstract

Polybutylene itaconate (PBI) for modification with divinyl benzene (DVB) and glycerol has been synthesized at 180 °C for 3 h via polycondensation of itaconic acid (IA) and butanediols using catalyst of Ti(OBu)4. Modification on PBI was done with addition of 15%, 20% and 25% DVB (w/w) using benzoyl peroxide. With glycerol, weight variations of glycerol:1,4-butanediol (BDO) in the synthesis were 10%, 30%, and 50% (mole/mole). PBI and PBI modified with DVB and glycerol were characterized with FTIR and TG-DTA. PBI showed a wavenumber shift from 1703 cm-1 to 1728 cm-1 of the C=O functional group from acid to esther. The DVB modification on PBI also showed that the intensity decrease of C=C stretching was due to the formation of crosslinking on the double bond. In the modification with glycerol, three dimensional networking on the polyester occurred through bonding between hydroxyl of glycerol and acid group of IA. Constant intensity of C=C stretching on polyester was seen. The thermal stability of PBI modified with DVB increased, accompanied by rigidity change of the structure. The thermal stability of PBI modified with glycerol decreased, caused by the decrease of regularity degree and the elasticity increase of the three dimensional structure of polyester.