Heni Purnamawati
Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor (Bogor Agricultural University), Jl. Meranti, Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

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Peanut Cultivar Differences in Yield Based on Source and Sink Characteristics Lubis, Iskandar; Purnamawati, Heni; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Yudiwanti, ,; Mansyuri, Ahmad Ghozi; Rais, Sri Astuti
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 3 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

This research was conducted to determine peanut cultivar differences in sink and source sizes as represented by vegetative growth and yields. Two sets of experiments were conducted at Bogor Agricultural University farms, Sawah Baru and Cikarawang (06o33’, S, 106o45’E, 250 m altitude). Planting was conducted on June 12 and June 20, 2007 using 20 local and national cultivars in each location. Both experiments used randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Size of experimental unit was 1.6 m x 4.0 m, with planting density 125,000 plants ha-1. Urea, SP36 and KCl were applied at planting date in the rate of (kg ha-1) 45 N, 100 P2O5 and 50 K2O. Four stages of plant growth were studied: 25 days after planting (DAP); 6 weeks after planting (WAP); 10 WAP (pod filling) and 14 WAP (harvest). Five plants were sampled at 25 DAP, two plants at 6 WAP, 10 WAP and 14 WAP, and separated into leaves, stems, roots and pods. The average yield of two experimental stations showed that Biawak cultivar had the highest yield due to relatively higher aboveground dry weight (source), pod filling percentage and maximum number of gynophor+pods (potential sink). Jepara cultivar had the lowest yield due to low pod filling percentage and potential sink, although its source was considered to be in the medium category. Above ground dry weight at 6 and 10 WAP had close relation with Crop Growth Rate (CGR) during 25 DAP-6 WAP and 6-10 WAP, and the higher CGR during those periods were more related to leaf area index than to single leaf photosynthetic capacity. Keywords: crop growth rate, pod filling percentage, leaf area index, single leaf photosynthetic capacity
Akumulasi dan Distribusi Bahan Kering pada Beberapa Kultivar Kacang Tanah Purnamawati, Heni; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Lubis, Iskandar; Yudiwanti, ,; Rais, Sri Astuti; Manshuri, Ahmad Ghozi
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 2 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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<!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:Calibri; panose-1:2 15 5 2 2 2 4 3 2 4; mso-font-charset:0; mso-generic-font-family:swiss; mso-font-pitch:variable; mso-font-signature:-1610611985 1073750139 0 0 159 0;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin-top:0cm; margin-right:0cm; margin-bottom:10.0pt; margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:IN; mso-no-proof:yes;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> This research was carried out in April–September 2007. The research objective was to study the dry matter distribution pattern of several peanut cultivars. Twenty cultivars were planted at two different locations, Cikarawang and Sawah Baru Experimental Field but at the same elevation (250 m above sea level). The cultivars were scored according to morphological and physiological characters, total N and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC), yield and yield components.  There were no statistically differences in pod yield, seed yield and harvest index between the cultivars, but there were differences in dry matter distribution between cultivars. TNC content in stem correlated positively with pod fi  lling. Carbohydrates for pod fi  lling presumed were derived from dry matter accumulation in early pod fi  lling stage. It was concluded that the ideal growing type of peanut are early accumulated dry matter but almost no increase of dry matter accumulation in upper part of plant during seed development. Keywords:  dry matter distribution, pod fi lling, peanut
Penentuan Dosis Optimum Pemupukan N, P, dan K pada Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) Suminar, Ratna; Suwarto, .; Purnamawati, Heni
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

Development of sorghum processing industries is essential in expanding sorghum market as wells as it’s an economic value. Fertilizer is needed in planting. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium availabilities are the most limiting factors for maximum growth and yield. Sorghum (Numbu Variety) was planted to evaluate the maximum and optimum rates of N, P, and K fertilizers. The research was conducted in Cikarawang field, Darmaga, Bogor from MarchJuly 2015 with multi-nutrient response method. Each experiment evaluated different rates of N, P, and K fertilizer with randomized complete block design and three replications. The fertilizer rates were 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of recommendation rate (100% N = 120 kg N ha-1, 100% P = 36 kg P2O5 ha-1, and 100% K = 90 kg K2O ha-1). The result showed relative yields of sorghum increased quadratically based on y = -0,0015x2 + 0,4011x + 67,571 for N, y = -0,0012x2 + 0,2917x + 78,457 for P2O5, and y = -0,001x2 + 0,2777x + 74,457 for K2O. The maximum rate for each nutrient was 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1. Fertilizer recommendation based on P threshold (no P) was 36,7-0,0-13,7 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, K threshold (no K) was 22,0-0,0-0,0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, and no fertilizer needed on N threshold. The optimum rate fertilizer based on the yield vs. cost rule, therefore, the most economical recommendation would be 160,4-43,7-124,9 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1.
Peanut Cultivar Differences in Yield Based on Source and Sink Characteristics Lubis, Iskandar; Purnamawati, Heni; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Yudiwanti, ,; Mansyuri, Ahmad Ghozi; Rais, Sri Astuti
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 3 (2012): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Abstract

This research was conducted to determine peanut cultivar differences in sink and source sizes as represented by vegetative growth and yields. Two sets of experiments were conducted at Bogor Agricultural University farms, Sawah Baru and Cikarawang (06o33’, S, 106o45’E, 250 m altitude). Planting was conducted on June 12 and June 20, 2007 using 20 local and national cultivars in each location. Both experiments used randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Size of experimental unit was 1.6 m x 4.0 m, with planting density 125,000 plants ha-1. Urea, SP36 and KCl were applied at planting date in the rate of (kg ha-1) 45 N, 100 P2O5 and 50 K2O. Four stages of plant growth were studied: 25 days after planting (DAP); 6 weeks after planting (WAP); 10 WAP (pod filling) and 14 WAP (harvest). Five plants were sampled at 25 DAP, two plants at 6 WAP, 10 WAP and 14 WAP, and separated into leaves, stems, roots and pods. The average yield of two experimental stations showed that Biawak cultivar had the highest yield due to relatively higher aboveground dry weight (source), pod filling percentage and maximum number of gynophor+pods (potential sink). Jepara cultivar had the lowest yield due to low pod filling percentage and potential sink, although its source was considered to be in the medium category. Above ground dry weight at 6 and 10 WAP had close relation with Crop Growth Rate (CGR) during 25 DAP-6 WAP and 6-10 WAP, and the higher CGR during those periods were more related to leaf area index than to single leaf photosynthetic capacity. Keywords: crop growth rate, pod filling percentage, leaf area index, single leaf photosynthetic capacity
Determination of the Optimum Rate of N Fertilizers with Addition of Goat Manure for Production of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) Liana, Devi; Purnamawati, Heni; Melati, Maya; Wahyu, Yudiwanti
Journal of Tropical Crop Science Vol 6 No 02 (2019): Journal of Tropical Crop Science
Publisher : Journal of Tropical Crop Science

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Abstract

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is one of the potential substitutes of soybean due to its similar nutritional content. This study aims to determine the optimum rate of N fertilizer for the production of cowpea, and to determine the effects of the interaction between N fertilizer rates and goat manure application on cowpea production. The experiment was organized in a split-plot with a complete randomized block design with three replications. The main plot was goat manure, i.e. 0 and 5 tons.ha-1; the sub-plot was nitrogen fertilizer with five rates (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of the recommended rate), i.e. 0, 22.5, 45, 67.5, and 90 kg N.ha-1. Application of N fertilizer reduced the 100-seed weight and slightly reduced cowpea yield and yield components. Application of goat manure increased seed dry weight per plant, number of pods per plant, dry pod weight per plant, seed dry weight per m2, productivity, 100-seed weight, and the harvest index. There was no significant interaction between goat manure and different rates of nitrogen in affecting cowpea growth.
Periode Kritis Pertumbuhan Kedelai Hitam (Glycine max (L.) Merr) dalam Berkompetisi dengan Gulma Gultom, Sandry; Zaman, Sofyan; Purnamawati, Heni
Buletin Agrohorti Vol 5, No 1 (2017): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

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Abstract

Periode kritis terhadap persaingan dengan gulma menjadi pertimbangan dalam menentukan kapan saat yang tepat untuk mengendalikan gulma dan tindakan yang tepat dilakukan untuk melakukan pengelolaan gulma. Percobaan dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Sawah Baru, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Dramaga, Bogor dengan ketinggian tempat 209 meter diatas permukaan laut pada bulan April-Juli 2016. Rancangan lingkungan yang digunakan adalah rancangan kelompok lengkap teracak dengan 12 taraf perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Taraf perlakuan terdiri atas bersih gulma dan bergulma (0-2 MST, 0-4 MST, 0-6 MST, 0-8 MST, 0-10 MST, 0-panen). Penyiangan gulma dilakukan secara manual dan waktunya disesuaikan dengan perlakuan periode kompetisi gulma untuk setiap petak. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, periode kritis kedelai hitam Mallika adalah 2-6 MST dengan kehilangan hasil panen dari awal tanam hingga panen diperoleh berkisar antara 23.61% hingga 83.54%.
Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Kacang Bogor (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt) pada Beberapa Jarak Tanam dan Frekuensi Pembumbunan Rahmawati, Aulia; Purnamawati, Heni; Kusumo, Yudiwanti W. E.
Buletin Agrohorti Vol 4, No 3 (2016): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan jarak tanam yang optimal dan frekuensi pembumbunan yang tepat untuk mendapatkan hasil panen terbaik. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan kelompok lengkap teracak (RKLT) faktorial dengan dua faktor dan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah jarak tanam yang terdiri atas enam taraf, yaitu 40 cm x 25 cm, 50 cm x 25 cm, 60 cm x 25 cm, 40 cm x 40 cm, 50 cm x 50 cm, dan 60 cm x 60 cm. Faktor kedua adalah frekuensi pembumbunan yang terdiri dari dua taraf yaitu dua kali pembumbunan dan tiga kali pembumbunan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan jarak tanam berpengaruh nyata terhadap peubah jumlah daun, lebar kanopi, indeks luas daun (ILD), bobot brangkasan kering per tanaman, bobot polong basah per tanaman, bobot polong kering per tanaman, bobot biji per tanaman, jumlah polong bernas per tanaman, jumlah tanaman yang dipanen, bobot polong basah petak, bobot polong kering petak, dan bobot biji petak, sedangkan frekuensi pembumbunan hanya berpengaruh pada bobot brangkasan kering per tanaman. Jarak tanam 60 cm x 25 cm dan 40 cm x 40 cm memberikan hasil panen terbaik dan sesuai digunakan dalam budidaya kacang bogor.
Penggunaan Pupuk Cair Hayati Berbahan Dasar Sawi Putih dan Keong untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Sawi Putih (Brassica pekinensis (Lour)) Nurgama, Prama; Purnamawati, Heni; Kartika, Juang Gema
Buletin Agrohorti Vol 3, No 2 (2015): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan PCH sebagai substitusi pupuk anorganik untuk produksi sawi putih sehingga dapat meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Gedepangrango, Kecamatan Kadudampit, Kabupaten Sukabumi mulai bulan Januari hingga Mei 2011. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak (RKLT) dengan satu faktor perlakuan yang terdiri atas 13 macam perlakuan dan menggunakan empat kali ulangan, sehingga terdapat 52 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pada parameter tinggi tanaman perlakuan 1 440 L PCH keong ha-1 menghasilkan tinggi krop tertinggi yaitu 29.94 cm, sedangkan untuk parameter lingkar horizontal, lingkar vertikal dan diameter 2, perlakuan 200 kg NPK ha-1 + 720 L PCH keong ha-1 yang menghasilkan nilai tertinggi dengan nilai masing-masing berturut 34.42 cm, 68.33 cm, dan 9.31 cm. Perlakuan 300 kg NPK ha-1 + 360 L PCH keong/ha menunjukan hasil tertinggi untuk parameter diameter 1 yaitu sebesar 11.04. Perlakuan 100 kg NPK ha-1 + 1080 L PCH campuran (sawi+keong) ha-1 menghasilkan bobot rata-rata tajuk tanaman tertinggi yaitu 996.43 g per tanaman. Secara umum perlakuan 200 kg NPK ha-1 + 720 L PCH keong ha-1 menunjukan hasil terbaik berdasarkan uji hedonik oleh 30 panelis terhadap semua parameter yang diujikan yaitu warna, bentuk, ukuran, kerenyahan, dan kesukaan.
Penetapan Umur Panen Kacang Tanah (Arachis hypogaea L.) Berdasarkan Metode Akumulasi Satuan Panas dan Kematangan Polong Nugroho, Sasmoyo Adi; Purnamawati, Heni; Wahyu, Yudiwanti
Buletin Agrohorti Vol 4, No 1 (2016): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

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Percobaan ini bertujuan untuk menentukan umur panen tiga varietas kacang tanah (Arachis hypogea L.) berdasarkan akumulasi satuan panas. Percobaan ini dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Leuwikopo Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Laboratorium Pascapanen Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura IPB pada bulan Maret hingga Juni 2014. Percobaan terdiri atas dua faktor, yaitu varietas (sebagai petak utama) dan waktu panen (sebagai anak petak) yang disusun petak terbagi (split plot) dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Varietas Domba, Badak, dan Panther mulai berbunga pada 24 HST. Varietas Badak dan Panther mencapai 50% populasi tanaman berbunga dengan akumulasi satuan panas 528.2 0Cd pada umur panen 30 HST, sedangkan varietas Domba mencapai 50% populasi tanaman berbunga dengan akumulasi satuan panas 562.7 0Cd pada saat 32 HST. Varietas Domba dan Panther dengan akumulasi panas 1764.2 0Cd pada umur panen 100 HST, sedangkan varietas Badak di panen pada akumulasi satuan panas 1851.4?Cd dengan umur panen 105 HST.
Manajemen Panen Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) di Sungai Bahaur Estate, Kotawaringin Timur, Kalimantan Tengah Hutabarat, Saut Mangasi; Purnamawati, Heni
Buletin Agrohorti Vol 4, No 1 (2016): Buletin Agrohorti
Publisher : Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura

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Magang bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan memahami secara khusus manajemen pemanenan perkebunan kelapa sawit. Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi perhitungan angka kerapatan panen, kebutuhan tenaga panen, kualitas pekerjaan panen, pelanggaran dan denda panen, kriteria panen dan mutu hanca panen. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan manajemen pemanenan di kebun SBHE kurang baik. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan jumlah tenaga kerja di lapangan lebih tinggi dari kebutuhan tenaga kerja panen. Kualitas pekerjaan panen masih di bawah standar kebun. Pemanen memotong buah kurang matang lebih tinggi dari toleransi standar kebun dan pemanen memotong buah matang lebih rendah yaitu 79% dari standar minimal kebun yaitu 85%. Perlu adanya pengawasan pemanenan dan pemberian pemahaman kepada pemanen sehingga kualitas sesuai dengan standar perusahaan. Pemberlakuan denda dapat meningkatkan rasa tanggung jawab pemanen terhadap hancaknya.