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Journal : Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Peranan Faktor Cuaca terhadap Infeksi dan Perkembangan Penyakit Bercak Ungu pada Bawang Merah Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Sudarmadi, Sudarmadi; Subandiyah, Siti; Priyatmojo, Achmadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (1995)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9351

Abstract

Purple blotch disease caused by Alternaria porri (Ell.) Cif. is one of the most important diseases on shallots. The farmers have been using fungicides as a reliable control method, however, the chemical control method has to be considered for the negative effect on the environment and the danger to the other species and causes the resistance to a certain pesticide. Therefore, it is important to develop other method that is safe, effective, and efficient, like the use of climatic data to decide the control strategy.The result of the study on ecology of purple blotch disease carried out at the experimental station in Kramat-Tegal, Kledung-Temanggung, and KP4 Kalitirto in dry and rainy season (1991/1992) suggested that climatic factors played on important role on the daily conidium dissemination of Alternaria porri and on the intensity of purple blotch disease. Daily conidium dissemination which was one of the important component in the epidemy of purple blotch disease was influenced by the temperature, relative humidity, and the wind velocity. Conidium dissemination was occurred both during the day and night and at 10.00 am-14.00 pm when the air temperature and wind velocity were high with low relative humidity, conidium dissemination was maximum. On the other hand, at 22.00 pm – 02.00 am there was minimum conidium dissemination.The result on the effects of leaf wetness period on disease intensity suggested that high humidity was not the only factor caused disease infection but it has to be supported by the presence of thin film water on the leaf surface at least for 4 hours since the attachment of the conidia on the leaves.Key words: purple blotch, climatic factor, Alternaria porri, shallot
Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani) Anastomosis Group (AG) 1-IC Priyatmojo, Achmadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 12, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.12077

Abstract

Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1) of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani) AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.
Ekstraksi DNA Phytophthora palmivora Isolat Kelapa Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Subandiyah, Siti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 (1996)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (6570.787 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.9358

Abstract

Coconut isolate of Phytophthora palmivora DNA was extracted from sporangium and mycelium using SDS and Proteinase-K method. Sporangium and mycelium were harvested from liquid and solid culture of Potato Dextrose medium.The result of the study showed that the DNA extracted from sporangium and mycelium of 8 days solid culture was seen as distinct band. On the other hand, the dNA from sporangium and mycelium of 24 days old liquid culture was fragmented with smear band appearance.Key words: DNA, Phytophthora palmivora
Intensitas Cemaran Jamur pada Biji Jagung Pakan Ternak Selama Periode Penyimpanan Puspitasari, Destania Putri Indah; Widiastuti, Ani; Wibowo, Arif; Priyatmojo, Achmadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 19, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (113.021 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.16066

Abstract

This research aimed to know the intensity of fungal contamination in maize grain cattle-feed during storage. Five kilogram of grain sample were collected from Klaten, Sleman, and Muntilan, then stored at CV. Ragil Jaya’s warehouse for two months. Every two weeks the water content were measured and the grain were tested using PDA and blotter methods. Incubation during isolation process were conducted for seven days at 12 hour darkness and 12 hour light. Results showed that dominant fungal contamination from Klaten, Sleman, and Muntilan wasAspergillus sp. As2 isolate with contamination intensity as much as 89% (blotter), 73% (PDA), and 44% (blotter). The results also showed that factors which influenced the intensity of fungal contamination in cattle-feed maize is the grain condition before storage such as broken grain, dirt, and insect; and not caused by the planting location.  INTISARIPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui intensitas cemaran jamur dominan pada biji jagung yang digunakan sebagai pakan ternak selama penyimpanan. Biji jagung pakan ternak dari Klaten, Sleman, dan Muntilan sebanyak 5 kg disimpan di gudang CV. Ragil Jaya, Magelang selama 2 bulan. Pengukuran kadar air dilakukan setiap 2 minggu dan kemudian diuji dengan metode PDA dan blotter untuk mengetahui cemaran jamur pada biji jagung. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dari sampel biji jagung pakan ternak yang berasal dari Klaten, Sleman, dan Muntilan, jamur cemaran yang mendominasi, yaitu Aspergillus sp. isolat As2 dengan intensitas cemaran jamur tertinggi di daerah Klaten 89% (blotter), Sleman 73% (PDA), dan Muntilan 44% (blotter). Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa hal yang mempengaruhi intensitas cemaran jamur pada jagung pakan ternak adalah kondisi awal bahan yang disimpan yaitu ada tidaknya kerusakan, kotoran, dan serangga; bukan lokasi penanaman jagung.
Utilization of Arbuscular Micorrhizal Fungi to Control Fusarium Wilt of Tomatoes Pedai, Theodorsius; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Priyatmojo, Achmadi
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 19, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.17255

Abstract

Tomato is a vegetable crop which is preferred by the Indonesian people. The problem encountered in tomato production is Fusarium wilt which is known as devastating disease. Studies have been done to solve the problem but effective and inexpensive control technique is still questioned. This study aimed to ascertain the ability of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi as biological control agent in reducing tomato Fusarium wilt. Research was arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 5 treatments and 10 replications. The treatments were untreated plants, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici inoculated plants, AM fungi inoculated plants, AM fungi + F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici inoculated plants, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici + benomyl inoculated plants. The results showed that plants which were inoculated with AM fungi had better growth compared to those which were not inoculated with AM fungi. Moreover, plants which were inoculated with AM fungi showed lower disease intensity compared to untreated plant and inoculated plant with F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici + benomyl application. Orthogonal contrast analysis showed plants treated with AM fungi significantly perform better growth and resistance towards infection compared with other treatments. Thus, it concluded that AM fungi had the potency as biological control agent. INTISARITomat merupakan tanaman sayuran yang banyak digemari masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu pengganggu utama pada tomat adalah penyakit layu Fusarium yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici dan menimbulkan masalah yang serius. Kerugian yang ditimbulkan oleh penyakit tersebut sangat besar sehingga perlu dicari cara pengendalian yang murah, efektif, dan aman. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan jamur mikoriza arbuskular (JMA) sebagai agens pengendali hayati dalam menekan penyakit layu Fusarium pada tomat ini dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri atas 5 perlakuan dan 10 ulangan. Perlakuan meliputi kontrol, inokulasi F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, inokulasi JMA, inokulasi JMA dan F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, inokulasi F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici dan aplikasi fungisida benomil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tomat yang diinokulasi JMA memiliki pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dibandingkan yang tidak diinokulasi JMA. Intensitas penyakit pada tomat yang diinokulasi JMA lebih rendah, baik dibandingkan dengan kontrol maupun dengan perlakuan F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici dan aplikasi fungisida. Hasil analisis kontras orthogonal menunjukkan bahwa tomat bermikoriza berbeda nyata bila dibandingkan dengan yang tidak diinokulasi JMA maupun yang diaplikasi benomil. Terjadi peningkatan pertumbuhan tomat dan penekanan intensitas penyakit layu Fusarium, sehingga JMA berpotensi sebagai agens pengendali hayati (APH). 
Hubungan Antara Inokulum Awal Patogen dengan Perkembangan Penyakit Hawar Upih pada Padi Varietas Ciherang Nuryanto, Bambang; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Hadisutrisno, Bambang; Sunarminto, Bambang Hendro
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11724

Abstract

Study on the role of initial inoculums on disease development of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn was conducted in glass house at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Gadjah Mada from December of 2009 to July of 2010. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris as primary inoculum form of R. solani. Results indicated that both sclerotia and mycelium in plant debris significantly affect the development of rice sheath blight. Disease severity was closely related to the number of sclerotia on rice plant. The highest disease severity was observed in plant inoculated with 10 sclerotia per hills. Treatments of 6 sclerotia and 5 g plant debris per hills had comparable effect on disease severity and area under disease progress curve of rice sheath blight. The results suggested that sclerotia and mycelia in plant debris might play a major role as primary inocula of the disease in rice growing field.Kajian tentang peranan inokulum awal dalam perkembangan penyakit hawar upih padi (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) telah dilakukan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada dari bulan Desember 2009 sampai Juli 2010. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi arti penting sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami sebagai bentuk inokulum utama dari R. solani. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami berpengaruh nyata terhadap perkembangan penyakit hawar upih. Keparahan penyakit berhubungan erat dengan jumlah sklerotium yang menempel pada tanaman. Keparahan tertinggi terjadi pada tanaman dalam pot yang diinokulasi 10 sklerotium per rumpun. Perlakuan dengan 6 sklerotium dan 5 g serasah jerami mempunyai pengaruh yang sebanding terhadap keparahan dan luas area di bawah kurva perkembangan penyakit. Sklerotium dan miselium dalam serasah jerami mempunyai peran penting sebagai inokulum awal penyakit hawar upih di persawahan.
Identifikasi Morfologi Beberapa Spesies Jamur Fusarium Sutejo, Ade Mahendra; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Wibowo, Arif
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 14, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11870

Abstract

The research was conducted to study the morphological difference based on macroscopic and microscopic appearance of several Fusarium spp. Fusarium spp. isolates were propagated onto Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) by using single-spore method. All isolates were observed macroscopically and microscopically to determine colony appearance, colony growth diameter and formation of macroconidia, microconidia and conidiophores. The results showed that colony appearance of all isolates was similar. Therefore they could not clearly be differentiated by one to another. On the other hand, microscopic observation showed that there was different conidiophore morphology of F. oxysporum and other Fusarium spp. Microscopic morphology among F. oxysporum isolates were difficult to differentiate. Microconidia were produced in false-head which was the characteristic feature of most F. oxysporum. In conclusion, microscopic morphology observation could only be able to differentiate Fusarium spp. isolates at species level, but not to formae speciales. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan morfologi berdasarkan morfologi makroskopis dan mikroskopis beberapa isolat Fusarium spp. Isolat Fusarium spp. diperbanyak pada medium Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) dengan menggunakan teknik monospora. Semua isolat ini kemudian diamati secara makroskopis dan mikroskopis untuk mengetahui morfologi koloni, pertumbuhan koloni, bentuk makrokonidium dan mikrokonidium serta konidiofornya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar isolat mempunyai morfologi koloni yang hampir sama, sehingga tidak bisa dibedakan dengan jelas satu dengan lainnya. Akan tetapi, pengamatan secara mikroskopis menunjukkan adanya perbedaan morfologi konidiofor pada isolat F. oxysporum dengan Fusarium spp., sementara morfologi mikroskopis antara isolat Fusarium spp. sulit untuk dibedakan. Mikrokonidium yang dibentuk pada false-head merupakan karakter utama F. oxysporum. Dari hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa morfologi mikroskopis hanya dapat digunakan untuk membedakan Fusarium spp pada tingkat spesies, tetapi tidak pada tingkat forma spesialis.
Penapisan PGPF untuk Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Lunak Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera) di Tanah Gambut Supriyanto, Supriyanto; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Arwiyanto, Triwidodo
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 15, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11768

Abstract

Aloe (Aloe vera) planted in West Borneo peat soil is well known as having the best product quality in Indonesia. Soft rot disease is one of the constraints of Aloe cultivation on peat soil. Many methods have no significant result for controlling this disease. This research objectives are to obtain Plant Growth Promoting Fungi (PGPF) for controlling Aloe bacterial soft rot in peat soil. The research was conducted in Clinical Laboratory of Plant Pathology and glass house of Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta from October 2008 to September 2009. The methods included fungal isolation from peat land, hypovirulent and PGPF ability test, and biological control test in the glass house. Among 42 peat soil fungi tested, 28 isolates were hypovirulent and only 2 isolates i.e. SNTH001 (Penicillium sp.) and SNTH003 (Aspergillus sp.) showed the PGPF ability. Glass house trial showed that single application of SNTH001 and SNTH003 isolates were able to increase the growth of Aloe. In the biological control of Aloe soft rot disease test showed that the lowest intensity (25%) might be obtained by using SNTH001 isolate. Lidah buaya (Aloe vera) asal tanah gambut Kalimantan Barat dikenal mempunyai kualitas terbaik di Indonesia. Penyakit busuk lunak yang disebabkan oleh bakterimerupakan salah satu kendala dalam pengembangan tanaman lidah buaya dilahan gambut dan beberapa cara pengendalian yang telah dilakukan belum memberikan hasil nyata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari jamur asal tanah gambut yang mampu berperan sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman untuk pengendalian penyakit busuk lunak di tanah gambut. Penelitian telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Penyakit Tumbuhan Klinik dan Rumah Kaca Fakultas Pertanian UGM Yogyakarta dari bulan Oktober 2008 sampai September 2009, meliputi isolasi jamur dari tanah gambut, uji hipovirulensi dan uji kemampuan sebagai PGPF serta uji pengendalian hayati penyakit busuk lunak lidah buaya di rumah kaca. Dari 42 isolat jamurtanah yang diuji, diperoleh 28 isolat hipovirulen dan setelah diuji kemampuan sebagai PGPF didapatkan dua isolat yang mampu berperan sebagai PGPF, yaitu isolat SNTH003 (Aspergillus sp.) dan SNTH001 (Penicillium sp.). Pemberian kedua isolattersebutsecara tunggalmampumeningkatkan pertumbuhan lidah buaya lebih baik dibandingkan kontrol. Dalam uji pengendalian penyakit, pemberian dua isolat ini mampu mengurangi intensitas penyakit.Intensitas penyakit terendah diperoleh dari pemberian isolat SNTH001 (Penicillium sp.) yaitu sebesar 25%.
Penekanan Penyakit Lincat Tembakau Temanggung dengan Streptomyces spp. Arwiyanto, Triwidodo; Haryono, Kharis; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Martoredjo, Toekidjo; Dalmadiyo, Gembong
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 13, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.11777

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Streptomyces is one of a soil microorganisms which is rarely used by Indonesian researcher for biological control of planth pathogent. Local isolates of Streptomyces spp. were used in this study to control "lincat disease" of Temanggung tobacco. Ninety four isolates of Streptomyces were tested directly in the field to suppress the development of lincat disease in the field. Six isolates, i.e. Stre-4, Stre-7,Stre-48, Stre-61, Stre-66 and Stre-67 suppressed the disease development with various degree. It was likely that decreasing the concentration of bacterial antagonist gave better protection against the disease. In vitro experiments indicated that there was no correlation between inhibition pathogen in vitro and ability to suppress disease in the field. The result showed that selection of antagonist in vitro based on antibiosis will eliminate the chance to get other potential antagonist.
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Rhizoctonia solani Isolates from Two Different Rice Varieties Bintang, Aisyah Surya; Wibowo, Arif; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Subandiyah, Siti
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 21, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jpti.25469

Abstract

Six isolates of Rhizoctonia solani, i.e. two isolates collected from infected rice plants and four isolates from laboratory collection were studied by using morphological characters and molecular analysis. Un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendogram constructed based on cluster analysis showed that these isolates were grouped into three clusters at the 0.77 similarity coefficient. Cluster I consisted of BA, BNJ, and NBR isolates with 100% similarity and indicated that those were from AG 1 IA sub group, cluster II consisted of BND, and cluster III consisted of SL1 and SL2. Mycelium was very light brown or whitish with few and moderate sclerotia except SL1 and SL2. Molecular characterization showed that BA, BNJ, and NBR were amplified at 140 bp using Rs1F/Rs2R specific primer for R. solani AG1 IA. All isolates were amplified between 350−400 bp using Rhsp1 primer, meanwhile SL1 and SL2 were not amplified using AG2sp and AG22sp2 primers. Based on Maximum Likelihood tree analysis showed that SL1 and SL2 had high similarity based on ITS sequence data.IntisariEnam isolat Rhizoctonia solani yang berasal dari tanaman padi bergejala dan koleksi laboratorium diuji secara morfologi dan molekuler. Analisis UPGMA dengan koefisien persamaan 0,77 menunjukkan bahwa enam isolat tersebut terbagi atas tiga klaster. Klaster I terdiri atas isolat BA, BNJ, dan NBR dengan kesamaan 100% dan menunjukkan bahwa isolat tersebut berasal dari subgrup AG 1 IA , klaster II yakni isolat BND, dan klaster III terdiri atas isolat SL1 dan SL2. Miselium berwarna putih hingga cokelat muda dengan jumlah sklerotia sedang, kecuali isolat SL1 dan SL2. Uji keragaman secara molekuler menunjukkan bahwa isolat BA, BNJ, dan NBR teramplifikasi pada kisaran 140 bp dengan menggunakan  primer Rs1F/Rs2R yang merupakan primer spesifik dari R. solani AG1 IA. Seluruh isolat teramplifikasi pada kisaran 350−400 bp dengan menggunakan primer Rhsp1, sedangkan isolat SL1 dan SL2 keduanya tidak teramplifikasi oleh primer AG2sp dan AG22sp2. Analisis Maximum Likelihood tree berdasar data sekuen ITS menunjukkan bahwa isolat SL1 dan SL2 memiliki tingkat kesamaan yang tinggi.